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Special Issue "Active Power Filters and Power Quality"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "A: Electrical Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2022) | Viewed by 6656

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Marcin Maciążek
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Silesian University of Technology, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland
Interests: active power filters; power quality; power theories; control algorithms; digital signal processing

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The modern world is full of goods and electric energy is just one of them. Producers want to sell goods and clients want to buy, but, of course, energy should be of good quality. Why is quality so important? Products of advanced technology need a stable and clean supply. Disturbances can cause failures, such as hangs in telecommunication devices, additional losses in power lines, increased current in neutral wires, resonance phenomena, and even production shutdowns brought on by improper operation of protection systems. All these cases cost us billions of dollars each year. What is behind power disturbances? They are mainly caused by nonlinear loads. Their presence in the network is the reason for the deformations of voltage and currents waveforms. A few decades ago, there were mainly stable large power industrial loads. Deformations caused by such types of loads are relatively easy to fix by using passive filters. At present, a very large number of small nonlinear loads (like phone and computer power supplies, led lights, etc.) cause more stochastic disturbances. The best way to reduce this type of disturbances is the application of active power filters. APFs connected to power systems, depending on control strategy and configuration, can realize higher harmonic reduction, and reactive power compensation or symmetrization in power supply systems.

Prof. Dr. Marcin Maciążek
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Active power filters
  • Hybrid active power filters
  • Unified power flow controllers
  • Harmonics reduction
  • Reactive power compensation
  • Power quality.

