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Special Issue "Power Quality in Microgrids Based on Distributed Generators"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Ambrish Chandra

Department of Electrical Engineering, École de technologie supérieure, Montreal, QC, H3C 1K3, Canada
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Interests: power quality; renewable energy control and integration; microgrids
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Hua Geng

Department of Automation, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
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Interests: renewable energy; power quality; microgrids; digital control

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue of Energy, on “Power Quality in Microgrids Based on Distributed Generators” will be dedicated to new trends in microgrid and related power quality issues. Original unpublished research and application contributions matching the main theme of this Special Issue are welcome. Comprehensive tutorials and survey papers on microgrids and power quality shall be considered for this Special Issue as well. Microgrids are considered as a promising method for integrating various distributed generators (DGs) and loads to provide benefits on the reliability, loss reduction, carbon emission reduction, etc. Power quality is the emerging issue in microgrids, and the problem is more complicated than that in conventional distribution systems because of the intermittent nature of renewable energy sources, as well as the increased infiltration of nonlinear loads and power electronic interfaced DG systems. It can operate either in interconnected and/or in isolated mode from the main distribution grid as a controlled entity. Synchronization between DGs, system efficiency, stability, power quality, ensuring uninterruptible power supply to the connected load, cost reduction, are the some of the main issues for this application.

This Special Issue seeks to promote novel research investigations in microgrid and power quality issues, where authors are encouraged to:

  • Address advancement in modeling, designing, analyzing, optimizing and implementing microgrid using different DGs, keeping power quality an important issue, such as, voltage and frequency control, harmonic compensation, and load balancing etc. 
  • Address resolving issues of microgrid integration into main grid, such as synchronization and stability.
  • Investigate microgrids based on AC bus, DC bus, or AC/DC hybrid buses.
  • Investigate economical viabilities of many different renewable energy systems for microgrid applications.
  • Investigate fault tolerant control and protection of microgrids interfaced with power electronics.
  • Investigate the importance of energy storage systems on microgrid requirements and implementation, including the use of non-critical loads for compensating for intermittent nature of renewable energy sources.
  • Address advancement in centralized and decentralized control designs for microgrid. 
  • Write review papers on comparison between different topologies for hybrid renewable energy systems to achieve cost effective and ecosystem friendly solutions and their integration to main grid or for standalone applications.
Prof. Dr. Ambrish Chandra
Prof. Dr. Hua Geng
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • power quality
  • microgrid
  • renewable energy
  • distributed generation
  • power electronics
  • AC/DC/AC-DC hybrid buses

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Integrated Photovoltaic Inverters Based on Unified Power Quality Conditioner with Voltage Compensation for Submarine Distribution System
Energies 2018, 11(11), 2927; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11112927
Received: 20 September 2018 / Revised: 20 October 2018 / Accepted: 23 October 2018 / Published: 26 October 2018
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Abstract
This paper proposes a multi-functional Photovoltaic (PV) inverter based on the Unified Power Quality Conditioner (UPQC) configuration. Power quality improvement is a difficult issue to solve for isolated areas or islands connected to the mainland through long submarine cables. In the proposed system,
[...] Read more.
This paper proposes a multi-functional Photovoltaic (PV) inverter based on the Unified Power Quality Conditioner (UPQC) configuration. Power quality improvement is a difficult issue to solve for isolated areas or islands connected to the mainland through long submarine cables. In the proposed system, the line voltage is compensated for by the series inverter while the shunt inverter delivers the PV generating power to the grid. Depending on the technical conditions of power quality and system environment, it has five different operating modes. Especially during poor power quality conditions, the sensitive load is separated from the normal load to provide a different power quality level by using the microgrid conception. In this paper, the control method and the power flow for each mode are described, and the operational performance is verified through a PSiM simulation so that it can be applied to the power quality improvement of weak grid power systems such as in isolated areas or on islands connected to the mainland by long submarine cables. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power Quality in Microgrids Based on Distributed Generators)
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Open AccessArticle Control-Loop-Based Impedance Enhancement of Grid-Tied Inverters for Harmonic Suppression: Principle and Implementation
Energies 2018, 11(11), 2874; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11112874
Received: 10 September 2018 / Revised: 10 October 2018 / Accepted: 18 October 2018 / Published: 23 October 2018
PDF Full-text (8698 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To understand different control loops that have been proposed to improve the quality of current into grid from the perspective of output impedance, control-loop-based output impedance enhancement of grid-tied inverters for harmonic suppression is proposed in this paper. The principle and generalized control
[...] Read more.
