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Special Issue "Carbon Capture and Storage"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2018)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. José Carlos Magalhães Pires

LEPABE - Departamento de Engenharia Química, Universidade do Porto, P-4200-465 Oporto, Portugal
Website | E-Mail
Interests: air pollution; CO2 capture; climate change; microalgal cultures; process modelling; statistical analysis

Special Issue Information

 Dear Colleagues,

This is a call for papers for a Special Issue on “Carbon Capture and Storage”. Climate change is one of the main threats to modern society. This phenomenon is associated with an increase in greenhouse gas (GHGs, mainly carbon dioxide—CO2) emissions, due to anthropogenic activities. The main causes are the burning of fossil fuels and land use change (deforestation). Climate change impacts are associated with risks to basic needs (health, food security and clean water), as well as risks to development (jobs, economic growth and the cost of living). The processes involving CO2 capture and storage are gaining attention in the scientific community as an alternative for decreasing CO2 emissions, reducing its concentration in ambient air. The carbon capture and storage (CCS) methodologies comprise three steps: CO2 capture, CO2 transportation and CO2 storage. Despite the high research activity within this topic, several technological, economic and environmental issues as well as safety problems remain to be solved, such as the following needs: increase of CO2 capture efficiency, reduction of process costs, and verification of environmental sustainability of CO2 storage. This Special Issue will include topics, such as:

  • CO2 separation technologies (absorption and adsorption processes, application of membranes, between others);
  • CO2 transport and storage;
  • Process modelling;
  • Results achieved in CCS operational projects.

Prof. Dr. José Carlos Magalhães Pires
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • greenhouse gas
  • carbon dioxide
  • geological sequestration
  • adsorption processes
  • sustainability