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Article
Harmonics and Interharmonics Detection Based on Synchrosqueezing Adaptive S-Transform
Energies 2022, 15(13), 4539; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15134539 - 21 Jun 2022
Viewed by 194
Abstract
The integration of renewable energy generation and nonlinear power electronic equipment into the grid brings about complex harmonics and interharmonics problems. The amplitude and frequency of harmonics and interharmonics should be detected by high time-frequency (T-F) resolution methods owing to their time-varying transient [...] Read more.
The integration of renewable energy generation and nonlinear power electronic equipment into the grid brings about complex harmonics and interharmonics problems. The amplitude and frequency of harmonics and interharmonics should be detected by high time-frequency (T-F) resolution methods owing to their time-varying transient features. In this paper, a synchrosqueezing adaptive S-transform (SAST) method is proposed to detect the parameters of harmonics. Firstly, the time-frequency spectrum (TFS) of the harmonic signals is acquired by an adaptive S-transform (AST) algorithm. The TFS results are then subjected to synchronous compression, so as to achieve higher time-frequency representation precision. The detection results of the simulation signals show that SAST can achieve a better time-frequency resolution than the S-transform (ST) and synchrosqueezing short-time Fourier transform (SSTFT). In addition, the application of SAST to the analysis of experimental signals also suggests its superiority in the parameter detection of harmonics, especially for the time-varying interharmonics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Active Power Filters and Power Quality)
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Article
A New Optimal Current Controller for a Three-Phase Shunt Active Power Filter Based on Karush–Kuhn–Tucker Conditions
Energies 2021, 14(19), 6381; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14196381 - 06 Oct 2021
Viewed by 485
Abstract
This paper presents an algorithm for finding the optimal control for a current controller that operates as a part of a control system of a shunt active power filter. The algorithm is based upon the Karush–Kuhn–Tucker conditions for finding an optimal value where [...] Read more.
This paper presents an algorithm for finding the optimal control for a current controller that operates as a part of a control system of a shunt active power filter. The algorithm is based upon the Karush–Kuhn–Tucker conditions for finding an optimal value where control signal is limited and constraints create a cube. The explicit solution of the Karush–Kuhn–Tucker problem is presented and simplified calculations are given to lower calculation complexity. The presented Karush–Kuhn–Tucker algorithm is compared with a classical PI controller. It is given the algorithm for finding the optimal parameters of the PI controller and the behavior of the PI controller is compared with the presented algorithm. Attention has been paid to the saturation of controllers in commutation states of load currents, which has a negative impact on the final performance of the controllers and the controlled shunt active power filter. The paper also presents the software and hardware platforms applied to run the presented algorithms in real-time. For both controllers, the shunt active power filter response is shown using real experimental results. The results of the experiments prove better behavior regarding the presented algorithm, especially in the case of commutative load currents, where the output signals from other controllers become saturated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Active Power Filters and Power Quality)
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Article
Stability Analysis of Shunt Active Power Filter with Predictive Closed-Loop Control of Supply Current
Energies 2021, 14(8), 2208; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14082208 - 15 Apr 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 630
Abstract
This paper presents a shunt active power filter connected to the grid via an LCL coupling circuit with implemented closed-loop control. The proposed control system allows selective harmonic currents compensation up to the 50th harmonic with the utilization of a model-based predictive current [...] Read more.
This paper presents a shunt active power filter connected to the grid via an LCL coupling circuit with implemented closed-loop control. The proposed control system allows selective harmonic currents compensation up to the 50th harmonic with the utilization of a model-based predictive current controller. As the system is fully predictive, it provides high effectiveness of the harmonic reduction, which is proved by waveforms achieved in performed tests. On the other hand, the control system is prone to loss of stability. Therefore, the paper is focused on the stability analysis of the discussed control system with the additional outer control loop of the supply current with predictive control of this current. The conducted stability analysis encompasses the assessment of system stability as a function of the coupling circuit parameter identification accuracy, whose values are implemented in the current controller, as well as parameters such as the sampling frequency and proportional-integral (PI) controller coefficients. The obtained results show that the ranges of the LCL circuit parameter identification accuracy for which the system remains stable are relatively wide. However, the most effective compensation of the supply current distortion is achieved for the parameters identified correctly, and the greatest impact on the compensation quality has the value of L1 inductance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Active Power Filters and Power Quality)
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Article
On Adaptive Moving Average Algorithms for the Application of the Conservative Power Theory in Systems with Variable Frequency
Energies 2021, 14(4), 1201; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14041201 - 23 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 732
Abstract
The Conservative Power Theory (CPT) emerged in recent decades as a theoretical framework for coping with harmonically distorted and unbalanced electric networks of ac power systems with a high participation of converter interfaced loads and generation. The CPT measurements are intrinsically linked to [...] Read more.
The Conservative Power Theory (CPT) emerged in recent decades as a theoretical framework for coping with harmonically distorted and unbalanced electric networks of ac power systems with a high participation of converter interfaced loads and generation. The CPT measurements are intrinsically linked to moving averages (MA) over one period of the grid. If the CPT is to be used in a low-inertia isolated-grid scenario, which is subjected to frequency variations, adaptive moving averages (AMA) are necessary. This paper reviews an efficient way of computing MAs and turns it into an adaptive one. It shows that an easily available variable time delay block, from MATLAB, causes steady-state errors in the measurements when the grid frequency varies. A new variable time delay block is, thus, proposed. Nonetheless, natural pulsations in the instantaneous power slip through MAs when the discrete moving average window does not fit perfectly the continuously varying period of the grid. A method consisting of weighing two MAs is reviewed and a new and effective hybrid AMA is proposed. The CPT transducers with the different choices of AMAs are compared via computer simulations of a single-phase voltage source feeding either a linear or a nonlinear load. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Active Power Filters and Power Quality)
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Article
Active Filter Reference Calculations Based on Customers’ Current Harmonic Emissions
Energies 2021, 14(1), 220; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14010220 - 04 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 783
Abstract
This paper deals with harmonics compensation in industrial and distribution networks using an active filter (AcF). When defining the AcF’s reference current, it is important to properly consider the network background harmonic distortion. Within this paper, we propose an AcF reference current calculation [...] Read more.
This paper deals with harmonics compensation in industrial and distribution networks using an active filter (AcF). When defining the AcF’s reference current, it is important to properly consider the network background harmonic distortion. Within this paper, we propose an AcF reference current calculation method, based on customers’ current harmonic emissions. The main novelty of the paper is the AcF reference current calculation method that considers only the customer’s contributions to the harmonic distortion at the point of common coupling (PCC). By separating the harmonic current at the PCC into components that can be attributed to the customer and to the network, it is possible to limit the required AcF power. To determine the customer’s emission, the customer’s harmonic impedance must be known. As the actual harmonic impedance cannot be determined in a real environment, a reference harmonic impedance can be used instead. To test the proposed AcF reference current calculation method, we developed a control algorithm of an AcF in the PSCAD software and tested this on a medium-voltage benchmark simulation model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Active Power Filters and Power Quality)
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Article
Software Solution for Modeling, Sizing, and Allocation of Active Power Filters in Distribution Networks
Energies 2021, 14(1), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14010133 - 29 Dec 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 728
Abstract
The paper is related to the problem of modeling and optimizing power systems supplying, among others, nonlinear loads. A software solution that allows the modeling and simulation of power systems in the frequency domain as well as the sizing and allocation of active [...] Read more.
The paper is related to the problem of modeling and optimizing power systems supplying, among others, nonlinear loads. A software solution that allows the modeling and simulation of power systems in the frequency domain as well as the sizing and allocation of active power filters has been developed and presented. The basic assumptions for the software development followed by the models of power system components and the optimization assumptions have been described in the paper. On the basis of an example of a low-voltage network, an analysis of the selection of the number and allocation of active power filters was carried out in terms of minimizing losses and investment costs under the assumed conditions for voltage total harmonic distortion (THD) coefficients in the network nodes. The presented examples show that the appropriate software allows for an in-depth analysis of possible solutions and, furthermore, the selection of the optimal one for a specific case, depending on the adopted limitations, expected effects, and investment costs. In addition, a very high computational efficiency of the adopted approach to modeling and simulation has been demonstrated, despite the use of (i) element models for which parameters depend on the operating point (named iterative elements), (ii) active filter models taking into account real harmonics reduction efficiency and power losses, and (iii) a brute force algorithm for optimization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Active Power Filters and Power Quality)
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Review

