Special Issue "RFID Systems and Applications"

A special issue of Electronics (ISSN 2079-9292). This special issue belongs to the section "Microwave and Wireless Communications".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2016).

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Mr. Ali Shemshadi

School of Computer Science, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia
E-Mail
Interests: internet of things; web of things; big data analytics, graph theory
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Michael Sheng

Department of Computing, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Web of Things, Internet of Things, Big Data Analytics, Web Science, Service-oriented Computing, Pervasive Computing, Sensor Networks

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

RFID is a rapidly growing research area, which is capable of making physical objects and people identifiable. With a large number of exciting multidisciplinary applications, RFID continues to tremendously attract specialists in research and industry. It is core to many novel applications in ubiquitous computing, such as the Internet of Things (IoT). The IoT paradigm, as currently envisioned, consists of interconnected heterogeneous networks where smart things and users interact based on enabling technologies, such as RFID. The introduction of IoT has vivified the initiations to invent a hodgepodge of specifications and standards to enable everyday objects to connect to the Internet. In the light of the IoT, many of traditional applications of RFID technology are elevating to the next step. For instance, smart supply chain management based on IoT data will inspire RFID enabled supply chains to acquire more agility, as well as higher level of wisdom in making decisions such as supplier selection.

Although it is widely adopted, RFID presents a set of challenging significant issues that should be resolved in order to boost the benefits of this technology. As the IoT dominates this area, new challenges have been introduced, which are mostly related to the scalability and energy efficiency. It is anticipated that by 2020, billions of devices will be connected to the Internet. Thus, a key challenge is to design and implement highly scalable and energy efficient specifications and technologies to collect, maintain, process and present large-scale data streams from things. Moreover, several other new challenges involve context aware processing of RFID data, redefining Human and Smart Things Interaction, designing novel smart applications based on RFID in different areas of everyday life in urban/rural areas, interlinking RFID enabled objects, security, and privacy of RFID data in the context of IoT.

In this context, this Special Issue aims at bringing together the latest research on both conceptual studies and algorithmic solutions to the existing challenges in deploying RFID specifications and its applications. This Special Issue will provide an opportunity for researchers to exchange new ideas across the emerging field.

Main topics include, but not limited to:

  • RFID Applications
  • Internet of Things
  • Industrial Internet
  • Green RFID Applications
  • RFID Data Management
  • Supply Chain Management
  • Healthcare Services
  • Inventory Management
  • Uncertainty
  • Middleware for Internet of Things
  • Intelligent Tags
  • Urban Computing
  • Context Aware Computing
  • Smart Homes and Smart Cities