To understand different control loops that have been proposed to improve the quality of current into grid from the perspective of output impedance, control-loop-based output impedance enhancement of grid-tied inverters for harmonic suppression is proposed in this paper. The principle and generalized control loop deduction are presented for reshaping the output impedance. Taking a traditional LCL (Inductor-Capacitor-Inductor)-type inverter with dual-loop control as an example, different kinds of control loop topologies are derived step by step and further optimized for the implementation of the proposed principle. Consequently, the improved control consists of a filtering-capacitor voltage loop, and a grid current loop is found which can remove the existing inner capacitor current loop and therefore simplify the control. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed control method is compared with the existing method and both are verified by simulations and experiments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power Quality in Microgrids Based on Distributed Generators)
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Open AccessArticle Real-Time Implementation of Robust Control Strategies Based on Sliding Mode Control for Standalone Microgrids Supplying Non-Linear Loads
Energies 2018, 11(10), 2590; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11102590
Received: 31 July 2018 / Revised: 17 September 2018 / Accepted: 24 September 2018 / Published: 28 September 2018
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Abstract
In this paper enhanced control strategies for standalone microgrids based on solar photovoltaic systems (SVPAs) and diesel engine driven fixed speed synchronous generators, are presented. Single-phase d-q theory-based sliding mode controller for voltage source converter voltage source converter (VSC) is employed to mitigate
[...] Read more.
In this paper enhanced control strategies for standalone microgrids based on solar photovoltaic systems (SVPAs) and diesel engine driven fixed speed synchronous generators, are presented. Single-phase d-q theory-based sliding mode controller for voltage source converter voltage source converter (VSC) is employed to mitigate harmonics, balance diesel generator (DG) current, and to inject the generated power by SVPA into local grid. To achieve fast dynamic response with zero steady-state error during transition, sliding mode controller for inner control loop is employed. To achieve maximum power point tracking (MPPT) from SVPA without using any MPPT method, a DC-DC buck boost converter supported by battery storage system is controlled using a new control strategy based on sliding mode control with boundary layer. In addition, modeling and detailed stability analysis are performed. The performance of the developed control strategies, are validate by simulation using MATLAB/Simulink and in real-time using hardware prototype. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power Quality in Microgrids Based on Distributed Generators)
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Open AccessArticle Research on Modeling of Microgrid Based on Data Testing and Parameter Identification
Energies 2018, 11(10), 2525; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11102525
Received: 31 July 2018 / Revised: 15 September 2018 / Accepted: 19 September 2018 / Published: 21 September 2018
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Abstract
The model parameter identification based on real operation data is a means to accurately determine the simulation parameters of the microgrid, but the real operation data cannot guarantee the exact agreement with the required data for parameter identification, which has become an important
[...] Read more.
The model parameter identification based on real operation data is a means to accurately determine the simulation parameters of the microgrid, but the real operation data cannot guarantee the exact agreement with the required data for parameter identification, which has become an important restriction factor in the accurate simulation and analysis of the dynamics of the microgrid. This paper provides a method of modeling of microgrid based on data testing and parameter identification. In this paper, the method of parameter trajectory sensitivity is first introduced. Then, the data testing scheme for parameter identification is presented, and the parameter identification flow chart is given. Thirdly, a microgrid demonstration system in China is taken as an example, the important parameters of the distributed photovoltaic, direct-drive wind turbine and energy storage unit in the system are obtained by data testing and parameter identification, and in the end, the accuracy of the model is verified through the comparison of the simulation data and the test data of the microgrid during grid-connection/island switching process. The obtained microgrid model provides a base model for the analysis of the overall characteristics, such as the transient stability, as well as power quality of the microgrid. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power Quality in Microgrids Based on Distributed Generators)
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Open AccessArticle Modeling and Enhanced Error-Free Current Control Strategy for Inverter with Virtual Resistor Damping
Energies 2018, 11(10), 2499; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11102499
Received: 31 July 2018 / Revised: 14 September 2018 / Accepted: 17 September 2018 / Published: 20 September 2018
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Abstract
In microgrid, the grid-connected inverter current with the LCL (inductor-capacitor-inductor) output filter is amplified at certain frequencies. Using virtual resistor damping method can help suppress the amplification. By choosing an appropriate virtual resistor value, the model of the inverter current control loop is
[...] Read more.
