Special Issue "Novel Point-of-Care Technologies in Diagnostics 2018"

A special issue of Diagnostics (ISSN 2075-4418). This special issue belongs to the section "In Vitro Diagnostics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 22 November 2018

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Paul K. Drain

Departments of Global Health, Medicine (Infectious Diseases), and Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, USA. Mailing Address: 325 Ninth Ave, UW Box 359927, Seattle, WA 98104, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: HIV/AIDS; tuberculosis; point-of-care diagnostics; point-of-care testing; implementation science; global health; resource-limited settings

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Point-of-care tests have changed the delivery and impact of medical care by facilitating a migration of diagnostic testing from centralized laboratories to the clinical site of patient care, or even a person’s home. Research and development of point-of-care tests has grown steadily over the last 20 years, and the global point-of-care diagnostic market is expected to surpass US $30 billion in the year 2020. Point-of-care tests have been developed for use in all medical settings, a wide variety of medical specialties and subspecialties, and for both infectious and non-communicable diseases. Novel point-of-care technologies are becoming increasing more sophisticated and complex with lab-on-a-chip capabilities, and the latest generation of point-of-care tests offer rapid analysis of human and pathogen genomic data to accelerate more appropriate and personalized therapies.

Any successful point-of-care technology will require a balancing of accuracy, rapidity, accessibility, and cost. While a fundamental objective is to be diagnostically accurate, point-of-care tests that can be quickly and easily performed by clinical health care workers and at low operational costs will be the most successful. The largest potential impact will be in resource-limited settings, where expensive laboratory infrastructure is either inaccessible or completely unavailable. However, several studies of point-of-care tests have demonstrated only minimal impact on the burden of disease in resource-limited settings, suggesting their incorporation in health systems has either been incomplete or poorly implemented.

Although centralized reference laboratories will maintain a critical role in providing confirmatory diagnosis, future healthcare delivery is likely to be more reliant on point-of-care technologies. In this Special Issue of Diagnostics, we welcome submission of articles that showcase novel point-of-care technologies in diagnostics. An article may demonstrate sophisticated laboratory technologies that are pushing technological boundaries, clinical implementation solutions that balance the complexity and accessibility of novel technologies, or modeling studies that provide information on future strategies to safely use point-of-care technologies for maximal benefit. The success of point-of-care technologies will depend on demonstrating diagnostic accuracy and clinical value for the benefit of individuals and the health of communities.

Dr. Paul K. Drain
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Diagnostics is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 550 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • point-of-care test 
  • diagnostic testing 
  • screening 
  • microfluidics 
  • nucleic acid amplification 
  • lab-on-a-chip 
  • resource-limited settings

