Special Issue "Optimal Control of Fuel Cells and Wind Turbines"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "Wind, Wave and Tidal Energy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 November 2019.

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Zoran Gajic Website E-Mail
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08554, USA
Interests: controls systems; energy systems (fuel and solar cells, wind, and smart grids); wireless communications

Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

Fuel cells and wind turbines, as clean electric energy generators that do not pollute the environment, are used in industrial and domestic applications. Numerous dynamic processes in fuel cells and wind turbines create many challenging opportunities for control engineers, including the design of optimal controllers. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) are the best understood and most developed fuel cells. Some modern electric cars are powered by PEMFC. Optimal control can be used for PEMFC to kept the pressures of hydrogen and oxygen pressures as close as possible in order to protect membrane degradation. Optimal controllers can be found in electric vehicles powered by PEMFC. Optimal controllers can be designed for PEMFF for optimal trajectory tracking, and optimal robust (H-infinity) control. In the case of solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFC), which in addition to electric energy provide a lot of heat and are also utilized for heating, optimal controllers can be designed for load tracking of grid-connected SOFC, optimal robust control to maintain safe operations with maximum efficiency under load and uncertainty variations, optimal fault-tolerant control, and optimal temperature control. In general, optimal controllers are needed for power management and power flow control in hybrid fuel cell/solar/wind/battery/ultra-capacitor systems. Optimal controllers can be also designed for other types of fuel cells, for example, optimal control for load changes in molten carbonate fuel cells and optimal control for methanol fuel cells to maintain optimal methanol concentration.

Optimal controllers for wind turbines can be designed for rotor control, pitch control, vibration control, optimal transient response, torque control, optimal power extraction, optimal energy management, fault-tolerant control, variable speed control, optimal power sharing control, robust (H-infinity) control, maximum power tracking, and other aspects of wind turbine dynamics and operations. These controllers can be designed either for individual wind turbines or for wind farms. Optimal controllers can be also used for hybrid wind/solar/battery/fuel cell systems. Since wind turbines have mechanical, electrical, and electronic components, their dynamics evolve in several time scales. The design of optimal multi-time scale controllers for wind turbines is a research area that has not been fully explored yet. Both deterministic and stochastic controllers are suitable for optimal control of wind turbine dynamics and operations.

Prof. Dr. Zoran Gajic
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • fuel cells
  • wind turbines
  • electric power management
  • deterministic and stochastic optimal controllers
  • optimal robust and fault-tolerant controllers
  • optimal multi-time scale controllers
  • applications

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
On the Robustness of Active Wake Control to Wind Turbine Downtime
Energies 2019, 12(16), 3152; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12163152 - 16 Aug 2019
Abstract
Active wake control (AWC) is an operational strategy for wind farms that aims at reducing the negative effects of wakes behind wind turbines on the power production and mechanical loads at the wind turbines’ downstream. For a given wind direction, the strategy relies [...] Read more.
Active wake control (AWC) is an operational strategy for wind farms that aims at reducing the negative effects of wakes behind wind turbines on the power production and mechanical loads at the wind turbines’ downstream. For a given wind direction, the strategy relies on collaborative control of the machines within each row of turbines that affect each other through their wakes. The vast amount of research performed during the last decade indicates that the potential upside of this technology on the annual energy production of a wind farm can be as high as a few percentage points. Although these predictions on the potential benefits are quite significant, they typically assume full availability of all turbines within a row operating under AWC. However, even though the availability of offshore wind turbines is nowadays quite high (as high as 95%, or even higher), the availability of a whole row of turbines is shown to be much lower (lower than 60% for a row of ten turbines). This paper studies the impact of turbine downtime on the power production increase from AWC, and concludes that the AWC is robust enough to be kept operational in the presence of turbines standing still. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optimal Control of Fuel Cells and Wind Turbines)
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Open AccessArticle
Improved Rotor Braking Protection Circuit and Self-Adaptive Control for DFIG during Grid Fault
Energies 2019, 12(10), 1994; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12101994 - 24 May 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
This paper introduces an improved rotor braking protection circuit configuration and the corresponding self-adaptive control strategy to enhance the low voltage ride-through (LVRT) capability of the doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG). The proposed protection circuit consists of a crowbar circuit and a series rotor [...] Read more.
This paper introduces an improved rotor braking protection circuit configuration and the corresponding self-adaptive control strategy to enhance the low voltage ride-through (LVRT) capability of the doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG). The proposed protection circuit consists of a crowbar circuit and a series rotor braking resistor array, which guarantees the safe operation of wind generators under the LVRT. Moreover, to adapt the proposed protection and further enhance the performance of the improved configuration, a corresponding self-adaptive control strategy is presented, which regulates the rotor braking resistor and protection exiting time automatically through calculating the rotor current in the fault period. The LVRT capability and transient performance of the DFIG by using the proposed method is tested with simulation. Compared with the conventional crowbar protection or the fixed rotor braking protection, the proposed protection and the control strategy present several advantages, such as retaining the control of the rotor side converter, avoiding repeated operation of the protection and accelerating the damping of stator flux linkage during a grid fault. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optimal Control of Fuel Cells and Wind Turbines)
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