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Special Issue "Plasma Processes for Renewable Energy Technologies"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "Advanced Energy Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Masaaki Okubo

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai 599-8531, Japan
Website | E-Mail
Interests: nonthermal plasma; plasma denitrification; electrostatic precipitator; gas–liquid interfacial plasma; carbon dioxide reduction; biomass combustion; emission control for diesel engine; plasma surface treatment

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The use of renewable energy is an effective solution for the prevention of global warming. On the other hand, environmental plasmas are one of powerful means to solve global environmental problems on nitrogen oxides, (NOx), sulfur oxides (SOx), particulate matter (PM), volatile organic compounds (VOC), and carbon dioxides (CO2) in the atmosphere. By combining both technologies, we can develop an extremely effective environmental improvement technology. Based on this background, a Special Issue of the journal Energies on plasma processes for renewable energy technologies is planned. On the issue, we focus on environment plasma technologies that can effectively utilize renewable electric energy sources, such as photovoltaic power generation, biofuel power generation, wind turbine power generation, etc. However, any latest research results on plasma environmental improvement processes are welcome for submission. We are looking, among others, for papers on the following technical subjects in which either plasma can use renewable energy sources or can be used for renewable energy technologies:

  • Plasma decomposition technology of harmful gases, such as the plasma denitrification method;
  • Plasma removal technology of harmful particles, such as electrostatic precipitation;
  • Plasma decomposition technology of harmful substances in liquid, such as gas–liquid interfacial plasma;
  • Plasma-enhanced flow induction and heat transfer enhancement technologies, such as ionic wind device and plasma actuator;
  • Plasma-enhanced combustion and fuel reforming;
  • Other environment plasma technologies.

Prof. Dr. Masaaki Okubo
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • nonthermal plasma
  • plasma denitrification
  • electrostatic precipitator
  • gas–liquid interfacial plasma
  • ionic wind
  • plasma actuator
  • plasma enhanced combustion
  • fuel reforming

