Special Issue "MOVPE Growth of Crystalline Film"

A special issue of Crystals (ISSN 2073-4352). This special issue belongs to the section "Inorganic Crystalline Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (21 April 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Andrey B. Krysa
Website
Guest Editor
EPSRC National Epitaxy Facility, Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield, S1 3JD, United Kingdom

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

It is my great pleasure to welcome submissions to this Special Issue of Crystals on metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE), the technology that lies at the foundation of modern semiconductor optoelectronics and related research fields and manufacturing.

According to some early UK, German and US patents, the basics of this remarkable crystal growth technology (also known under established terms such as MOCVD, OMVPE and OMCVD) have been known to specialists since at least early 1950’s. The wider interest of the research community and industry in this technology, however, was stimulated by the publications of Manasevit in the late 1960’s which coincided with a growing demand for thin compound semiconductor crystal films and booming semiconductor research.

The critical point in the development of MOVPE was the demonstration by Dupuis of MOVPE-grown hetero-structures and quantum wells with abrupt interfaces in 1977. This opened up further applications, in particular, the practical realization of semiconductor quantum devices, and attracted even greater interest to this technology. Since then, MOVPE has become a major contributor to semiconductor research. For example, MOVPE has facilitated a significant contribution to the race for blue-light emitting sources and hugely stimulated studies on ZnSe- and GaN-based compounds and related physical phenomena in semiconductors. These studies have brought the Nobel Prize in Physics to Akasaki, Amano and Nakamura in 2014, and there are other examples of a close association of MOVPE with the greatest scientific and technological developments marked by this highly prestigious award. In addition to the aforementioned semiconductor hetero-structures (originally proposed by Alferov and Kroemer, Nobel Prize in Physics 2000), one can mention quantum cascade lasers, directly derived from the pioneering studies of Leo Esaki (Nobel Prize in Physics 1973) on semiconductor superlattices, and which can be routinely grown these days by MOVPE.

The impact of MOVPE on modern civilization and our way of life is difficult to overestimate. Of particular significance is the widespread application of telecom lasers and white LEDs, which relay on high-volume manufacturing processes based largely on this technique. Nowadays, there are thousands of industrial MOVPE reactors in operation worldwide and hundreds of research groups actively studying MOVPE crystal growth or relying heavily on the technique for their wider studies. With the extreme purity of precursors available commercially, a reproducible high-precision gas delivery, abrupt reagents’ switching, and with highly informative in-situ optical process monitoring tools, MOVPE has never been a better technique to be used in semiconductor research and manufacturing.

I would like to invite you to submit manuscripts, which cover all research aspects of MOVPE growth and materials and structures grown by this technique. Manuscripts on other related technologies, like metalorganic molecular beam epitaxy, atomic layer epitaxy etc. are also welcome.

Dr. Andrey B. Krysa
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Crystals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • MOVPE
  • MOCVD
  • Epitaxy
  • Thin crystal film
  • Semiconductor heterostructure
  • Quantum well
  • Quantum dot
  • Nanowire
  • Materials characterization

