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Special Issue "Selected Papers from International Conference on Evolving Cities 2021 (ICEC 2021)"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "B: Energy and Environment".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2022) | Viewed by 3904

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. AbuBakr S. Bahaj
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Energy & Climate Change Divisions, Sustainable Energy Research Group, School of Engineering, Faculty of Engineering & Physical Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ, UK
Interests: renewable energy; energy access; cities & infrastructure; buildings & communities; and behaviour & modelling
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Thomas Rushby
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Energy and Climate Change Division/Sustainable Energy Research Group, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ, UK
Interests: household energy use and behaviour change; understanding and modelling household energy ‘needs’; evaluation of energy efficiency and behaviour change trials; understanding and modelling demand for household energy services; spatial and temporal distribution of demand; distributional impact of commercial and regulatory interventions
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Philip Turner
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Energy and Climate Change Division, School of Engineering, Faculty of Engineering & Physical Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ, UK
Interests: energy; urban design & sustainable architecture; retail regeneration; behavioural studies; personality traits; social care
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Cities are at the centre of both climate and sustainability challenges and provide an important pathway for the plans to transition to net-zero carbon by 2050. They consume around 75% of our energy with a similar value for emissions. This Special Issue will cover pertinent research and development in cities, with particular focus on the built environment, ecology and the quality of life of citizens within and around the cities. To address these complex and interwoven challenges, papers should consider how local, regional or city level contexts impact the implementation and provision of appropriate interventions/technologies for evolving cities.

The topics to be covered in the Special Issue should address the following themes:

  • Cities and infrastructure;
  • Energy and net zero carbon;
  • Smart cities and data;
  • Energy, behaviour and wellbeing.

Prof. Dr. AbuBakr S. Bahaj
Dr. Thomas Rushby
Dr. Philip Turner
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • cities and infrastructure
  • energy and net zero carbon
  • smart cities and data
  • energy, behaviour and wellbeing

