Special Issue "Biodiversity of Insect"

A special issue of Diversity (ISSN 1424-2818). This special issue belongs to the section "Animal Diversity".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 May 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Paolo Solari
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Guest Editor
Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Cagliari, Italy
Interests: insect and crustacean physiology; taste and olfaction; transduction mechanisms of chemosensory systems; chemicals of feeding and reproductive significance; electrophysiology; behavior; biodiversity; alien species; pest management
Dr. Giorgia Sollai
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Guest Editor
Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Cagliari, Italy
Interests: taste perception; olfactory perception; insect–host plant interaction; electrophysiological recordings; chemosensory input and behavioral output; food choice; biodiversity

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Biodiversity refers to the existence of a wide variety of plant and animal species living in their natural environment. In this respect, insects represent one of the greatest examples of biodiversity in the animal kingdom. This variability is due to the specificity of the genetic, morphological, and functional aspects that the different species evolve in order to adapt to the ecological niches where they live.

Insects are often referred to as familiar pests or disease carriers influencing agriculture, human health, and natural resources. Many insects, however, are beneficial from a human viewpoint; they pollinate plants, produce useful substances, control pest insects, act as scavengers, and serve as food for other animals. Furthermore, given their great biodiversity, insects are valuable objects of study in biology and ecology. In fact, a large amount of scientific knowledge in genetics has been obtained from fruit fly experiments and population biology from flour beetle studies. Insects are often used in investigations of hormonal action, nerve and sense organ functions, and many other physiological processes. Finally, they are also used as environmental quality indicators.

This Special Issue provides a platform to highlight new research and significant advances in understanding the genetic and morpho-functional aspects characterizing the great level of biodiversity in insects.

Dr. Paolo Solari
Dr. Giorgia Sollai
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Diversity is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Insect biodiversity
  • Genetic and morpho-functional diversity
  • Ecology and regional diversity
  • Economic evaluation
  • Evolutionary aspects
  • Biodiversity conservation
  • Diversity threats