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Diagnosis of Newly Delivered Mothers for Periodontitis with a Novel Oral-Rinse aMMP-8 Point-of-Care Test in a Rural Malawian Population
Diagnostics 2018, 8(3), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics8030067
Received: 1 August 2018 / Revised: 7 September 2018 / Accepted: 12 September 2018 / Published: 15 September 2018
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Abstract
A novel qualitative point-of-care test of activated matrix metalloproteinase-8 (aMMP-8) using noninvasive oral rinse sampling procedures has been developed for the early detection of collagen breakdown indicating periodontal tissue destruction. The main object of this study was to assess the reliability of the
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A novel qualitative point-of-care test of activated matrix metalloproteinase-8 (aMMP-8) using noninvasive oral rinse sampling procedures has been developed for the early detection of collagen breakdown indicating periodontal tissue destruction. The main object of this study was to assess the reliability of the test in a low-income setting to identify participants with history of periodontal destruction detected as alveolar bone loss (ABL) in radiographs. This cross-sectional study included 486 women who had recently delivered in rural Malawi. The aMMP-8 test and dental panoramic radiographs were taken within 48 h of delivery. The performance of the test in comparison to radiological examinations was tested by following the standards for reporting of diagnostic accuracy studies protocol (STARD) with respective statistical measures and 95% confidence intervals. From the 486 eligible participants, 461 mothers with complete data, aged from 15 to 46 years (mean 24.8, SD 6.0) were included in the analysis. ABL was identified in 116 of 461 participants. There was 56% agreement between the aMMP-8 test results and detected ABL (yes or no) in radiographs. Calculated sensitivity of the test was 80% (72–87%), specificity 48% (43–54%), positive predictive value 34% (31–37%), negative predictive value 88% (83–91%), positive likelihood ratio 1.55 (1.35–1.77), and negative likelihood ratio 0.41(0.28–0.60). The aMMP-8 test sensitivity and negative predictive value to identify the ABL cases were relatively high, but there was additionally a high rate of test-positive results in participants without ABL, especially in young mothers, leading to low overall agreement between the test results and radiological bone loss. Further longitudinal studies are needed to examine if the test positive subjects are in risk of future bone loss before the detectable signs of periodontitis in radiographs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Point-of-Care Technologies in Diagnostics 2018)
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Open AccessArticle A Novel Technique for Intraoral Ultrasound-Guided Aspiration of Peritonsillar Abscess
Diagnostics 2018, 8(3), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics8030050
Received: 23 June 2018 / Revised: 30 July 2018 / Accepted: 31 July 2018 / Published: 2 August 2018
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Abstract
Peritonsillar abscess (PTA) is a common complication to acute tonsillitis. The treatment is drainage of the abscess, but many needle aspirations are unsuccessful due to a low diagnostic accuracy based on oral examination only. In this article, we describe how intraoral ultrasound can
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Peritonsillar abscess (PTA) is a common complication to acute tonsillitis. The treatment is drainage of the abscess, but many needle aspirations are unsuccessful due to a low diagnostic accuracy based on oral examination only. In this article, we describe how intraoral ultrasound can be added to improve the diagnostic work-up of PTA and present a novel technique for ultrasound-guided aspiration of PTA, using a small pencil-shaped transducer. We present our first clinical experiences with this technique and describe how it could be integrated in a clinical setting to guide safe and successful needle aspirations of PTA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Point-of-Care Technologies in Diagnostics 2018)
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Open AccessArticle Improving Remote Health Monitoring: A Low-Complexity ECG Compression Approach
Diagnostics 2018, 8(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics8010010
Received: 30 November 2017 / Revised: 11 January 2018 / Accepted: 12 January 2018 / Published: 16 January 2018
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (477 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recent advances in mobile technology have created a shift towards using battery-driven devices in remote monitoring settings and smart homes. Clinicians are carrying out diagnostic and screening procedures based on the electrocardiogram (ECG) signals collected remotely for outpatients who need continuous monitoring. High-speed
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Recent advances in mobile technology have created a shift towards using battery-driven devices in remote monitoring settings and smart homes. Clinicians are carrying out diagnostic and screening procedures based on the electrocardiogram (ECG) signals collected remotely for outpatients who need continuous monitoring. High-speed transmission and analysis of large recorded ECG signals are essential, especially with the increased use of battery-powered devices. Exploring low-power alternative compression methodologies that have high efficiency and that enable ECG signal collection, transmission, and analysis in a smart home or remote location is required. Compression algorithms based on adaptive linear predictors and decimation by a factor B / K are evaluated based on compression ratio (CR), percentage root-mean-square difference (PRD), and heartbeat detection accuracy of the reconstructed ECG signal. With two databases (153 subjects), the new algorithm demonstrates the highest compression performance ( CR = 6 and PRD = 1.88 ) and overall detection accuracy (99.90% sensitivity, 99.56% positive predictivity) over both databases. The proposed algorithm presents an advantage for the real-time transmission of ECG signals using a faster and more efficient method, which meets the growing demand for more efficient remote health monitoring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Point-of-Care Technologies in Diagnostics 2018)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Developments in Point-of-Care Diagnostic Technology for Cancer Detection
Diagnostics 2018, 8(2), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics8020039
Received: 2 May 2018 / Revised: 22 May 2018 / Accepted: 25 May 2018 / Published: 2 June 2018
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Abstract
Cancer is the cause of death for one in seven individuals worldwide. It is widely acknowledged that screening and early diagnosis are of vital importance for improving the likelihood of recovery. However, given the costly, time-consuming, and invasive nature of the many methods
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Cancer is the cause of death for one in seven individuals worldwide. It is widely acknowledged that screening and early diagnosis are of vital importance for improving the likelihood of recovery. However, given the costly, time-consuming, and invasive nature of the many methods currently in use, patients often do not take advantage of the services available to them. Consequently, many researchers are exploring the possibility of developing fast, reliable, and non-invasive diagnostic tools that can be used directly or by local physicians at the point-of-care. Herein, we look at the use of established biomarkers in cancer therapy and investigate emerging biomarkers exhibiting future potential. The incorporation of these biomarkers into point-of-care devices could potentially reduce the strain currently experienced by screening programs in hospitals and healthcare systems. Results derived from point-of-care tests should be accurate, sensitive, and generated rapidly to assist in the selection of the best course of treatment for optimal patient care. Essentially, point-of-care diagnostics should enhance the well-being of patients and lead to a reduction in cancer-related deaths. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Point-of-Care Technologies in Diagnostics 2018)
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