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Article
Solar Power Potential from Industrial Buildings and Impact on Electricity Supply in Bangladesh
Energies 2022, 15(11), 4037; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15114037 - 31 May 2022
Viewed by 335
Abstract
Bangladesh has a rapidly increasing population and coupled with healthy economic growth, is resulting in a rising energy demand. The country also aims to increase its renewable share of electricity to 10% by 2030. However, due to limited wind resources, solar energy seems [...] Read more.
Bangladesh has a rapidly increasing population and coupled with healthy economic growth, is resulting in a rising energy demand. The country also aims to increase its renewable share of electricity to 10% by 2030. However, due to limited wind resources, solar energy seems to be most appropriate to deliver such a target. However, in a land-scarce country, this presents a major challenge, which this work aims to partially address. Being a globally leading producer of commodities, Bangladesh has a considerable number of large manufacturing plants with appropriate roofs that could be used for deploying solar energy conversion systems at scale. A methodology is presented which identified and assessed 6045 such plants, which have roof areas ranging from 100 m2 to 50,000 m2, and modelled the deployment of solar photovoltaic (PV) technology that can provide power through site available grid infrastructure. Such deployment takes advantage of net metering regulations to enhance the case for such power generation. A techno-economic assessment was also presented, addressing how such utilisation can support the 10% renewables target of Bangladesh without impacting scarce lands. The results showed that around 7.4 GWp of PV capacity can be achieved on such roofs with a corresponding annual electricity generation of 11 TWh. This represents more than 6% of Bangladesh’s current electricity consumption and more than half of the 2030 target. Furthermore, the deployment will save 13,000 acres of farmland, as well as providing power through site available grid infrastructure saving on investment if the systems are deployed on land. These results are likely to influence policy to support the presented proposition, not only in terms of increasing the renewable energy share in the country’s electricity supply mix but also in conserving much-needed land for agriculture. Full article
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Article
Effects of High Ambient Temperature on Electric Vehicle Efficiency and Range: Case Study of Kuwait
Energies 2022, 15(9), 3178; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15093178 - 27 Apr 2022
Viewed by 476
Abstract
The use of electric vehicles (EVs) provides a pathway to sustainable transport, reducing emissions and contributing to net-zero carbon aspirations. However, consumer acceptance has been limited by travel range anxiety and a lack of knowledge about EV technology and its infrastructure. This is [...] Read more.
The use of electric vehicles (EVs) provides a pathway to sustainable transport, reducing emissions and contributing to net-zero carbon aspirations. However, consumer acceptance has been limited by travel range anxiety and a lack of knowledge about EV technology and its infrastructure. This is especially the case in hot and oil-rich areas such as Kuwait, where transport is predominantly fossil fuel-driven. Studying the effects of high ambient temperature on EV efficiency and range is essential to improve EV performance, increase the user base and promote early adoption to secure more environmental benefits. The ability to determine the energy consumption of electric vehicles (EVs) is not only vital to reduce travel range anxiety but also forms an important foundation for the spatial siting, operation and management of EV charging points in cities and towns. This research presents an analysis of data gathered from more than 3000 journeys of an EV in Kuwait representing typical vehicle usage. The average energy intensity and consumption of the car/kilometre travelled were calculated for each journey, along with ambient temperature measured by the vehicle. The analysis indicates that energy intensity reaches a minimum at a starting temperature between 22 °C and 23 °C. Energy intensity rises with decreasing temperature below this point and with increasing temperature above this point. The results show that many vehicle journeys started with high temperatures, with about half of journeys starting at 30 °C or above and approximately a quarter at 40 °C or above. Fitting a model to the empirical data for trip starting temperature and energy intensity, average efficiency is impacted at high car temperatures, with energy intensity modelled at 30 °C and 40 °C to be higher by 6% and 22%, respectively. These findings have implications for vehicle range, EV charging infrastructure and car storage and parking provision. Full article
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Article
Solar PV Penetration Scenarios for a University Campus in KSA
Energies 2022, 15(9), 3150; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15093150 - 26 Apr 2022
Viewed by 393
Abstract
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is committed to transition its fossil fuel-driven electricity generation to that from renewable energy technologies, such as solar photovoltaic (PV) and wind. The need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions has led it to announce an ambitious target [...] Read more.
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is committed to transition its fossil fuel-driven electricity generation to that from renewable energy technologies, such as solar photovoltaic (PV) and wind. The need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions has led it to announce an ambitious target of 40 GW of PV power capacity by 2030. The deployment of such a capacity needs to be augmented with analyses to overcome the challenges faced in terms of the technical capability of the country. This work contributes to this goal by investigating the utilisation of solar photovoltaic PV systems to supply medium-size entities such as universities with clean power, displacing the current fossil fuel power supply. Currently, such considerations are not fully addressed in KSA. The study used the University of Jeddah campus electrical load profile, taking into account future power needs. The methodology encompassed modelling the installation of multi-MW PV systems for the university by considering weather conditions, actual university consumption, load segregation, and economics under different development scenarios informed by surveys with decision makers at the university. The results showed that air conditioning loads alone were responsible for 79% of the campus electrical load and that a 4.5 MW PV system is able to supply half of the total campus annual electrical energy consumption of the year of 2019. The optimum scenario showed that utilising grid-connected PVs would decrease the total cost of electricity over the next two decades by 28 to 35 percent and would result in halving the current campus carbon emissions. The analysis concludes that the business-as-usual case is no longer the cheapest option for the campus. Full article