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Plasma–Chemical Hybrid NOx Removal in Flue Gas from Semiconductor Manufacturing Industries Using a Blade-Dielectric Barrier-Type Plasma Reactor
Energies 2019, 12(14), 2717; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12142717
Received: 28 June 2019 / Revised: 11 July 2019 / Accepted: 12 July 2019 / Published: 16 July 2019
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Abstract
NOx is emitted in the flue gas from semiconductor manufacturing plants as a byproduct of combustion for abatement of perfluorinated compounds. In order to treat NOx emission, a combined process consisting of a dry plasma process using nonthermal plasma and a [...] Read more.
NOx is emitted in the flue gas from semiconductor manufacturing plants as a byproduct of combustion for abatement of perfluorinated compounds. In order to treat NOx emission, a combined process consisting of a dry plasma process using nonthermal plasma and a wet chemical process using a wet scrubber is performed. For the dry plasma process, a dielectric barrier discharge plasma is applied using a blade-barrier electrode. Two oxidation methods, direct and indirect, are compared in terms of NO oxidation efficiency. For the wet chemical process, sodium sulfide (Na2S) is used as a reducing agent for the NO2. Experiments are conducted by varying the gas flow rate and input power to the plasma reactor, using NO diluted in air to a level of 300 ppm to simulate exhaust gas from semiconductor manufacturing. At flow rates of ≤5 L/min, the indirect oxidation method verified greater removal efficiency than the direct oxidation method, achieving a maximum NO conversion rate of 98% and a NOx removal rate of 83% at 29.4 kV and a flow rate of 3 L/min. These results demonstrate that the proposed combined process consisting of a dry plasma process and wet chemical process is promising for treating NOx emissions from the semiconductor manufacturing industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasma Processes for Renewable Energy Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle
Gasification of Waste Cooking Oil to Syngas by Thermal Arc Plasma
Energies 2019, 12(13), 2612; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12132612
Received: 4 June 2019 / Revised: 27 June 2019 / Accepted: 4 July 2019 / Published: 7 July 2019
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Abstract
The depletion and usage of fossil fuels causes environmental issues and alternative fuels and technologies are urgently required. Therefore, thermal arc water vapor plasma for a fast and robust waste/biomass treatment is an alternative to the syngas method. Waste cooking oil (WCO) can [...] Read more.
The depletion and usage of fossil fuels causes environmental issues and alternative fuels and technologies are urgently required. Therefore, thermal arc water vapor plasma for a fast and robust waste/biomass treatment is an alternative to the syngas method. Waste cooking oil (WCO) can be used as an alternative potential feedstock for syngas production. The goal of this experimental study was to conduct experiments gasifying waste cooking oil to syngas. The WCO was characterized in order to examine its properties and composition in the conversion process. The WCO gasification system was quantified in terms of the produced gas concentration, the H2/CO ratio, the lower heating value (LHV), the carbon conversion efficiency (CCE), the energy conversion efficiency (ECE), the specific energy requirements (SER), and the tar content in the syngas. The best gasification process efficiency was obtained at the gasifying agent-to-feedstock (S/WCO) ratio of 2.33. At this ratio, the highest concentration of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, the H2/CO ratio, the LHV, the CCE, the ECE, the SER, and the tar content were 47.9%, 22.42%, 2.14, 12.7 MJ/Nm3, 41.3% 85.42%, 196.2 kJ/mol (or 1.8 kWh/kg), and 0.18 g/Nm3, respectively. As a general conclusion, it can be stated that the thermal arc-plasma method used in this study can be effectively used for waste cooking oil gasification to high quality syngas with a rather low content of tars. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasma Processes for Renewable Energy Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle
Control Strategy for Power Conversion Systems in Plasma Generators with High Power Quality and Efficiency Considering Entire Load Conditions
Energies 2019, 12(9), 1723; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12091723
Received: 2 April 2019 / Revised: 26 April 2019 / Accepted: 2 May 2019 / Published: 7 May 2019
PDF Full-text (3585 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, a control method for the power conversion system (PCS) of plasma generators connected with a plasma chamber has been presented. The PCS generates the plasma by applying a high magnitude and high frequency voltage to the injected gasses, in the [...] Read more.
In this paper, a control method for the power conversion system (PCS) of plasma generators connected with a plasma chamber has been presented. The PCS generates the plasma by applying a high magnitude and high frequency voltage to the injected gasses, in the chamber. With regards to the PCS, the injected gases in the chamber could be equivalent to the resistive impedance, and the equivalent impedance had a wide variable range, according to the gas pressure, amount of injected gases and the ignition state of gases in the chamber. In other words, the PCS for plasma generators should operate over a wide load range. Therefore, a control method of the PCS for plasma generators, has been proposed, to ensure stable and efficient operation in a wide load range. In addition, the validity of the proposed control method was verified by simulation and experimental results, based on an actual plasma chamber. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasma Processes for Renewable Energy Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle
Experimental and Numerical Investigations of Plasma Ignition Characteristics in Gas Turbine Combustors
Energies 2019, 12(8), 1511; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12081511
Received: 13 March 2019 / Revised: 1 April 2019 / Accepted: 17 April 2019 / Published: 22 April 2019
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Abstract
Reliable ignition is critical for improving the operating performance of modern combustor and gas turbines. As an alternative to the traditional spark discharge ignition, plasma assisted ignition has attracted more interest and been shown to be more effective in increasing ignition probability, accelerating [...] Read more.
Reliable ignition is critical for improving the operating performance of modern combustor and gas turbines. As an alternative to the traditional spark discharge ignition, plasma assisted ignition has attracted more interest and been shown to be more effective in increasing ignition probability, accelerating kernel growth, and decreasing ignition delay time. In this paper, the operating characteristic of a typical self-designed plasma ignition system is investigated. Based on the optical experiment, the plasma jet flow feature during discharge is analyzed. Then, a detailed numerical study is carried out to investigate the effects of different plasma parameters on ignition enhancement of a one can-annular combustor used in gas turbines. The results show that plasma indeed has a good ability to expand the ignition limit and decrease the minimum ignition energy. For the studied plasma ignitor, the initial discharge kernel is not a sphere but a jet flow cone with a length of about 30 mm. Besides, the numerical comparisons indicate that the additions of plasma active species and the increases of initial energy, plasma jet flow length and discharge frequency can benefit the acceleration of kernel growth and flame propagation via thermal, kinetic and transport pathways. The present study may provide a suitable understanding of plasma assisted ignition in gas turbines and a meaningful reference to develop high performance ignition systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasma Processes for Renewable Energy Technologies)
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