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Review
A Review on Optimization of Active Power Filter Placement and Sizing Methods
Energies 2022, 15(3), 1175; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15031175 - 05 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 414
Abstract
Distortions of current and voltage waveforms from a sinusoidal shape are, not only a source of technical problems, but also have serious economic effects. Their occurrence is related to the common use of loads with nonlinear current-voltage characteristics. These are both high-power loads [...] Read more.
Distortions of current and voltage waveforms from a sinusoidal shape are, not only a source of technical problems, but also have serious economic effects. Their occurrence is related to the common use of loads with nonlinear current-voltage characteristics. These are both high-power loads (most often power electronic switching devices supplying high-power drives), but also widely used low-power loads (power supplies, chargers, energy-saving light sources). The best way to eliminate these distortions is to use active power filters. The cost of these devices is relatively high. Therefore, scientists all over the world are conducting research aimed at developing techniques for the proper placement of these devices, in order to minimize their investment costs. The best solution to this problem is to use optimization techniques. This paper compares the methods and criteria used by the authors of publications dealing with this topic. The summary also indicates a possible direction for further work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Active Power Filters and Power Quality)
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Review
A Review on Power Electronics Technologies for Power Quality Improvement
Energies 2021, 14(24), 8585; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14248585 - 20 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 723
Abstract
Nowadays, new challenges arise relating to the compensation of power quality problems, where the introduction of innovative solutions based on power electronics is of paramount importance. The evolution from conventional electrical power grids to smart grids requires the use of a large number [...] Read more.
Nowadays, new challenges arise relating to the compensation of power quality problems, where the introduction of innovative solutions based on power electronics is of paramount importance. The evolution from conventional electrical power grids to smart grids requires the use of a large number of power electronics converters, indispensable for the integration of key technologies, such as renewable energies, electric mobility and energy storage systems, which adds importance to power quality issues. Addressing these topics, this paper presents an extensive review on power electronics technologies applied to power quality improvement, highlighting, and explaining the main phenomena associated with the occurrence of power quality problems in smart grids, their cause and effects for different activity sectors, and the main power electronics topologies for each technological solution. More specifically, the paper presents a review and classification of the main power quality problems and the respective context with the standards, a review of power quality problems related to the power production from renewables, the contextualization with solid-state transformers, electric mobility and electrical railway systems, a review of power electronics solutions to compensate the main power quality problems, as well as power electronics solutions to guarantee high levels of power quality. Relevant experimental results and exemplificative developed power electronics prototypes are also presented throughout the paper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Active Power Filters and Power Quality)
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Review
A Comprehensive Survey on Different Control Strategies and Applications of Active Power Filters for Power Quality Improvement
Energies 2021, 14(15), 4589; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14154589 - 29 Jul 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 767
Abstract
Power quality (PQ) has become an important topic in today’s power system scenario. PQ issues are raised not only in normal three-phase systems but also with the incorporation of different distributed generations (DGs), including renewable energy sources, storage systems, and other systems like [...] Read more.
Power quality (PQ) has become an important topic in today’s power system scenario. PQ issues are raised not only in normal three-phase systems but also with the incorporation of different distributed generations (DGs), including renewable energy sources, storage systems, and other systems like diesel generators, fuel cells, etc. The prevalence of these issues comes from the non-linear features and rapid changing of power electronics devices, such as switch-mode converters for adjustable speed drives and diode or thyristor rectifiers. The wide use of these fast switching devices in the utility system leads to an increase in disturbances associated with harmonics and reactive power. The occurrence of PQ disturbances in turn creates several unwanted effects on the utility system. Therefore, many researchers are working on the enhancement of PQ using different custom power devices (CPDs). In this work, the authors highlight the significance of the PQ in the utility network, its effect, and its solution, using different CPDs, such as passive, active, and hybrid filters. Further, the authors point out several compensation strategies, including reference signal generation and gating signal strategies. In addition, this paper also presents the role of the active power filter (APF) in different DG systems. Some technical and economic considerations and future developments are also discussed in this literature. For easy reference, a volume of journals of more than 140 publications on this particular subject is reported. The effectiveness of this research work will boost researchers’ ability to select proper control methodology and compensation strategy for various applications of APFs for improving PQ. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Active Power Filters and Power Quality)
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