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Special Issue "New Frontiers for Organizations in Power Markets Applications for Industry 4.0"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "A5: Smart Grids and Microgrids".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2021) | Viewed by 8482

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Radoslaw Miskiewicz
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Management, University of Szczecin, 70-453 Szczecin, Poland
Interests: organizational structure; knowledge transfer; knowledge management; Industry 4.0; processes digitization; energy management
Prof. Dr. Wojciech Drozdz
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Management, University of Szczecin, 70-453 Szczecin, Poland
Interests: electromobility; logistics of energy sector; Industry 4.0; smart grids; smart cities
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue in Energies addresses wide aspects of new frontiers and challenges for organizations, energy markets players, in the context of Industry 4.0. Theorethical and practical approaches, as well as methodological considerations are highly appreciated. This Special Issue invites high-quality research papers covering a wide range of topics related to organizational structures, energy optimization, sustainable development economics, economy of sharing, knowledge transfer and management, sustainable manufacturing, tracibility, industry 4.0, electromobility, Internet of things, CPS (cyber-physical systems), artificial intelligence, big data, block-chain; energy efficiency, energy marketing, renewable energy, energy poverty, artisanal mining, social responsibility management, organizational culture, CO2 foot-print and equality.

Prof. Dr. Radoslaw Miskiewicz
Prof. Dr. Wojciech Drozdz
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Industry 4.0
  • Knowledge transfer
  • Equality
  • Energy efficiency
  • Knowledge management
  • Traceability
  • Block-chain
  • Artisanal mining
  • Electromobility
  • Social responsibility
  • Organizational culture
  • Smart technologies
  • Energy law
  • International competitiveness

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

Article
Microgrid Operation Optimization Using Hybrid System Modeling and Switched Model Predictive Control
Energies 2022, 15(3), 833; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15030833 - 24 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 621
Abstract
Optimization of economic aspects of microgrid operation in both grid-connected and islanded mode leads to contradictive definitions of optimality for both modes. There is no general agreement on how to cope with this duality. To address this issue, as well as modern energy [...] Read more.
Optimization of economic aspects of microgrid operation in both grid-connected and islanded mode leads to contradictive definitions of optimality for both modes. There is no general agreement on how to cope with this duality. To address this issue, as well as modern energy market requirements and a better renewable energy utilization necessity in the case of large facilities, a comprehensive control solution utilizing the appropriate model is needed. In response, the authors propose a hybrid microgrid model covering fundamental features and designed to work in conjunction with two switched receding horizon control laws. A relevant controller is chosen according to the current microgrid operation mode and its cost function tailored to specific demands of the islanded or grid-connected operation. Performed research led to a new switched hybrid model predictive control approach focused on microgrid economic optimization. This approach utilizes an appropriate hybrid microgrid model also contributed by the authors. The introduced solution turned out to be effective in overall energy cost reduction in the case of large commercial facilities, regardless of grid-connection and renewable generation scenarios. Furthermore, it also provides satisfactory renewable energy and storage capabilities utilization in changing grid connection conditions. Full article
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Article
Development and Implementation of the Smart Village Concept as a Challenge for the Modern Power Industry on the Example of Poland
Energies 2022, 15(2), 603; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15020603 - 15 Jan 2022
Viewed by 292
Abstract
Nowadays, while cities are often subject to research in terms of their development, especially smart development, studies on rural areas are rare. However, the development of the latter is very important. It is important that rural areas develop economically and socially. Smart villages [...] Read more.