Prof. Michael Sheng
Mr. Ali Shemshadi
Prof. Dr. Michael Sheng
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
A Probabilistic Approach to RFID-Based Localization for Human-Robot Interaction in Social Robotics
Electronics 2017, 6(2), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics6020032
Received: 7 January 2017 / Revised: 29 March 2017 / Accepted: 4 April 2017 / Published: 17 April 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (8331 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper describes a novel strategy to Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) tag detection for human– robot interaction (HRI) purposes. The anisotropic detection pattern of the RFID reader antenna is combined with a probabilistic algorithm to obtain a coarse angular position relative to the RFID [...] Read more.
This paper describes a novel strategy to Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) tag detection for human– robot interaction (HRI) purposes. The anisotropic detection pattern of the RFID reader antenna is combined with a probabilistic algorithm to obtain a coarse angular position relative to the RFID reader that can be used, for example, for behavioral control based on proxemics areas around the robot. The success rate achieved is suitable for HRI purposes. The paper presents experimental results on a detection model for the reader. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue RFID Systems and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Object‐Oriented RFID with IoT: A Design Concept of Information Systems in Manufacturing
Electronics 2017, 6(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics6010014
Received: 27 September 2016 / Accepted: 4 February 2017 / Published: 8 February 2017
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (3684 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The Internet of Things (IoT) has increasingly become important in industry. Connectivity over the internet of not only people but also devices (such as sensors, appliances, machines, robots, and vehicles) is leading to a paradigm shift in manufacturing. The Japanese government recognizes this [...] Read more.
The Internet of Things (IoT) has increasingly become important in industry. Connectivity over the internet of not only people but also devices (such as sensors, appliances, machines, robots, and vehicles) is leading to a paradigm shift in manufacturing. The Japanese government recognizes this and has stated that IoT connectivity and the methodologies to exploit it are paramount for Japanese industry. Currently, the necessary changes have been realized in large Japanese companies; however, implementation in smaller companies has been lagging, despite the advantages of introducing IoT technologies, due to the high cost. The objective of this research is to suggest a design concept which combines IoT and object‐oriented radio frequency identification (RFID). IoT technology is used for collecting, analyzing, and managing data, and an object‐oriented RFID system is used as a control process in manufacturing systems. In previous research, the objectoriented RFID system was shown to provide flexible management through the use of a variety of OORFID tags. The current research extends this by introducing object‐oriented RFID into IoT systems to improve the flexibility in the manufacturing systems. For the verification of this concept, an experimental IoT system using object‐oriented RFID was designed and implemented Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue RFID Systems and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
A Modular Integrated RFID System for Inventory Control Applications
Received: 26 October 2016 / Revised: 3 January 2017 / Accepted: 3 January 2017 / Published: 12 January 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2811 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recent advances in single-board computer technology have allowed for lightweight, power-efficient devices, such as the Raspberry Pi, to take the place of desktop PCs in certain applications. This has the potential to disrupt the way many current systems are structured, particularly for inventory [...] Read more.
Recent advances in single-board computer technology have allowed for lightweight, power-efficient devices, such as the Raspberry Pi, to take the place of desktop PCs in certain applications. This has the potential to disrupt the way many current systems are structured, particularly for inventory management and control applications. In this paper, we explore the design and topology of a modular Radio frequency identification (RFID) system for inventory management comprised of self-contained, autonomous scanning, and stationary control PCs in a handheld/portable configuration. While similar solutions for such a system may exist on the commercial market, this proposed development provides a template for an open source flexible, low-cost solution that can be easily expanded to meet the needs of businesses with large and small inventories. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue RFID Systems and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
The Implementation of a High-Frequency Radio Frequency Identification System with a Battery-Free Smart Tag for Orientation Monitoring
Received: 19 September 2016 / Revised: 22 December 2016 / Accepted: 28 December 2016 / Published: 4 January 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (725 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Energy-harvesting passive RFID (radio frequency identification) tags provide countless possibilities as so-called smart tags. Smart tags can communicate with existing RFID readers or interrogators while providing a battery-less platform for internal and external sensors to enrich available information about the environment and smart [...] Read more.
Energy-harvesting passive RFID (radio frequency identification) tags provide countless possibilities as so-called smart tags. Smart tags can communicate with existing RFID readers or interrogators while providing a battery-less platform for internal and external sensors to enrich available information about the environment and smart tag it. A reduced cost and size as well as an increased lifespan and durability of battery-free smart tags offer improvements in areas such as transportation and product tracking. Battery-free smart tags can ideally support arbitrarily complex sensor measurements, but in reality energy limitations can introduce great reductions in operating range and thus application range. In this work, we present an example application of a smart tag with a passive HF (high-frequency) RFID tag IC (integrated circuit) and MEMS (micro electro-mechanical structure) sensor. A standard HF RFID reader connected to a PC (personal computer) allowed the RF (radio frequency) field to power and communicate with the smart tag. A Kalman filter, implemented on a PC, was used to correct and improve the raw sensor data of smart tag orientation. Measurement results showed that the MEMS sensor on the smart tag could be powered for continuous operation and that raw smart tag orientation data could be read while in the RF field of a standard HF RFID reader, but at a limited range. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue RFID Systems and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