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Comparison of Technologies for CO2 Capture from Cement Production—Part 1: Technical Evaluation
Energies 2019, 12(3), 559; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12030559
Received: 6 December 2018 / Revised: 2 February 2019 / Accepted: 4 February 2019 / Published: 12 February 2019
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Abstract
A technical evaluation of CO2 capture technologies when retrofitted to a cement plant is performed. The investigated technologies are the oxyfuel process, the chilled ammonia process, membrane-assisted CO2 liquefaction, and the calcium looping process with tail-end and integrated configurations. For comparison, [...] Read more.
A technical evaluation of CO2 capture technologies when retrofitted to a cement plant is performed. The investigated technologies are the oxyfuel process, the chilled ammonia process, membrane-assisted CO2 liquefaction, and the calcium looping process with tail-end and integrated configurations. For comparison, absorption with monoethanolamine (MEA) is used as reference technology. The focus of the evaluation is on emission abatement, energy performance, and retrofitability. All the investigated technologies perform better than the reference both in terms of emission abatement and energy consumption. The equivalent CO2 avoided are 73–90%, while it is 64% for MEA, considering the average EU-28 electricity mix. The specific primary energy consumption for CO2 avoided is 1.63–4.07 MJ/kg CO2, compared to 7.08 MJ/kg CO2 for MEA. The calcium looping technologies have the highest emission abatement potential, while the oxyfuel process has the best energy performance. When it comes to retrofitability, the post-combustion technologies show significant advantages compared to the oxyfuel and to the integrated calcium looping technologies. Furthermore, the performance of the individual technologies shows strong dependencies on site-specific and plant-specific factors. Therefore, rather than identifying one single best technology, it is emphasized that CO2 capture in the cement industry should be performed with a portfolio of capture technologies, where the preferred choice for each specific plant depends on local factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Capture and Storage)
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Open AccessArticle Comparison of Technologies for CO2 Capture from Cement Production—Part 2: Cost Analysis
Energies 2019, 12(3), 542; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12030542
Received: 5 December 2018 / Revised: 11 January 2019 / Accepted: 30 January 2019 / Published: 10 February 2019
PDF Full-text (1950 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
This paper presents an assessment of the cost performance of CO2 capture technologies when retrofitted to a cement plant: MEA-based absorption, oxyfuel, chilled ammonia-based absorption (Chilled Ammonia Process), membrane-assisted CO2 liquefaction, and calcium looping. While the technical basis for this study [...] Read more.
This paper presents an assessment of the cost performance of CO2 capture technologies when retrofitted to a cement plant: MEA-based absorption, oxyfuel, chilled ammonia-based absorption (Chilled Ammonia Process), membrane-assisted CO2 liquefaction, and calcium looping. While the technical basis for this study is presented in Part 1 of this paper series, this work presents a comprehensive techno-economic analysis of these CO2 capture technologies based on a capital and operating costs evaluation for retrofit in a cement plant. The cost of the cement plant product, clinker, is shown to increase with 49 to 92% compared to the cost of clinker without capture. The cost of CO2 avoided is between 42 €/tCO2 (for the oxyfuel-based capture process) and 84 €/tCO2 (for the membrane-based assisted liquefaction capture process), while the reference MEA-based absorption capture technology has a cost of 80 €/tCO2. Notably, the cost figures depend strongly on factors such as steam source, electricity mix, electricity price, fuel price and plant-specific characteristics. Hence, this confirms the conclusion of the technical evaluation in Part 1 that for final selection of CO2 capture technology at a specific plant, a plant-specific techno-economic evaluation should be performed, also considering more practical considerations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Capture and Storage)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of the Implementation of Carbon Capture Systems on the Environmental, Energy and Economic Performance of the Brazilian Electricity Matrix
Energies 2019, 12(2), 331; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12020331
Received: 14 December 2018 / Revised: 16 January 2019 / Accepted: 18 January 2019 / Published: 21 January 2019
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Abstract
This study examined the effect of Carbon Capture and Storage units on the environmental, energy and economic performance of the Brazilian electric grid. Four scenarios were established considering the coupling of Calcium Looping (CaL) processes to capture CO2 emitted from thermoelectric using [...] Read more.
This study examined the effect of Carbon Capture and Storage units on the environmental, energy and economic performance of the Brazilian electric grid. Four scenarios were established considering the coupling of Calcium Looping (CaL) processes to capture CO2 emitted from thermoelectric using coal and natural gas: S1: the current condition of the Brazilian grid; S2 and S3: Brazilian grid with CaL applied individually to coal (TEC) and gas (TGN) operated thermoelectric; and S4: CaL is simultaneously coupled to both sources. Global warming potential (GWP) expressed the environmental dimension, Primary Energy Demand (PED) was the energy indicator and Levelised Cost of Energy described the economic range. Attributional Life Cycle Assessment for generation of 1.0 MWh was applied in the analysis. None of the scenarios accumulated the best indexes in all dimensions. Regarding GWP, S4 totals the positive effects of using CaL to reduce CO2 from TEC and TGN, but the CH4 emissions increased due to its energy requirements. As for PED, S1 and S2 are similar and presented higher performances than S3 and S4. The price of natural gas compromises the use of CaL in TGN. A combined verification of the three analysis dimensions, proved that S2 was the best option of the series due to the homogeneity of its indices. The installation of CaL in TECs and TGNs was effective to capture and store CO2 emissions, but the costs of this system should be reduced and its energy efficiency still needs to be improved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Capture and Storage)
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Open AccessArticle Instability Analysis of Supercritical CO2 during Transportation and Injection in Carbon Capture and Storage Systems
Energies 2018, 11(8), 2040; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11082040
Received: 16 July 2018 / Revised: 27 July 2018 / Accepted: 3 August 2018 / Published: 6 August 2018
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Abstract
Captured CO2 is in a subcritical state, whereas CO2 deep underground is in a supercritical state because of the high geothermal heat and pressure. The properties of CO2 can change rapidly at the critical point and in the near-critical region [...] Read more.
Captured CO2 is in a subcritical state, whereas CO2 deep underground is in a supercritical state because of the high geothermal heat and pressure. The properties of CO2 can change rapidly at the critical point and in the near-critical region during the transportation and injection process. This study aims to identify the instabilities in the CO2 flow in these regions, along with the causes and effects, during the transportation and injection process, and propose relevant design specifications. Thus, the critical points and near-critical region of CO2 flow were numerically analyzed. The unstable region is presented in terms of temperature and pressure ranges, and the changes in the CO2 properties in this region were analyzed. In the unstable region, the sudden change in density was similar to the density wave oscillation of a two-phase flow. The CO2 stability map we obtained and the stability map of supercritical water show similar trends. Flow instability was also found to occur in standard CO2 transportation pipelines. We demonstrate that flow instability in CO2 transportation and injection systems can be avoided by maintaining the proposed conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Capture and Storage)
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Open AccessArticle Analysis of Carbon Storage and Its Contributing Factors—A Case Study in the Loess Plateau (China)
Energies 2018, 11(6), 1596; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11061596
Received: 14 May 2018 / Revised: 31 May 2018 / Accepted: 12 June 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
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Abstract
The Chinese Loess Plateau is an ecologically fragile and sensitive area. The carbon storage dynamics in this region and the contributions from land use/land cover change (LUCC) and carbon density from 2000 to 2010 were analyzed in this paper. Normalized difference vegetation index [...] Read more.
The Chinese Loess Plateau is an ecologically fragile and sensitive area. The carbon storage dynamics in this region and the contributions from land use/land cover change (LUCC) and carbon density from 2000 to 2010 were analyzed in this paper. Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), biomass and soil carbon data in 2000 were used for regression analysis of biomass and soil carbon, and an inversion analysis was used to estimate biomass and soil carbon in 2005 and 2010. Quadrat data, including aboveground biomass and soil organic carbon, were used to calibrate the model output. Carbon storage and sequestration were calculated by the InVEST toolset with four carbon pools, including aboveground biomass, belowground biomass, dead wood and soil carbon. The results showed that carbon storage increased steadily from 2000 to 2010, increasing by 0.260 billion tons, and that woodland area increased and arable land decreased; the overall trend in land cover improved, but the improvement was not pronounced. Carbon storage in the Loess Plateau was correlated with geographical factors. We found that when assuming a constant carbon density, carbon storage decreased, accounting for −1% of the carbon storage dynamics. When assuming no land conversion, carbon storage increased, accounting for 101% of the carbon storage dynamics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Capture and Storage)
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Open AccessArticle A Study on the Evolution of Carbon Capture and Storage Technology Based on Knowledge Mapping
Energies 2018, 11(5), 1103; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11051103
Received: 3 April 2018 / Revised: 20 April 2018 / Accepted: 20 April 2018 / Published: 1 May 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2276 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As a useful technical measure to deal with the problem of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology has been highly regarded in both theory and practice under the promotion of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). [...] Read more.
As a useful technical measure to deal with the problem of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology has been highly regarded in both theory and practice under the promotion of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Knowledge mapping is helpful for understanding the evolution in terms of research topics and emerging trends in a specific domain. In this work knowledge mapping of CCS technology was investigated using CiteSpace. Several aspects of the outputs of publications in the CCS research area were analyzed, such as annual trends, countries, and institutions. The research topics in this particular technology area were analyzed based on their co-occurring keyword networks and co-citation literature networks, while, the emerging trends and research frontiers were studied through the analysis of burst keywords and citation bursts. The results indicated that the annual number of publications in the research field of CCS technology increased rapidly after 2005. There are more CCS studies published in countries from Asia, North America, and Europe, especially in the United States and China. The Chinese Academy of Sciences not only has the largest number of publications, but also has a greater impact on the research area of CCS technology, however, there are more productive institutions located in developed countries. In the research area of CCS technology, the main research topics include carbon emissions and environmental protection, research and development activities, and social practical issues, meanwhile, the main emerging trends include emerging techniques and processes, emerging materials, evaluation of technological performance, and socioeconomic analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Capture and Storage)
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Open AccessArticle Anti-Agglomerator of Tetra-n-Butyl Ammonium Bromide Hydrate and Its Effect on Hydrate-Based CO2 Capture
Energies 2018, 11(2), 399; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11020399
Received: 14 December 2017 / Revised: 30 January 2018 / Accepted: 31 January 2018 / Published: 8 February 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3034 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tetra-n-butyl ammonium bromide (TBAB) was widely used in the research fields of cold storage and CO2 hydrate separation due to its high phase change latent heat and thermodynamic promotion for hydrate formation. Agglomeration always occurred in the process of TBAB hydrate generation, [...] Read more.
Tetra-n-butyl ammonium bromide (TBAB) was widely used in the research fields of cold storage and CO2 hydrate separation due to its high phase change latent heat and thermodynamic promotion for hydrate formation. Agglomeration always occurred in the process of TBAB hydrate generation, which led to the blockage in the pipeline and the separation apparatus. In this work, we screened out a kind of anti-agglomerant that can effectively solve the problem of TBAB hydrate agglomeration. The anti-agglomerant (AA) is composed of 90% cocamidopropyl dimethylamine and 10% glycerol, which can keep TBAB hydrate of 19.3–29.0 wt. % in a stable state of slurry over 72 h. The microscopic observation of the morphology of the TBAB hydrate particles showed that the addition of AA can greatly reduce the size of the TBAB hydrate particles. CO2 gas separation experiments found that the addition of AA led to great improvement on gas storage capacity, CO2 split fraction and separation factor, due to the increasing of contact area between gas phase and hydrate particles. The CO2 split fraction and separation factor with AA addition reached up to 70.3% and 42.8%, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Capture and Storage)
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Review

