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End of Electric Vehicle Batteries: Reuse vs. Recycle

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Technische Hochschule Ingolstadt, CARISSMA Institute of Electric, Connected and Secure Mobility (C-ECOS), Esplanade 10, D-85049 Ingolstadt, Germany
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Eurecat-Centre Tecnologic de Catalunya, Unit of Waste, Energy and Environmental Impact, Av. Universtat Autonoma, 23, 08290 Cerdanyola Del Valles, Spain
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Department of Engineering Projects and Construction, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC), C\Jordi Girona 31, 08034 Barcelona, Spain
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Catalonia Institute for Energy Research (IREC), Jardins de les Dones de Negre 1, 08930 Barcelona, Spain
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Muhammad Aziz
Energies 2021, 14(8), 2217; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14082217
Received: 29 March 2021 / Revised: 9 April 2021 / Accepted: 12 April 2021 / Published: 16 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Capacity Cells and Batteries for Electric Vehicles)
It is a fact that electric vehicles (EVs) are beneficial for climate protection. However, the current challenge is to decide on whether to reuse an EV battery or to recycle it after its first use. This paper theoretically investigates these areas i.e., recycle and reuse. It was found that there are several commercially used recycling processes and also some are under research to regain maximum possible materials and quantity. The concept of reusing (second life) of the battery is promising because, at the end of the first life, batteries from EVs can be used in several applications such as storing energy generated from renewable sources to support the government grid. However, the cost and life-cycle analysis (LCA) demonstrated that there are several aspects involved in battery reuse applications. Henceforth, one LCA generalised method cannot provide an optimal approach for all cases. It is important to have a detailed study on each of the battery reusing applications. Until then, it is safe to say that reusing the battery is a good option as it would give some time to recycling companies to develop cost and energy-efficient methods. View Full-Text
Keywords: battery recycling; battery reuse; battery second life; circular economy; lithium-ion cells; electric vehicles; battery components recycling; sustainability in mobility; battery safety; battery cost analysis battery recycling; battery reuse; battery second life; circular economy; lithium-ion cells; electric vehicles; battery components recycling; sustainability in mobility; battery safety; battery cost analysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kotak, Y.; Marchante Fernández, C.; Canals Casals, L.; Kotak, B.S.; Koch, D.; Geisbauer, C.; Trilla, L.; Gómez-Núñez, A.; Schweiger, H.-G. End of Electric Vehicle Batteries: Reuse vs. Recycle. Energies 2021, 14, 2217. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14082217

AMA Style

Kotak Y, Marchante Fernández C, Canals Casals L, Kotak BS, Koch D, Geisbauer C, Trilla L, Gómez-Núñez A, Schweiger H-G. End of Electric Vehicle Batteries: Reuse vs. Recycle. Energies. 2021; 14(8):2217. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14082217

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kotak, Yash, Carlos Marchante Fernández, Lluc Canals Casals, Bhavya S. Kotak, Daniel Koch, Christian Geisbauer, Lluís Trilla, Alberto Gómez-Núñez, and Hans-Georg Schweiger. 2021. "End of Electric Vehicle Batteries: Reuse vs. Recycle" Energies 14, no. 8: 2217. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14082217

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