Special Issue "Voltage Stability of Microgrids in Power Systems"

A special issue of Electronics (ISSN 2079-9292). This special issue belongs to the section "Power Electronics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 March 2022.

Special Issue Editors

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Nasser Hosseinzadeh
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Engineering, Deakin University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia
Interests: power system stability in the presence of inverter-based renewable energy systems; microgrids and their impacts on power systems; intelligent control for microgrids and power system
Dr. Apel Mahmud
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Center for Smart Power and Energy Research, School of Engineering, Deakin University, Geelong, VIC 3216, Australia
Interests: power system modeling; power system stability and control; microgrids (AC, DC, and hybrid AC/DC); grid integration of renewable energy sources (small- and large-scale); transactive energy management and optimization for microgrids; nonlinear control theory and applications
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Ameen Gargoom
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Center for Smart Power and Energy Research, School of Engineering, Deakin University, Geelong, VIC 3216, Australia
Interests: modelling and control of renewable energy systems; smart inverters; planning; protection and control of distribution systems
Dr. Asma Aziz
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Engineering, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drv, Joondalup, Perth, WA 6027, Australia
Interests: power system control; frequency regulation; microgrids; wind generation; distributed energy system modelling and integration

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Electrical power systems are evolving, with a shift from large-scale centralized generators and one-way power flow to distributed generators and two-way power flows. Microgrids, as decentralized controllable small-scale grids with their own local generators and loads, are playing a key role towards this evolution. The integration of distributed energy resources (DERs) in the form of microgrids has been significantly increased in many countries around the world due to several technical, economic, and environmental benefits. However, microgrids pose many challenges to the power engineering community, and voltage stability is considered as the most significant one, particularly during transition from grid-connected mode to islanding mode. During such transitions, voltage stability of both the microgrid and the main grid would be of concern.

This Special Issue will focus on investigating the voltage stability problem of microgrids and various new approaches to solve this problem.

Topics of interest for this Special Issue include but are not limited to:

  1. Voltage stability issues in islanded and grid-connected microgrids;
  2. Voltage stability indices for microgrids;
  3. Voltage control and stability analysis of microgrids;
  4. The role of smart inverters for microgrid voltage stability;
  5. Modelling and control of energy storage systems to deal with the voltage stability;
  6. Microgrids planning in terms of enhancing voltage stability;
  7. Voltage stability issues in DC microgrids;
  8. Roles of protection systems on voltage stability;
  9. Applications of FACTS devices for voltage stability in microgrids.

This Special Issue solicits original theoretical and practical contributions along with review papers on any relevant area of the voltage stability in microgrids. We would like to cordially invite you for your contribution to this Special Issue.

Dr. Nasser Hosseinzadeh
Dr. Apel Mahmud
Dr. Ameen Gargoom
Dr. Asma Aziz
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Electronics is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • voltage stability
  • microgrids
  • power system stability
  • distributed energy resources (DER)
  • integration of distributed generators
  • power system security
  • power system strength
  • renewable energy