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
The Afro–Oriental Genus Yaeprimus Sasa et Suzuki (Diptera: Chironomidae: Chironomini): Phylogeny, New Species and Expanded Diagnoses
Diversity 2020, 12(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/d12010031 - 15 Jan 2020
Abstract
Expanded generic diagnoses of all life stages of Yaeprimus Sasa et Suzuki, 2000 (Lunditendipes Harrison, 2000, syn. n.) are given. Yaeprimus tropicus comb. n. is redescribed as an adult based on type material. Additionally, a new species Y. balteatus sp. n. [...] Read more.
Expanded generic diagnoses of all life stages of Yaeprimus Sasa et Suzuki, 2000 (Lunditendipes Harrison, 2000, syn. n.) are given. Yaeprimus tropicus comb. n. is redescribed as an adult based on type material. Additionally, a new species Y. balteatus sp. n. from Oriental China is described based on the adult male and pupa. The phylogenetic position of Yaeprimus within Chironomini and the validity of the new species are explored based on concatenated five genetic markers (18S, 28S, CAD1, CAD4, and COI-3P) through both mixed–model Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood methods. The results strongly support Yaeprimus as sister to Imparipecten Freeman, 1961, which counters a previously proposed systematical position based solely on morphology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodiversity of Insect)
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Open AccessArticle
Continuous Agrochemical Treatments in Agroecosystems Can Modify the Effects of Pendimethalin-Based Herbicide Exposure on Immunocompetence of a Beneficial Ground Beetle
Diversity 2019, 11(12), 241; https://doi.org/10.3390/d11120241 - 16 Dec 2019
Abstract
Herbicide application for pest control can negatively affect soil biodiversity, mainly acting on species that are involved in ecosystem service. In this study, field and laboratory trials were designed to assay herbicide exposure effects on the constitutive immunity of Harpalus (Pseudoophonus) rufipes (De [...] Read more.
Herbicide application for pest control can negatively affect soil biodiversity, mainly acting on species that are involved in ecosystem service. In this study, field and laboratory trials were designed to assay herbicide exposure effects on the constitutive immunity of Harpalus (Pseudoophonus) rufipes (De Geer, 1774), a beneficial carabid species that inhabits croplands. The circulating hemocytes (THCs) and plasmatic levels of basal and total phenoloxidase (PO), as well as lysozyme-like enzyme activities, were measured as markers of exposure. In laboratory tests, the exposure to realistic field doses of pendimethalin-based herbicides for two, seven and 21 days caused a reduction in enzyme activities in beetles from organic crops. In beetles from conventional fields, the THCs and total PO activity decreased significantly at two and seven days after the initial exposure, though no effects were recorded on basal PO and lysozyme like-enzyme activities. These differences in enzyme activities and THCs indicate that the interference of pendimethalin with immune parameters clearly depends on both the different field conditions from which the population comes and the cumulative effects of repeated applications over the time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodiversity of Insect)
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Open AccessArticle
Nuclear Orthologs Derived from Whole Genome Sequencing Indicate Cryptic Diversity in the Bemisia tabaci (Insecta: Aleyrodidae) Complex of Whiteflies
Diversity 2019, 11(9), 151; https://doi.org/10.3390/d11090151 - 29 Aug 2019
Abstract
The Bemisia tabaci complex of whiteflies contains globally important pests thought to contain cryptic species corresponding to geographically structured phylogenetic clades. Although mostly morphologically indistinguishable, differences have been shown to exist among populations in behavior, plant virus vector capacity, ability to hybridize, and [...] Read more.
The Bemisia tabaci complex of whiteflies contains globally important pests thought to contain cryptic species corresponding to geographically structured phylogenetic clades. Although mostly morphologically indistinguishable, differences have been shown to exist among populations in behavior, plant virus vector capacity, ability to hybridize, and DNA sequence divergence. These differences allow for certain populations to become invasive and cause great economic damage in a monoculture setting. Although high mitochondrial DNA divergences have been reported between putative conspecifics of the B. tabaci species complex, there is limited data that exists across the whole genome for this group. Using data from 2184 orthologs obtained from whole genome sequencing (Illumina), a phylogenetic analysis using maximum likelihood and coalescent methodologies was completed on ten individuals of the B. tabaci complex. In addition, automatic barcode gap discovery methods were employed, and results suggest the existence of five species. Although the divergences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene are high among members of this complex, nuclear divergences are much lower in comparison. Single-copy orthologs from whole genome sequencing demonstrate divergent population structures among members of the B. tabaci complex and the sequences provide an important resource to aid in future genomic studies of the group. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodiversity of Insect)
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Open AccessArticle
The Prevalence of Single-Specimen/Locality Species in Insect Taxonomy: An Empirical Analysis
Diversity 2019, 11(7), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/d11070106 - 06 Jul 2019
Abstract
Although about two million species have been named, our knowledge about the biodiversity of many taxonomic groups remains inadequate and incomplete. There has been increased taxonomic effort for the discovery of more species and their geographical distribution information. During this process, species collected [...] Read more.
Although about two million species have been named, our knowledge about the biodiversity of many taxonomic groups remains inadequate and incomplete. There has been increased taxonomic effort for the discovery of more species and their geographical distribution information. During this process, species collected only from a single specimen/locality often appear. However, there are very few empirical data available to understand the current situation of single specimen/locality species in insect taxonomy. In this paper, we collected 1261 articles containing 4811 insect species from ZooKeys between 2009 and 2017, and we extracted data, including the publication date, number of specimens/locality, and DNA usage. Our analyses demonstrated that 21.53% and 21.74% of new species were described from only one specimen and one locality, respectively, and approximately half of all new species were published based on fewer than five specimens. Meanwhile, the rate of single-specimen species in papers with or without DNA data was 15.06% and 23.43%, respectively, which indicates that incorporating DNA data in species descriptions might effectively decrease the occurrence of single-specimen species. We suggest that taxonomists should adopt more beneficial practices, such as increasing specimen diversity, incorporating DNA data, and improving international collaboration, in the description of new species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodiversity of Insect)
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