In microgrid, the grid-connected inverter current with the LCL (inductor-capacitor-inductor) output filter is amplified at certain frequencies. Using virtual resistor damping method can help suppress the amplification. By choosing an appropriate virtual resistor value, the model of the inverter current control loop is simplified as a 2nd-order lowpass filter. Based on such simplified model, this paper proposes a design method of reference current compensation controller, which does not require decomposition of harmonic components. With the reference compensation, the inverter output current control precision is improved obviously. The simulation and experimental results verify the accuracy of the inverter simplified model and effectiveness of the reference compensation design method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power Quality in Microgrids Based on Distributed Generators)
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Open AccessArticle Coordinated Control for Large-Scale Wind Farms with LCC-HVDC Integration
Energies 2018, 11(9), 2207; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11092207
Received: 30 July 2018 / Revised: 19 August 2018 / Accepted: 21 August 2018 / Published: 23 August 2018
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Abstract
Wind farms (WFs) controlled with conventional vector control (VC) algorithms cannot be directly integrated to the power grid through line commutated rectifier (LCR)-based high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission due to the lack of voltage support at its sending-end bus. This paper proposes
[...] Read more.
Wind farms (WFs) controlled with conventional vector control (VC) algorithms cannot be directly integrated to the power grid through line commutated rectifier (LCR)-based high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission due to the lack of voltage support at its sending-end bus. This paper proposes a novel coordinated control scheme for WFs with LCC-HVDC integration. The scheme comprises two key sub-control loops, referred to as the reactive power-based frequency (Q-f) control loop and the active power-based voltage (P-V) control loop, respectively. The Q-f control, applied to the voltage sources inverters in the WFs, maintains the system frequency and compensates the reactive power for the LCR of HVDC, whereas the P-V control, applied to the LCR, maintains the sending-end bus voltage and achieves the active power balance of the system. Phase-plane analysis and small-signal analysis are performed to evaluate the stability of the system and facilitate the controller parameter design. Simulations performed on PSCAD/EMTDC verify the proposed control scheme. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power Quality in Microgrids Based on Distributed Generators)
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Open AccessArticle An Improved Multi-Timescale Coordinated Control Strategy for Stand-Alone Microgrid with Hybrid Energy Storage System
Energies 2018, 11(8), 2150; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11082150
Received: 29 July 2018 / Revised: 10 August 2018 / Accepted: 15 August 2018 / Published: 17 August 2018
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Abstract
A scientific and effective coordinated control strategy is crucial to the safe and economic operation of a microgrid (MG). With the continuous improvement of the renewable energy source (RES) penetration rate in MG, the randomness and intermittency of its output lead to the
[...] Read more.
A scientific and effective coordinated control strategy is crucial to the safe and economic operation of a microgrid (MG). With the continuous improvement of the renewable energy source (RES) penetration rate in MG, the randomness and intermittency of its output lead to the increasing regulation pressure of the conventional controllable units, the increase of the operating risk of MG and the difficulty in improving the operational economy. To solve the mentioned problems and take advantage of hybrid energy storage system (HESS), this study proposes a multi-time scale coordinated control scheme of “day-ahead optimization (DAO) + intraday rolling (IDR) + quasi-real-time correction (QRTC) + real-time coordinated control (RTCC).” Considering the shortcomings of existing low prediction accuracy of distributed RES and loads, the soft constraints such as unit commitment scheduling errors and load switching scheduling errors are introduced in the intraday rolling model, allowing the correction of day-ahead unit commitment and load switching schedule. In the quasi-real-time coordinated control, an integrated criterion is introduced to decide the adjustment priority of the distributed generations. In the real-time coordinated control, the HESS adopts an improved first order low pass filtering algorithm to adaptively compensate the second-level unbalanced power. Compared with the traditional coordinated control strategy, the proposed improved model has the advantages of good robustness and fast solving speed and provides some guidance for the intelligent solution for stable and economic operation of stand-alone MG with HESS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power Quality in Microgrids Based on Distributed Generators)
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Open AccessArticle A Novel Stability Improvement Strategy for a Multi-Inverter System in a Weak Grid Utilizing Dual-Mode Control
Energies 2018, 11(8), 2144; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11082144
Received: 31 July 2018 / Revised: 11 August 2018 / Accepted: 14 August 2018 / Published: 17 August 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (4256 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Due to the increasing penetration of distributed generations (DGS) and non-negligible grid impedance, the instability problem of the multi-inverter system operating in current source mode (CSM) is becoming serious. In this paper, a closed-loop transfer function model of such a multi-inverter system is
[...] Read more.