Nowadays, while cities are often subject to research in terms of their development, especially smart development, studies on rural areas are rare. However, the development of the latter is very important. It is important that rural areas develop economically and socially. Smart villages are a challenge for the modern energy sector. The authors of the article try to answer the question: What are the challenges for the modern energy sector in the context of rural development? The aim of this article is to identify challenges for the modern power industry in the concept of smart countryside development. The article begins with the presentation of the essence of smart villages and the essence of energy policy. The research facilitated the identification of basic challenges that prevent or slow down the development of the smart villages in terms of modern energy solutions, as perceived by experts and residents, and farmers and entrepreneurs operating in rural areas. The article identifies a number of energy challenges in the context of a smart village. They include, among others, a lack of awareness regarding the impact of energy on the environment, a low level of public knowledge about new energy solutions, and a lack of social trust in modern energy solutions in rural areas. The research was conducted in rural areas in the north-western part of Poland. At the end, the article presents a model of rural development in the context of the modern energy sector. The research also allowed the creation of a smart village development model that focuses on smart economy, intelligent environment, intelligent people, and intelligent governance. Since these are universal solutions, they can be used as a proposition for other countries. Full article
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Article
Social Capital in Energy Enterprises: Poland’s Case
Energies 2022, 15(2), 546; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15020546 - 13 Jan 2022
Viewed by 275
Abstract
Social capital is currently perceived as one of the basic factors of economic development and economic success of enterprises. However, while there is already much research on social capital in enterprises, there has been little such research in the energy industry. The aim [...] Read more.
Social capital is currently perceived as one of the basic factors of economic development and economic success of enterprises. However, while there is already much research on social capital in enterprises, there has been little such research in the energy industry. The aim of the publication is to fill the gap in this regard. The basic question that the authors try to answer is whether there is a higher level of capital in energy companies compared to other industries, and if so, what the reasons are for this. Apart from answering this question, the authors present their own method of measuring the level of this capital. The first part of the article presents the results of a study on the level of social capital in Polish energy companies, whereas the second part compares the levels of social capital in energy companies and industrial companies in other sectors. According to the study, energy companies generally have higher levels of social capital than companies in other industries. It has been found, however, that individual forms of capital that comprise social capital differ. The most significant differences were observed in relational capital, followed by cognitive capital at a lower value and structural capital at the lowest. The survey also revealed that there is a difference in social capital levels among the researched professional groups: management, administration, and production. Full article
Article
Integrative Smart Grids’ Assessment System
Energies 2022, 15(2), 545; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15020545 - 13 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 313
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly affected the energy sector. The new behavior of industrial and non-commercial consumers changes the energy consumption model. In addition, the constraints associated with the coronavirus crisis have led to environmental effects from declining economic activity. The research is [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly affected the energy sector. The new behavior of industrial and non-commercial consumers changes the energy consumption model. In addition, the constraints associated with the coronavirus crisis have led to environmental effects from declining economic activity. The research is based on evidence from around the world showing significant reductions in emissions and improved air quality. This situation requires rethinking the energy development strategy, particularly the construction of smart grids as a leading direction of energy development. Evaluating the efficiency of smart grids is a vital tool for disseminating successful experience in improving their management. This paper proposes an approach to a comprehensive assessment of smart grids based on a comparative analysis of existing methods, taking into account the changes that need to be considered after the experience gained from the COVID-19 pandemic. The approach provides an accurate set of efficiency indicators for assessing smart grids to account for the direct and indirect effects of smart grids’ implementation. This evaluation approach can be helpful to policymakers in developing energy efficiency programs and implementing energy policy. Full article
Article
Digital Postal Operator as an Important Element of the National Energy Security System
Energies 2022, 15(1), 231; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15010231 - 30 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 292
Abstract
This article presents a solution that strengthens information security in critical infrastructure entities. Critical infrastructure plays a key role in the functioning of the state and the life of its citizens. Therefore, the protection of critical infrastructure is one of priorities in Poland. [...] Read more.
