Special Issue "Protection of Future Electricity Systems"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "Electrical Power and Energy System".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Adam Dyśko
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK
Interests: power system protection; distributed generation; system stability and control; microgrids; islanding detection; islanded operation
Dr. Dimitrios Tzelepis
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK
Interests: power system protection and control; fault location; HVDC transmission; intelligent systems

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The generation of electrical energy has been undergoing a series of dramatic changes in recent years, motivated mainly by the commitment to reduce CO2 emissions. We have seen a massive deployment of renewables, an increasing share of DC electricity transmission and distribution, and simultaneous continuing reduction of conventional synchronous generation. This poses a wide range of technical end economic challenges to the existing power systems, including the provision of dependable and secure protection at all voltage levels.

With this Special Issue, we would like to draw special attention to those protective solutions and ideas which can best support future power systems, and thus facilitate the continuing decarbonization of electrical energy generation. Rapid technological advances in many disciplines have created new opportunities for developing solutions which were not possible (or very costly) in the past. The development and increased availability of reliable high-bandwidth communications; high-efficiency real-time processing systems; new signal processing algorithms; and the development of advanced measurement and sensing technologies are but a few examples of possible areas of innovation from which the protective systems could benefit.

Therefore, both conventional and unconventional interdisciplinary solutions are welcome, including adaptive and/or active methods. We also encourage contributions covering systematic, realistic assessment of the existing protection system performance, in particular, evaluating how protection effectiveness can be affected by the current and anticipated changes in electricity generation, transmission, and distribution. The influencing factors could include increased penetration of inverter-connected renewables; the changing nature of loads; new electrical grid architectures; the impact of EV chargers; and many others. Such studies can be based either on real experience in the field or achieved through detailed simulation.

This Issue is open, but not limited, to contributions in the following focus areas:

  • Protection in microgrids and islanded systems;
  • Islanding detection;
  • Protection of HVDC grids;
  • Protection of other DC systems, including hybrid AC/DC;
  • Protection of convention al and hybrid feeders, including superconducting transmission;
  • System integrity and wide area protection, including load shedding;
  • Protection performance and testing;
  • Fault level estimation, including real-time fault level monitoring;
  • Fault location.

Dr. Adam Dyśko
Dr. Dimitrios Tzelepis
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • islanding detection
  • microgrids and islanded systems
  • HVDC grids
  • hybrid AC/DC systems
  • superconducting transmission
  • hybrid feeders
  • active protection
  • adaptive protection
  • unconventional sensing systems
  • fault level estimation
  • fault location