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Article
Control of a Variable-Impedance Fault Current Limiter to Assist Low-Voltage Ride-Through of Doubly Fed Induction Generators
Electronics 2021, 10(19), 2364; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10192364 - 28 Sep 2021
Viewed by 295
Abstract
A fault current limiter (FCL) may be applied to assist the low-voltage ride-through (LVRT) of a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG). FCLs with fixed impedance, lack the flexibility to adjust their impedance to adapt to different LVRT scenarios. The direct switch-in and -out [...] Read more.
A fault current limiter (FCL) may be applied to assist the low-voltage ride-through (LVRT) of a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG). FCLs with fixed impedance, lack the flexibility to adjust their impedance to adapt to different LVRT scenarios. The direct switch-in and -out of the fixed-impedance FCL yields transient electromagnetic oscillations in the DFIG, which need to be addressed. In this paper, a variable-impedance FCL is implemented at the stator side of the DFIG to assist its LVRT, and a novel methodology is proposed to control the impedance of the FCL, with which the stator current oscillation is effectively constrained and the smooth switch-out of the FCL is realized to avoid continued active power consumption of the FCL and to restore the DFIG to its pre-fault working condition. Analysis of the LVRT transient is carried out, which lays the foundation for the control methodology to determine the impedance of the FCL based on calculation of the optimization goal. The feasibility and effectiveness of the control to the variable-impedance FCL are verified by the numerical analysis results, which compare the LVRT simulation results with the application of the fixed-impedance and the variable-impedance FCLs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Voltage Stability of Microgrids in Power Systems)
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Article
Agent-Based Coordinated Control of Power Electronic Converters in a Microgrid
Electronics 2021, 10(9), 1031; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10091031 - 26 Apr 2021
Viewed by 640
Abstract
This paper presents the implementation of an agent-based architecture suitable for the coordination of power electronic converters in stand-alone microgrids. To this end, a publish-subscribe agent architecture was utilized as a distributed microgrid control platform. Over a distributed hash table (DHT) searching overlay, [...] Read more.
This paper presents the implementation of an agent-based architecture suitable for the coordination of power electronic converters in stand-alone microgrids. To this end, a publish-subscribe agent architecture was utilized as a distributed microgrid control platform. Over a distributed hash table (DHT) searching overlay, the publish-subscribe architecture was identified based on a numerical analysis as a scalable agent-based technology for the distributed real-time coordination of power converters in microgrids. The developed framework was set up to deploy power-sharing distributed optimization algorithms while keeping a deterministic time period of a few tens of milliseconds for a system with tens of converters and when multiple events might happen concurrently. Several agents participate in supervisory control to regulate optimum power-sharing for the converters. To test the design, a notional shipboard system, including several converters, was used as a case study. Results of implementing the agent-based publish-subscribe control system using the Java Agent Development Framework (JADE) are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Voltage Stability of Microgrids in Power Systems)
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Article
Low Voltage Ride Through Controller for a Multi-Machine Power System Using a Unified Interphase Power Controller
Electronics 2021, 10(5), 585; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10050585 - 03 Mar 2021
Viewed by 596
Abstract
In recent years, grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) power generations have become the most extensively used energy resource among other types of renewable energies. Increasing integration of PV sources into the power network and their dynamic performances under fault conditions is an important issue for [...] Read more.
In recent years, grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) power generations have become the most extensively used energy resource among other types of renewable energies. Increasing integration of PV sources into the power network and their dynamic performances under fault conditions is an important issue for grid code requirements. In this paper, a PV source as a unified interphase power controller (UIPC) is used to enhance the low voltage ride through (LVRT) and transient stability of a multi-machine power system. The suggested PV-based UIPC consists of two series voltage inverters and a parallel inverter. The UIPC injects the required active and reactive power to prevent voltage drop under grid fault conditions. Accordingly, a dynamic control system is designed based on proportional-integral (PI) controllers for the PV-based UIPC to operate in both normal and fault conditions. Simulations are done using Matlab/Simulink software, and the performance of the PV-based UIPC is compared with the conventional unified power flow controller (UPFC). The results of this study indicate the more favorable impact of the PV-based UIPC on the system compared to UPFC in improving LVRT capabilities and transient stability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Voltage Stability of Microgrids in Power Systems)
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Article
Novel Switching Frequency FCS-MPC of PMSG for Grid-Connected Wind Energy Conversion System with Coordinated Low Voltage Ride Through
Electronics 2021, 10(4), 492; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10040492 - 19 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 884
Abstract
The integration of wind energy systems (WECS) into the power grid through power electronic converters should ensure the high performance of the control system. In spite of several advantages of conventional Finite control set-model predictive controller (FCS-MPC), variable switching frequency and high computational [...] Read more.
The integration of wind energy systems (WECS) into the power grid through power electronic converters should ensure the high performance of the control system. In spite of several advantages of conventional Finite control set-model predictive controller (FCS-MPC), variable switching frequency and high computational burden are considered its main drawbacks. In this paper, a fast FCS-MPC of a machine side converter (MSC) of direct-driven permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) based wind turbines for wind energy conversion system is proposed. The wind energy conversion system has been realized using a direct driven PMSG and a full-scale back-to-back power converter. The proposed controller is designed to reduce the required calculations in each horizon. In addition, the performance of conventional FCS-MPC is compared with the proposed method, and an improvement in total harmonic distortion spectra and simulation time required even when imposing a lower sampling frequency was found. To overcome the variable switching frequency problem, a modulation algorithm is introduced in the minimization process of modulated FCS-MPC. To keep the proposed system attached to the utility during a fault, a coordinated pitch angle control and low voltage-ride through (LVRT) algorithm is designed and inserted in the vector control of the grid side converter (GSC) to supply reactive power to the grid during fault for ensuring safe operation of the inverter and meeting the grid code requirements. The effectiveness of the proposed controller is illustrated using simulation results under different operating conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Voltage Stability of Microgrids in Power Systems)
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Review