A Novel Channel Coding Scheme for RFID Generation-2 Systems
Received: 12 September 2016 / Revised: 9 December 2016 / Accepted: 23 December 2016 / Published: 30 December 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (553 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Low complexity and efficient algorithms for Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) are crucial to foster low-cost and energy-saving solutions. With the aim of lowering the complexity of the radio circuitry, and inspired by the superposition codes concept, we propose a novel encoding algorithm for tag-to-reader [...] Read more.
Low complexity and efficient algorithms for Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) are crucial to foster low-cost and energy-saving solutions. With the aim of lowering the complexity of the radio circuitry, and inspired by the superposition codes concept, we propose a novel encoding algorithm for tag-to-reader communication channels of modern RFID systems. We show that the developed scheme—despite the simplicity of its hardware realization—allows a coding gain comparable to the one obtained by the more complex Viterbi decoding of the Miller 4 modulation scheme used in the EPC Generation 2 Class 1 RFID standard. Simulation results prove the effectiveness of the proposed solution for low-cost tags, under different signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) and interrogation time durations. Although our numerical evaluation mainly focuses on the EPC Generation-2 standard, we believe that the proposed scheme will also be attractive for future Ultra-wideband RFID systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue RFID Systems and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Low Power High-Efficiency Shift Register Using Implicit Pulse-Triggered Flip-Flop in 130 nm CMOS Process for a Cryptographic RFID Tag
Electronics 2016, 5(4), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics5040092
Received: 30 September 2016 / Revised: 20 November 2016 / Accepted: 28 November 2016 / Published: 16 December 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (4203 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The shift register is a type of sequential logic circuit which is mostly used for storing digital data or the transferring of data in the form of binary numbers in radio frequency identification (RFID) applications to improve the security of the system. A [...] Read more.
The shift register is a type of sequential logic circuit which is mostly used for storing digital data or the transferring of data in the form of binary numbers in radio frequency identification (RFID) applications to improve the security of the system. A power-efficient shift register utilizing a new flip-flop with an implicit pulse-triggered structure is presented in this article. The proposed flip-flop has features of high performance and low power. It is composed of a sampling circuit implemented by five transistors, a C-element for rise and fall paths, and a keeper stage. The speed is enhanced by executing four clocked transistors together with a transition condition technique. The simulation result confirms that the proposed topology consumes the lowest amounts of power of 30.1997 and 22.7071 nW for parallel in –parallel out (PIPO) and serial in –serial out (SISO) shift register respectively covering 22 µm2 chip area. The overall design consist of only 16 transistors and is simulated in 130 nm complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology with a 1.2 V power supply. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue RFID Systems and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
RFID Reader Anticollision Protocols for Dense and Mobile Deployments
Electronics 2016, 5(4), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics5040084
Received: 30 September 2016 / Revised: 17 November 2016 / Accepted: 21 November 2016 / Published: 29 November 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (354 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The rapid development of RFID (Radio Frequency IDentification) technology has allowed its large adoption and led to increasing deployments of RFID solutions in diverse environments under varying scenarios and constraints. The nature of these constraints ranges from the amount to the mobility of [...] Read more.
The rapid development of RFID (Radio Frequency IDentification) technology has allowed its large adoption and led to increasing deployments of RFID solutions in diverse environments under varying scenarios and constraints. The nature of these constraints ranges from the amount to the mobility of the readers deployed, which in turn highly affects the quality of the RFID system, causing reading collisions. Although several solutions were proposed to engage the issue of reading collision, few were ever concerned with the densification and/or mobility of readers. This paper proposes two distributed TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) approaches designed to reduce these collisions through local coordination between neighboring devices for different scenarios tested here. The first proposal is based on a reservation phase organized between readers with different priority levels given to readers depending on their previous success. The second one takes advantage of the particular case of RFID collisions, allowing a local and mutual decision of each reader to access or not tags in their vicinity. Simulations were run over different stressful environments in terms of tag/reader density and mobility, proving that our proposals achieved the best performance in terms of throughput, collision avoidance and coverage delay when compared to other collision reducing schemes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue RFID Systems and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
A Numerical Estimation of a RFID Reader Field and SAR inside a Blood Bag at UHF
Electronics 2016, 5(4), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics5040077
Received: 23 September 2016 / Revised: 31 October 2016 / Accepted: 4 November 2016 / Published: 8 November 2016
PDF Full-text (1946 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, the effects of UHF electromagnetic fields produced by a RFID reader on a blood bag are evaluated numerically in several configurations. The results of the simulation, field level and distribution, specific absorption rate (SAR), and heating time show that an [...] Read more.
In this paper, the effects of UHF electromagnetic fields produced by a RFID reader on a blood bag are evaluated numerically in several configurations. The results of the simulation, field level and distribution, specific absorption rate (SAR), and heating time show that an exposure to a typical reader field leads to a temperature increase smaller than 0.1 C and to a SAR smaller than 1 W/kg. As a consequence, no adverse biological effects occur during a typical UHF RFID reading cycle on a blood bag. Therefore, the blood contained in a bag traced using UHF-RFID is as safe as those traced using barcodes. The proposed analysis supports the use of UHF RFID in the blood transfusion supply chain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue RFID Systems and Applications)
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