This article presents a solution that strengthens information security in critical infrastructure entities. Critical infrastructure plays a key role in the functioning of the state and the life of its citizens. Therefore, the protection of critical infrastructure is one of priorities in Poland. The aim of this article is to show that designated postal operators may become an important link in the process of information flow and cybersecurity. Based on their multiple-year experience and expended competences, the operators may provide digital services for entities responsible for the energy security infrastructure. Verification of this goal is necessary, since critical infrastructure is exposed to growing threats, both in the area of energy and other sensitive sectors of the economy. Research results presented in the article were obtained by conducting a CATI survey. The study used the purposeful selection method, which allows to influence the structure of a sample in the context of goals set by the authors. The method solicited key information from experts on postal and energy markets. The results constitute a new approach to the role of the designated postal operator. The authors analysed possibilities to support entities that secure critical infrastructure, including those from the energy sector. It shows that the role of the designated postal operator may significantly change. Taking into account the security of information and cybersecurity, the postal operator could expand its competences, secure infrastructure-related information flow, and thus become a key pillar of the state. Full article
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Article
Convergence in Green Growth as the Key to Fighting Climate Change, 1990–2019
Energies 2021, 14(24), 8324; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14248324 - 10 Dec 2021
Viewed by 575
Abstract
The consequences of climate change are an important point of contention in the current policy debate on the sustainability of economic development and growth. Climate change contributes to many socio-economic disadvantages and risks. The primary objective of global policy 2050 is to fully [...] Read more.
The consequences of climate change are an important point of contention in the current policy debate on the sustainability of economic development and growth. Climate change contributes to many socio-economic disadvantages and risks. The primary objective of global policy 2050 is to fully understand the negative externalities of environmental change. Goal and methodology: the main goal of the study is to examine convergence to the steady green growth state for a sample of 130 countries from 1990 to 2019. Setting up an efficient and consistent policy to fight climate change demands empirical knowledge on green growth. Using log (t) test methodology, we investigate convergence in green growth indicators for selected samples based on available country data. Findings: our assumptions are: (1) economies are not motivated and eager to foster energy transition; instead, they accept it as a random policy goal and (2) economies want to foster energy transition, but they are limited by a significant trade-off factor pulling their efforts down. Convergence testing shows the existence of two significant convergence clubs, one with countries moving to energy transition and the second still promoting national output based on fossil fuels. The findings indicate future divergence between the two clubs and significant convergence within identified convergence clubs. Conclusions: the energy transition is moving forward at two-tier speed with green leaders and green follower clubs. Policymakers and practitioners must closely monitor the dynamics of green growth to assess the risk and uncertainties of climate change. Full article
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Article
Comprehensive Assessment of Smart Grids: Is There a Universal Approach?
Energies 2021, 14(12), 3497; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14123497 - 12 Jun 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 975
Abstract
A comprehensive assessment of smart grids is critical for their development. Existing scientific research testifies to the urgency and complexity of the problem of implementing smart grids effectively, both in terms of a single project performance and from the standpoint of creating a [...] Read more.
A comprehensive assessment of smart grids is critical for their development. Existing scientific research testifies to the urgency and complexity of the problem of implementing smart grids effectively, both in terms of a single project performance and from the standpoint of creating a local, and later global, energy system. The multidimensionality of smart grids makes it challenging to assess the effectiveness of their implementation. Difficulties in evaluation arise because it is challenging to consider technical, technological, economic, and other relevant aspects of smart grids’ development within a single evaluation system. There are currently a significant number of smart grid assessment systems. However, it remains debatable how systematically and comprehensively they measure the efficiency of a smart grid. This, in turn, raises the question of whether there is a universal evaluation system that integrally considers all the crucial components of smart grids and is suitable for evaluating smart grid projects of different content. This article analyzes the most well-known approaches to comprehensive assessment of smart grids according to the completeness of their coverage of smart grids’ most critical components. This paper identifies the essential areas for assessing smart grids according to the most cited and authoritative research and regulatory documents of the European Union. As a result, seven groups of indicators were identified. These groups of indicators are the basis for comparative analysis of the comprehensive assessment approaches of smart grids. The results of the study should help determine the appropriateness of applying a particular evaluation system. In addition, the analysis of existing evaluation systems allows the shaping of a universal approach to evaluating smart grids comprehensively and systematically. Full article
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Article
Developing Digital Economy and Society in the Light of the Issue of Digital Convergence of the Markets in the European Union Countries
Energies 2021, 14(9), 2717; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14092717 - 10 May 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1275
Abstract
The main objective of the paper is to present the development of digital economy and society in the Countries of the European Union in the light of the digital convergence of these markets. The analysis was based on the data on the Digital [...] Read more.