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Review
Voltage Stability of Power Systems with Renewable-Energy Inverter-Based Generators: A Review
Electronics 2021, 10(2), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10020115 - 07 Jan 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1346
Abstract
The main purpose of developing microgrids (MGs) is to facilitate the integration of renewable energy sources (RESs) into the power grid. RESs are normally connected to the grid via power electronic inverters. As various types of RESs are increasingly being connected to the [...] Read more.
The main purpose of developing microgrids (MGs) is to facilitate the integration of renewable energy sources (RESs) into the power grid. RESs are normally connected to the grid via power electronic inverters. As various types of RESs are increasingly being connected to the electrical power grid, power systems of the near future will have more inverter-based generators (IBGs) instead of synchronous machines. Since IBGs have significant differences in their characteristics compared to synchronous generators (SGs), particularly concerning their inertia and capability to provide reactive power, their impacts on the system dynamics are different compared to SGs. In particular, system stability analysis will require new approaches. As such, research is currently being conducted on the stability of power systems with the inclusion of IBGs. This review article is intended to be a preface to the Special Issue on Voltage Stability of Microgrids in Power Systems. It presents a comprehensive review of the literature on voltage stability of power systems with a relatively high percentage of IBGs in the generation mix of the system. As the research is developing rapidly in this field, it is understood that by the time that this article is published, and further in the future, there will be many more new developments in this area. Certainly, other articles in this special issue will highlight some other important aspects of the voltage stability of microgrids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Voltage Stability of Microgrids in Power Systems)
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Review
Rooftop Solar PV Penetration Impacts on Distribution Network and Further Growth Factors—A Comprehensive Review
Electronics 2021, 10(1), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10010055 - 31 Dec 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1442
Abstract
In order to meet the electricity needs of domestic or commercial buildings, solar energy is more attractive than other renewable energy sources in terms of its simplicity of installation, less dependence on the field and its economy. It is possible to extract solar [...] Read more.
In order to meet the electricity needs of domestic or commercial buildings, solar energy is more attractive than other renewable energy sources in terms of its simplicity of installation, less dependence on the field and its economy. It is possible to extract solar energy from photovoltaic (PV) including rooftop, ground-mounted, and building integrated PV systems. Interest in rooftop PV system applications has increased in recent years due to simple installation and not occupying an external area. However, the negative effects of increased PV penetration on the distribution system are troublesome. The power loss, reverse power flow (RPF), voltage fluctuations, voltage unbalance, are causing voltage quality problems in the power network. On the other hand, variations in system frequency, power factor, and harmonics are affecting the power quality. The excessive PV penetration also the root cause of voltage stability and has an adverse effect on protection system. The aim of this article is to extensively examines the impacts of rooftop PV on distribution network and evaluate possible solution methods in terms of the voltage quality, power quality, system protection and system stability. Moreover, it is to present a comparison of the advantages/disadvantages of the solution methods discussed, and an examination of the solution methods in which artificial intelligence, deep learning and machine learning based optimization and techniques are discussed with common methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Voltage Stability of Microgrids in Power Systems)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Review of Voltage Stability of Power Systems with Renewable-Energy Inverter-Based Generators
Authors: Nasser Hosseinzadeh, Asma Aziz, Mahbub Rabbani, Apel Mahmud
Affiliation: Centre for Smart Power and Energy Research, School of Engineering, Faculty of Science, Engineering, and Built Environment, Deakin University, Australia
Abstract: The main purpose of developing microgrids (MGs) is to facilitate the integration of renewable energy sources (RESs) into the power grid. RESs are normally connected to the grid via power electronic inverters. With the integration of power electronic based RESs, power systems of the near future will have more inverter-based generators (IBG) instead of synchronous machines. IBGs have different characteristics as compared to synchronous generators (SGs), particularly with regard to their inertia and reactive power; Thus, their impact on the system dynamics is different, which imposes a number of technical and operational challenges. This paper reviews the literature on voltage stability of power systems which include a relatively high percentage of IBGs in the generator mix of the system.