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Open AccessReview An Overview of the Portuguese Energy Sector and Perspectives for Power-to-Gas Implementation
Energies 2018, 11(12), 3259; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11123259
Received: 12 October 2018 / Revised: 12 November 2018 / Accepted: 17 November 2018 / Published: 23 November 2018
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Abstract
Energy policies established in 2005 have made Portugal one of the top renewable power producers in Europe, in relative terms. Indeed, the country energy dependence decreased since 2005, although remaining above EU-19 and EU-28 countries in 2015 (77.4% vs. 62.4% vs. 54.0%, respectively). [...] Read more.
Energy policies established in 2005 have made Portugal one of the top renewable power producers in Europe, in relative terms. Indeed, the country energy dependence decreased since 2005, although remaining above EU-19 and EU-28 countries in 2015 (77.4% vs. 62.4% vs. 54.0%, respectively). Data collected from governmental, statistical, and companies’ reports and research articles shows that renewables and natural gas assumed a growing importance in the Portuguese energy mix along time, while oil followed an opposite trend. Recently, the country remarkably achieved a full 70-h period in which the mainland power consumed relied exclusively on renewable electricity and has several moments where power production exceeds demand. Currently, the main option for storing those surpluses relies on pumped hydro storage plants or exportation, while other storage alternatives, like Power-to-Gas (PtG), are not under deep debate, eventually due to a lack of information and awareness. Hence, this work aims to provide an overview of the Portuguese energy sector in the 2005–2015 decade, highlighting the country’s effort towards renewable energy deployment that, together with geographic advantages, upholds PtG as a promising alternative for storing the country’s renewable electricity surpluses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Capture and Storage)
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