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Adaptive Overhead Transmission Lines Auto-Reclosing Based on Hilbert–Huang Transform
Energies 2020, 13(20), 5416; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13205416 - 16 Oct 2020
Abstract
This paper presents a reliable and fast index to detect the instant of arc extinction for adaptive single-pole automatic reclosing (ASPAR). The proposed method is a simple technique for ASPAR on shunt compensated transmission lines using the Hilbert–Huang Transform (HHT). The HHT method [...] Read more.
This paper presents a reliable and fast index to detect the instant of arc extinction for adaptive single-pole automatic reclosing (ASPAR). The proposed method is a simple technique for ASPAR on shunt compensated transmission lines using the Hilbert–Huang Transform (HHT). The HHT method is a combination of the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and the Hilbert transform (HT). The first intrinsic mode function (IMF1) decomposed by EMD, which contains high frequencies of the faulty phase voltage, was used to calculate the proposed index. HT calculates the first IMF spectrum in the time-frequency domain. The presented index is the sum of all frequency contents below 55 Hz, which remains very low until the fault clearance. The proposed method uses a global threshold level and therefore no adjustment is needed for different transmission systems. This method is effective for various system configurations including different fault locations, line loading, and various shunt reactor configurations, designs, compensation rates, and placement. The performance of the method was verified using 324 test cases simulated in electromagnetic transient program (EMTP) related to a 345 kV transmission line. For all the test cases, the algorithm successfully operated with an average reclosing time delay of 32 ms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protection of Future Electricity Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
An Adaptive Protection for Radial AC Microgrid Using IEC 61850 Communication Standard: Algorithm Proposal Using Offline Simulations
Energies 2020, 13(20), 5316; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13205316 - 13 Oct 2020
Abstract
The IEC 61850 communication standard is getting popular for application in electric power substation automation. This paper focuses on the potential application of the IEC 61850 generic object-oriented substation event (GOOSE) protocol in the AC microgrid for adaptive protection. The focus of the [...] Read more.
The IEC 61850 communication standard is getting popular for application in electric power substation automation. This paper focuses on the potential application of the IEC 61850 generic object-oriented substation event (GOOSE) protocol in the AC microgrid for adaptive protection. The focus of the paper is to utilize the existing low-voltage ride through characteristic of distributed generators (DGs) with a reactive power supply during faults and communication between intelligent electronic devices (IEDs) at different locations for adaptive overcurrent protection. The adaptive overcurrent IEDs detect the faults with two different preplanned settings groups: lower settings for the islanded mode and higher settings for the grid-connected mode considering limited fault contributions from the converter-based DGs. Setting groups are changed to lower values quickly using the circuit breaker status signal (XCBR) after loss-of-mains, loss-of-DG or islanding is detected. The methods of fault detection and isolation for two different kinds of communication-based IEDs (adaptive/nonadaptive) are explained for three-phase faults at two different locations. The communication-based IEDs take decisions in a decentralized manner, using information about the circuit breaker status, fault detection and current magnitude comparison signals obtained from other IEDs. However, the developed algorithm can also be implemented with the centralized system. An adaptive overcurrent protection algorithm was evaluated with PSCAD (Power Systems Computer Aided Design) simulations, and results were found to be effective for the considered fault cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protection of Future Electricity Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
A Local Protection and Local Action Strategy of DC Grid Fault Protection
Energies 2020, 13(18), 4795; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13184795 - 14 Sep 2020
Abstract
Fast detection and isolation of direct current (DC) faults are key issues for DC grids. Therefore, it is very necessary to study the fault protection principle for DC grids. This paper firstly presents the main difficulties in DC fault protection. Then, a local [...] Read more.
Fast detection and isolation of direct current (DC) faults are key issues for DC grids. Therefore, it is very necessary to study the fault protection principle for DC grids. This paper firstly presents the main difficulties in DC fault protection. Then, a local protection and local action strategy for isolating the DC faults is proposed. To illustrate the performance of the proposed protection strategy, a four-terminal DC grid with the hybrid high voltage direct current (HVDC) circuit breakers (HVDC CBs) is constructed in the time-domain simulation software PSCAD/EMTDC as the test system. The systematical comparison between the ordinary protection strategy and the proposed strategy is carried out. The protection selectivity of the proposed local detection and local action strategy is thoroughly studied through complete DC line fault scanning of the test system. The simulation results show that the proposed strategy is of high protection selectivity and speed. In addition, the current rating and the voltage of HVDC CB could be greatly reduced with the proposed strategy, which proves the economic benefits of the proposed strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protection of Future Electricity Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Decentralized Plug-and-Play Protection Scheme for Low Voltage DC Grids
Energies 2020, 13(12), 3167; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13123167 - 18 Jun 2020
Abstract
Since the voltages and currents in dc grids do not have a natural zero-crossing, the protection of these grids is more challenging than the protection of conventional ac grids. Literature presents several unit and non-unit protection schemes that rely on communication, or knowledge [...] Read more.
Since the voltages and currents in dc grids do not have a natural zero-crossing, the protection of these grids is more challenging than the protection of conventional ac grids. Literature presents several unit and non-unit protection schemes that rely on communication, or knowledge about the system’s topology and parameters in order to achieve selective protection in these grids. However, communication complicates fast fault detection and interruption, and a system’s parameters are subject to uncertainty and change. This paper demonstrates that, in low voltage dc grids, faults propagate fast through the grid and interrupted inductive currents commutate to non-faulted sections of the grid, which both can cause circuit breakers in non-faulted sections to trip. A decentralized plug-and-play protection scheme is proposed that ensures selectivity via an augmented solid-state circuit breaker topology and by utilizing the proposed time-current characteristic. It is experimentally shown that the proposed scheme provides secure and selective fault interruption for radial and meshed low voltage dc grids under various conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protection of Future Electricity Systems)
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