Title: Modelling and Control of Hybrid Energy Storage for Microgrid Voltage Stability – Review and Framework
Authors: Rakibuzzaman Shah, S. M. Muyeen, Syed Islam, and Nasser Hosseinzadeh
Affiliation: Australia
Abstract: The microgrid is a local entity that consists of renewable-based distributed generations to obtain local power reliability and sustainable energy utilization. In microgrids, the limits of renewable energy sources and the sensitivity of load power consumption are the key factors contributing to voltage instability. Moreover, the reactive power-sharing in a microgrid is a challenging issue due to the compact size of the system, e.g., generator terminal voltage almost directly reflects the rest of the system. Therefore, the voltage control is mostly done by renewable generation and energy storage in microgrids. However, due to several limitations, an advanced energy storage system (ESS) is required to enhance microgrids' performance. This paper comprehensively reviews the hybrid energy storage system with respect to configurations, classifications, features, energy conversion, and evaluation process for microgrid applications to control voltage stability. The article also considers the power electronic topology and control framework suitable for the hybrid storage system. Finally, the paper investigates various limits associated with conventional control of energy storage. The outcome of this work is an archive of substantial research work in the topic area and the outlook on future efforts to be made.

Title: Agent-based Coordinated Control of Power Electronic Converters in a Microgrid
Authors: Maryam Nasri; Mahrdad Moallem; Herbert L. Ginn
Affiliation: Maryam Nasri: Assistant Professor, Department of Electrical Engineering Technology, Alfred State College of Technology, State University of New York, Alfred, NY 14802, USA; [email protected] Mahrdad Moallem: Professor, School of Mechatronic Systems Engineering, Simon Fraser University, Surrey, BC, V3T 0A3, Canada; [email protected] Herbert L. Ginn: Professor, Department of Electrical Engineering, College of Engineering and Computing, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA; [email protected]
Abstract: This paper presents the implementation of an agent-based architecture suitable for coordination of power electronic converters in stand-alone microgrids. To this end, a publish-subscribe agent architecture is utilized as a distributed microgrid control platform. The publish-subscribe architecture is identified based on a numerical analysis as a very scalable agent-based technology for distributed real-time coordination of power converters in microgrids. The developed framework is set up to deploy distributed optimal power sharing algorithms while maintaining sufficient voltage level and a deterministic time frame of a few tens of milliseconds for a system with tens of converters when multiple events might happen concurrently. Multiple agents take part in the supervisory control to determine optimum power sharing for the converters. To test the design, a notional shipboard system, including several converters, was used as a case study. The simulation results related to implementation of the agent-based publish-subscribe control system using Java Agent DEvelopment Framework (JADE) are presented.

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