The main objective of the paper is to present the development of digital economy and society in the Countries of the European Union in the light of the digital convergence of these markets. The analysis was based on the data on the Digital Economy and Society Index (DESI) from 2015 and 2020. Empirical studies have been conducted in two stages. First, basic measures of time series dynamics were used to determine the dynamics of changes in index values. On the other hand, in order to classify countries in terms of similarity of value and structure of the DESI, a cluster analysis was used as one of the basic methods of the so-called unsupervised statistical grouping. The studies presented confirm that the levels of indicators and the dynamics of changes in their value at the level of the synthetic DESI indicator, and in the five underlying areas of analysis, vary despite the fact that almost all are pro-growth, including for isolated clusters of EU-28 countries. When analyzing the DESI synthetic index and its components, it was concluded that there is generally an increase in convergence between the EU-28 countries in terms of the level of development of the digital economy and society, as well as in four components: Connectivity, Human Capital, Use of Internet Services and Digital Public Services. The Integration of Digital Technology area was the only one where increasing polarization of results was observed. The added value of the paper is to fill the research gap in research on the digital convergence of markets in the Countries of the European Union. Full article
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Article
Principles of Sustainable Management of Energy Companies: The Case of Poland
Energies 2021, 14(8), 2042; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14082042 - 07 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 610
Abstract
In 2016, a law was introduced in Poland that required management bodies of energy companies owned by the state and a municipality to adopt management goals. The remuneration of the board members of these companies depended on the extent to which these goals [...] Read more.
In 2016, a law was introduced in Poland that required management bodies of energy companies owned by the state and a municipality to adopt management goals. The remuneration of the board members of these companies depended on the extent to which these goals were implemented. The challenge was that profit became an end in itself. The purpose of this article is to describe the process used to set up strategic goals on the basis of balancing capital within energy companies, which demonstrates a positive impact on the effectiveness of these companies. The solution proposed in this article is an alternative to using profit as the sole measure. The article consists of three parts. The first part is a review of the literature on management goals and how they relate to various economic measures—the main conclusions of this literature review were that, despite many attempts, we were not able to (1) clearly define the purpose of a company and (2) find an indisputable measure of the degree to which such goals were implemented in a firm that would be an alternative to using the outdated profit as a goal. The second part dealt with the results of a study on the formulation of management goals in 2017–2020, which was conducted on more than 150 energy companies. Based on this analysis, it was found that financial goals were gradually replaced by material (investment) goals, but this process was very slow. The final part of the article is our proposal for a new approach to formulating management goals in energy companies, linking them to tools that measure both the efficiency of capital deployment and the introduction of new rules for sustainable capital management in these companies. Full article
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Article
A Theoretical Framework for Industry 4.0 and Its Implementation with Selected Practical Schedules
Energies 2021, 14(4), 940; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14040940 - 10 Feb 2021
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 1520
Abstract
In recent years, there has been dynamic changes in the industrial environment as a result of further innovations called Industry 4.0 (I.4.0), especially in the field of digital technology and manufacturing. Despite numerous examples of the implementation of Industry 4.0 in enterprises, there [...] Read more.
In recent years, there has been dynamic changes in the industrial environment as a result of further innovations called Industry 4.0 (I.4.0), especially in the field of digital technology and manufacturing. Despite numerous examples of the implementation of Industry 4.0 in enterprises, there is no general framework for the implementation of Industry 4.0 with a detailed schedule. Researching the ways of implementing Industry 4.0 is still a current and unexplored area of research. The main aim of the paper is to present the concept of the theoretical framework for Industry 4.0 implementation based on selected schedules of the Industry 4.0 implementation. The paper was based on information from literature review and analysis of pilot enterprise projects to Industry 4.0 (case study) that were conducted in selected enterprises. The paper presents the key components of the framework of Industry 4.0 and the basic stage of implementing the concept in the enterprises, paying attention to their sequence and time frames. The proposed approach is dedicated to researchers and practitioners who implement the concept of Industry 4.0 in enterprises. Full article
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