Application of Cone Beam Computed Tomography for Maxillofacial Diseases, Second Edition

A special issue of Diagnostics (ISSN 2075-4418). This special issue belongs to the section "Medical Imaging and Theranostics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2024 | Viewed by 1474

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
Interests: orthognathic surgery; trigeminal nerve repair; maxillofacial imaging; temporomandibular disorder
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Diseases and pathologies in the maxillofacial region are functional and aesthetic challenges for patients. However, the anatomy in the maxillofacial region is complex, and dentists and maxillofacial surgeons rely on good imaging tools for accurate diagnosis and the management of these conditions. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), as an alternative to traditional computed tomography, offers a cheaper option requiring a lower dose of radiation, while providing good image quality, and has been a workhorse for the oral and maxillofacial imaging of hard tissue. The versatility and small space occupancy of a CBCT allow a clinic-based setup that improve access and popularize its usage.

The scope of the use of CBCT in the maxillofacial region ranges from simple oral surgery to complex maxillofacial deformities, diseases and trauma. Considerations and applications of CBCT in various anatomical spaces and clinical applications are of huge interest to practicing clinicians. Computer virtual planning and 3D printing based on CBCT images have further extended the clinical applications. Artificial intelligence can also use the data acquired from CBCT for the automated detection and diagnosis of disease conditions through machine- and deep-learning algorithms.

This Special Issue aims to cover the advances of CBCT in the diagnosis and management of maxillofacial diseases as well as other conditions that are of high clinical relevance.

Dr. Yiu Yan Leung
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • cone-beam computed tomography
  • imaging
  • radiology
  • oral and maxillofacial surgery
  • dentistry
  • diagnosis
  • risk management
  • 3D printing
  • artificial intelligence

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

11 pages, 10962 KiB  
Article
Risk Assessment of Nasal Cavity Perforation in the Maxilla: A Virtual Implant Placement Study Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography
by Doğan Ilgaz Kaya, Samed Şatır, Beyza Öztaş, Hasan Yıldırım and Ahmet Aktı
Diagnostics 2024, 14(14), 1479; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics14141479 - 10 Jul 2024
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Abstract
Implant surgery in individuals with atrophic maxilla presents challenges, particularly concerning nasal cavity complications such as perforations, implant migration, and airway obstruction. While panoramic radiographs offer diagnostic convenience, their two-dimensional nature limits the evaluation of anatomical structures. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) provides [...] Read more.
Implant surgery in individuals with atrophic maxilla presents challenges, particularly concerning nasal cavity complications such as perforations, implant migration, and airway obstruction. While panoramic radiographs offer diagnostic convenience, their two-dimensional nature limits the evaluation of anatomical structures. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) provides a three-dimensional assessment, enhancing surgical planning accuracy and potentially reducing complications. With the aim of understanding the measurement differences between panoramic radiographs and CBCT images, this retrospective study examined CBCT images of patients with severely atrophic maxilla taken between September 2021 and December 2023 at the Ahmet Keleşoğlu Faculty of Dentistry. Virtual implants were placed in various tooth regions using OnDemand3D software. The incidence of nasal cavity perforations and vertical bone height differences between panoramic radiographs and CBCT images were evaluated. For this purpose, vertical bone length measurements in panoramic and CBCT images were compared for the virtual implant placement areas. Statistical analyses, including t-tests and ANOVA, were performed to determine significant differences among quantitative measurements, and a chi square test with Bonferroni corrected z-tests were used for possible associations between ratios. CBCT data from 59 patients, totaling 1888 virtual implants, revealed significant differences in implant depths among tooth regions (F = 9.880, p < 0.001). Canine regions showed higher perforation risks, especially with 12 mm and 14 mm implants. Panoramic radiographs often overestimated vertical bone height in canine and first premolar regions compared to CBCT measurements, which could lead to increased perforation risks. Radiographic evaluations using CBCT prior to implant surgery in atrophic maxilla cases are crucial to prevent nasal cavity complications. Panoramic radiographs may inadequately represent three-dimensional anatomy, underscoring the importance of CBCT for accurate implant placement and surgical planning. Further studies should consider varying implant sizes and brands to generalize findings. Full article
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10 pages, 1286 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Relationship between Impacted Maxillary Canine Teeth and Root Resorption in Adjacent Teeth: A Cross-Sectional Cone Beam Computed Tomography Study
by Ahmet Aktı, Uğur Dolunay, Doğan Ilgaz Kaya, Gökhan Gürses and Doğucan Yeşil
Diagnostics 2024, 14(14), 1470; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics14141470 - 9 Jul 2024
Viewed by 273
Abstract
Background: This study aims to determine the position of impacted maxillary canines on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images, to determine the presence of resorption in adjacent teeth, and to investigate the position and type of resorption of impacted canines if resorption is [...] Read more.
Background: This study aims to determine the position of impacted maxillary canines on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images, to determine the presence of resorption in adjacent teeth, and to investigate the position and type of resorption of impacted canines if resorption is present. Methods: Patients over 14 years of age with maxillary canine teeth who had CBCT images taken for any dental reason were included in the study. Resorption of teeth adjacent to maxillary canines was analyzed according to transversal, vertical, and buccopalatinal positions on the CBCT. The study evaluated 162 maxillary canine teeth on tomography images of 134 patients. Results: Of the affected adjacent teeth, 32.1% of the central incisor, 58.0% of the lateral incisor, and 19.1% of the first premolars showed mild-to-severe resorption. The relationships between transversal position and resorption in the central and lateral incisor, vertical position and resorption in the central incisor and buccopalatinal position and resorption in the first premolars were found to be significant. Maxillary canine teeth can cause mild-to-severe resorption of adjacent teeth, especially lateral incisors. Conclusion: For this reason, we think that a detailed examination with CBCT is essential in the early diagnosis of resorption of adjacent teeth. Full article
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10 pages, 1404 KiB  
Article
Assessment of the Nasopalatine Canal Length and Shape Using Cone-Beam Computed Tomography: A Retrospective Morphometric Study
by Cristalle Soman
Diagnostics 2024, 14(10), 973; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics14100973 - 7 May 2024
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Abstract
The anatomical position of the nasopalatine canal in the anterior maxilla makes it one of the most important vital structures in the region. Surgical and implant procedures in this area require local anesthesia to be administered. It is, therefore, important to morphologically assess [...] Read more.
The anatomical position of the nasopalatine canal in the anterior maxilla makes it one of the most important vital structures in the region. Surgical and implant procedures in this area require local anesthesia to be administered. It is, therefore, important to morphologically assess the length and shape of the nasopalatine canal for performing surgical procedures with more accuracy in this area. Cone-Beam Computed tomography scans were scrutinized using inclusion criteria of age 18 years and above, absence of any pathological lesions/fracture/surgery in the nasopalatine area, absence of orthodontic treatment or maxillary jaw correction surgeries, and exclusion criteria including CBCT scans with artifacts or error s in the area of interest, anterior implants, absence of bone diseases, trauma, surgeries, and impactions in the area of interest. A total of 360 scans were analyzed for the length and shape of the nasopalatine canals. The results of the study showed that the mean nasopalatine canal length was 12.51 mm. The hourglass shape of the canal was most common and had the highest representation in both genders, with male 80.62% and female 87.01%. A statistically significant difference (p < 0.001) was noted in nasopalatine canal length between males and females. The study provides insight into the significant association of gender with the canal’s shape and length of the canal. The length of the canal does not influence with age. These parameters are helpful for surgical planning and interventions in the anterior maxillary region. Full article
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