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Article
Optimisation of Integrated Systems: The Potential of Power and Residential Heat Sectors Coupling in Decarbonisation Strategies
Energies 2022, 15(7), 2638; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15072638 - 04 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 445
Abstract
According to the objectives of the Paris Agreement on climate change, the European energy supply must be fully decarbonised by 2050. For the power sector, a massive deployment of decentralised renewable technologies will be required to provide carbon-free electricity. However, other energy-intensive sectors [...] Read more.
According to the objectives of the Paris Agreement on climate change, the European energy supply must be fully decarbonised by 2050. For the power sector, a massive deployment of decentralised renewable technologies will be required to provide carbon-free electricity. However, other energy-intensive sectors such as gas, heat, transport, and the industrial sectors are more challenging to decarbonise, since they rely mostly on liquid and gaseous fuels. Consequently, exploiting the synergies between energy vectors in an integrated, multi-energy system represents an opportunity for a cost-effective transition towards a carbon-free economy. The objective of this study is to provide insights on the coupling of power and residential heat supply systems in a centralised multi-energy system by developing a linear program that optimises the interactions between energy carriers such as electricity, heat, hydrogen, biomass, and methane to minimise the long-term investments in generation and storage assets. The tool was then applied to a case study for a carbon-neutral energy supply in the Brussels-Capital Region in 2050, and conclusions were drawn on the potential of sector coupling to determine the optimal supply system configuration. The conclusions were that the central planning and operation of a coupled system could induce an annual cost reduction of ownership and operation of more than 23% compared to the individual management of the power and residential heat sectors. The cost reduction reaches 30.9% if one further considers centralised, district-level storage and distribution of heat in district heating systems. Finally, it was concluded that the intermittent renewable energy infeed required along biomass to meet the total energy demand is significantly reduced in the optimal scenario. Indeed, the installed capacities of PV and wind onshore can be respectively reduced by 31.9% and 55.8%. Full article
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Article
Multi Criteria Decision Analysis to Optimise Siting of Electric Vehicle Charging Points—Case Study Winchester District, UK
Energies 2022, 15(7), 2497; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15072497 - 29 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 707
Abstract
Achieving net-zero carbon in the UK by 2050 will necessitate the decarbonisation of the transportation systems. However, there are challenges to this, especially for vehicles in cities where the charging infrastructure is at its minimum. Overcoming these challenges will undoubtedly encourage electrical vehicle [...] Read more.
Achieving net-zero carbon in the UK by 2050 will necessitate the decarbonisation of the transportation systems. However, there are challenges to this, especially for vehicles in cities where the charging infrastructure is at its minimum. Overcoming these challenges will undoubtedly encourage electrical vehicle (EV) use, with commensurate reductions in emission coupled with better environmental conditions in cities, e.g., air quality. Drivers, on the whole, are reluctant to invest in an EV if they cannot access a convenient charging point within their living area. This research provides a methodology to support the planning for the optimum siting of charging infrastructure, so it is accessible to as many citizens as possible within a city. The work focuses on Winchester City and District in the UK. The multi-criteria decision approach is based on the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) linked to site spatial assessment using Geographical Information System (GIS). The assessment considered key criteria such as road type, road access, on-road parking availability, road slope, proximity to fuel stations, current/planned charging points, car parks and population distributions. The process contains two suitability filters, namely, restricted road and suitability mask. In the first, all restricted roads were excluded from further analysis, which resulted in reducing the road segments from over 9000 to around 2000. When applying the second filter an overall result of 44 suitable EV charging point locations was achieved. These locations were validated using the Google Earth® imaging platform to check actual locations against those predicted by the analysis. The presented methodology is accurate and is generalisable to other cities or regions. Full article
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Article
Operational Emissions in Prosuming Dwellings: A Study Comparing Different Sources of Grid CO2 Intensity Values in South Wales, UK
Energies 2022, 15(7), 2349; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15072349 - 23 Mar 2022
Viewed by 569
Abstract
This paper analysed operational CO2 emissions from electricity grid interaction in photovoltaic prosumer dwellings in South Wales, UK. Operational CO2 emissions were quantified in four prosumer dwellings aiming to analyse (1) the differences in the result when time-varying data and static [...] Read more.
This paper analysed operational CO2 emissions from electricity grid interaction in photovoltaic prosumer dwellings in South Wales, UK. Operational CO2 emissions were quantified in four prosumer dwellings aiming to analyse (1) the differences in the result when time-varying data and static emission factors are used, and (2) the association of load-matching indicators to the results. Electricity balance data were obtained through monitoring (April 2020 to March 2021), and three sources for the grid’s CO2 intensity were considered: (1) UK nationwide average time-varying values (UK), (2) South Wales (SW) average time-varying values and (3) the UK Government’s official CO2 emissions factor (EF) for the study period. UK and SW grid CO2 intensity were obtained as dynamic data flows in a 30 min resolution, whereas EF was a year constant. Gross CO2 emissions calculated using SW data reached the highest emissions results: between 67.5% and 69.3% higher than the results obtained using the UK time-varying data, and between 41.1% and 45.1% higher than using the EF. The differences between the obtained yearly net emissions using dynamic data and the EF in each studied dwelling ranged between 6.2% and 294%. Results also show that the definition of geographic boundaries for location-based approach calculations can significantly affect the obtained emissions values. Full article
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