Due to the increasing penetration of distributed generations (DGS) and non-negligible grid impedance, the instability problem of the multi-inverter system operating in current source mode (CSM) is becoming serious. In this paper, a closed-loop transfer function model of such a multi-inverter system is established, by which it is concluded that output current resonance will occur with the increase in the grid impedance. In order to address this problem, this paper presents a novel dual-mode control scheme of multiple inverters: one inverter operating in CSM will be alternated into voltage source mode (VSM) if the grid impedance is high. It is theoretically proved that the coupling between the inverters and the resonance in the output current can be suppressed effectively with the proposed scheme. Finally, the validity of the proposed theory is demonstrated by extensive simulations and experiments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power Quality in Microgrids Based on Distributed Generators)
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Open AccessArticle VSG-Based Dynamic Frequency Support Control for Autonomous PV–Diesel Microgrids
Energies 2018, 11(7), 1814; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11071814
Received: 3 June 2018 / Revised: 27 June 2018 / Accepted: 5 July 2018 / Published: 11 July 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (5265 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper demonstrates the use of a novel virtual synchronous generator (VSG) to provide dynamic frequency support in an autonomous photovoltaic (PV)–diesel hybrid microgrid with an energy storage system (ESS). Due to the lack of enough rotating machines, PV fluctuation might give rise
[...] Read more.
This paper demonstrates the use of a novel virtual synchronous generator (VSG) to provide dynamic frequency support in an autonomous photovoltaic (PV)–diesel hybrid microgrid with an energy storage system (ESS). Due to the lack of enough rotating machines, PV fluctuation might give rise to unacceptable frequency excursions in the microgrid. The VSG entails controlling the voltage-source inverter (VSI) to emulate a virtual inertial and a virtual damping via power injection from/to the ESS. The effect of the VSG on the frequency is investigated. The virtual inertia decreases the maximum frequency deviation (MFD) and the rate of change of frequency (RoCoF), but in exchange for raising the virtual inertia, the system is more oscillating. Meanwhile, raising the virtual damping brings reductions in the amplitude of the oscillations of frequency. However, the dynamic frequency support provided by them is lagging behind. In this regard, an improved VSG based on the differential feedforward of the diesel generator set (DGS) output current is proposed to further mitigate the MFD and the RoCoF. Simulations and experimental results from an autonomous microgrid consisted of a 400 kW DGS, and a 100 kVA VSG are provided to validate the discussion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power Quality in Microgrids Based on Distributed Generators)
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Open AccessArticle Time-Domain Voltage Sag State Estimation Based on the Unscented Kalman Filter for Power Systems with Nonlinear Components
Energies 2018, 11(6), 1411; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11061411
Received: 1 May 2018 / Revised: 17 May 2018 / Accepted: 23 May 2018 / Published: 1 June 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2610 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper proposes a time-domain methodology based on the unscented Kalman filter to estimate voltage sags and their characteristics, such as magnitude and duration in power systems represented by nonlinear models. Partial and noisy measurements from the electrical network with nonlinear loads, used
[...] Read more.
This paper proposes a time-domain methodology based on the unscented Kalman filter to estimate voltage sags and their characteristics, such as magnitude and duration in power systems represented by nonlinear models. Partial and noisy measurements from the electrical network with nonlinear loads, used as data, are assumed. The characteristics of voltage sags can be calculated in a discrete form with the unscented Kalman filter to estimate all the busbar voltages; being possible to determine the rms voltage magnitude and the voltage sag starting and ending time, respectively. Voltage sag state estimation results can be used to obtain the power quality indices for monitored and unmonitored busbars in the power grid and to design adequate mitigating techniques. The proposed methodology is successfully validated against the results obtained with the time-domain system simulation for the power system with nonlinear components, being the normalized root mean square error less than 3%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power Quality in Microgrids Based on Distributed Generators)
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