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Nano-Ridge Engineering of GaSb for the Integration of InAs/GaSb Heterostructures on 300 mm (001) Si
Crystals 2020, 10(4), 330; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst10040330 - 22 Apr 2020
Abstract
Nano-ridge engineering (NRE) is a novel heteroepitaxial approach for the monolithic integration of lattice-mismatched III-V devices on Si substrates. It has been successfully applied to GaAs for the realization of nano-ridge (NR) laser diodes and heterojunction bipolar transistors on 300 mm Si wafers. [...] Read more.
Nano-ridge engineering (NRE) is a novel heteroepitaxial approach for the monolithic integration of lattice-mismatched III-V devices on Si substrates. It has been successfully applied to GaAs for the realization of nano-ridge (NR) laser diodes and heterojunction bipolar transistors on 300 mm Si wafers. In this report we extend NRE to GaSb for the integration of narrow bandgap heterostructures on Si. GaSb is deposited by selective area growth in narrow oxide trenches fabricated on 300 mm Si substrates to reduce the defect density by aspect ratio trapping. The GaSb growth is continued and the NR shape on top of the oxide pattern is manipulated via NRE to achieve a broad (001) NR surface. The impact of different seed layers (GaAs and InAs) on the threading dislocation and planar defect densities in the GaSb NRs is investigated as a function of trench width by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) as well as electron channeling contrast imaging (ECCI), which provides significantly better defect statistics in comparison to TEM only. An InAs/GaSb multi-layer heterostructure is added on top of an optimized NR structure. The high crystal quality and low defect density emphasize the potential of this monolithic integration approach for infrared optoelectronic devices on 300 mm Si substrates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MOVPE Growth of Crystalline Film)
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Open AccessArticle
MOVPE-Grown Quantum Cascade Laser Structures Studied by Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy
Crystals 2020, 10(2), 129; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst10020129 - 20 Feb 2020
Abstract
A technique for direct study of the distribution of the applied voltage within a quantum cascade laser (QCL) has been developed. The detailed profile of the potential in the laser claddings and laser core region has been obtained by gradient scanning Kelvin probe [...] Read more.
A technique for direct study of the distribution of the applied voltage within a quantum cascade laser (QCL) has been developed. The detailed profile of the potential in the laser claddings and laser core region has been obtained by gradient scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) across the cleaved facets for two mid-infrared quantum cascade laser structures. An InGaAs/InAlAs quantum cascade device with InP claddings demonstrates a linear potential distribution across the laser core region with constant voltage drop across the doped claddings. By contrast, a GaAs/AlGaAs device with AlInP claddings has very uneven potential distribution with more than half of the voltage falling across the claddings and interfaces around the laser core, greatly increasing the overall voltage value necessary to achieve the lasing threshold. Thus, KPFM can be used to highlight design and fabrication flaws of QCLs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MOVPE Growth of Crystalline Film)
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Open AccessArticle
Advanced AlGaAs/GaAs Heterostructures Grown by MOVPE
Crystals 2019, 9(6), 305; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst9060305 - 14 Jun 2019
Abstract
AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures are the base of many semiconductor devices. The fabrication of new types of devices demands heterostructures with special features, such as large total thickness (~20 μm), ultrathin layers (~1 nm), high repeatability (up to 1000 periods) and uniformity, for which a [...] Read more.
AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures are the base of many semiconductor devices. The fabrication of new types of devices demands heterostructures with special features, such as large total thickness (~20 μm), ultrathin layers (~1 nm), high repeatability (up to 1000 periods) and uniformity, for which a conventional approach of growing such heterostructures is insufficient and the development of new growth procedures is needed. This article summarizes our work on the metalorganic vapour-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) growth of AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures for modern infrared devices. The growth approaches presented allow for the improved output characteristics of different emitting devices such as multi active region lasers, epitaxially integrated via highly doped tunnel junctions (emission wavelength λ ~ 1 μm), quantum cascade lasers (λ ~10 μm) and THz laser (λ ~100 μm), based on short-period superlattice with 500–2000 layers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MOVPE Growth of Crystalline Film)
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Open AccessArticle
Growth of Catalyst-Free Hexagonal Pyramid-Like InN Nanocolumns on Nitrided Si(111) Substrates via Radio-Frequency Metal–Organic Molecular Beam Epitaxy
Crystals 2019, 9(6), 291; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst9060291 - 05 Jun 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Hexagonal pyramid-like InN nanocolumns were grown on Si(111) substrates via radio-frequency (RF) metal–organic molecular beam epitaxy (MOMBE) together with a substrate nitridation process. The metal–organic precursor served as a group-III source for the growth of InN nanocolumns. The nitridation of Si(111) under flowing [...] Read more.
Hexagonal pyramid-like InN nanocolumns were grown on Si(111) substrates via radio-frequency (RF) metal–organic molecular beam epitaxy (MOMBE) together with a substrate nitridation process. The metal–organic precursor served as a group-III source for the growth of InN nanocolumns. The nitridation of Si(111) under flowing N2 RF plasma and the MOMBE growth of InN nanocolumns on the nitrided Si(111) substrates were investigated along with the effects of growth temperature on the structural, optical, and chemical properties of the InN nanocolumns. Based on X-ray diffraction analysis, highly <0001>-oriented, hexagonal InN nanocolumns were grown on the nitride Si(111) substrates. To evaluate the alignment of arrays, the deviation angles of the InN nanocolumns were measured using scanning electron microscopy. Transmission electron microscopy analysis indicated that the InN nanocolumns were single-phase wurtzite crystals having preferred orientations along the c-axis. Raman spectroscopy confirmed the hexagonal structures of the deposited InN nanocolumns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MOVPE Growth of Crystalline Film)
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Open AccessArticle
Tuning the Size, Shape and Density of γ′-GayFe4−yN Nanocrystals Embedded in GaN
Crystals 2019, 9(1), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst9010050 - 17 Jan 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Phase-separated semiconductor systems hosting magnetic nanocrystal (NCs) are attracting increasing attention, due to their potential as spintronic elements for the next generation of devices. Owing to their morphology- and stoichiometry-dependent magnetic response, self-assembled γ ’-Ga y Fe 4 y N NCs embedded [...] Read more.
Phase-separated semiconductor systems hosting magnetic nanocrystal (NCs) are attracting increasing attention, due to their potential as spintronic elements for the next generation of devices. Owing to their morphology- and stoichiometry-dependent magnetic response, self-assembled γ ’-Ga y Fe 4 y N NCs embedded in a Fe δ -doped GaN matrix, are particularly versatile. It is studied and reported here, how the tuning of relevant growth parameters during the metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy process affects the crystalline arrangement, size, and shape of these self-assembled nanostructures. In particular, it is found that the Ga-flow provided during the δ -doping, determines the amount of Fe incorporated into the layers and the spatial density of the NCs. Moreover, the in-plane dimensions of the NCs can also be controlled via the Ga-flow, conditioning the aspect-ratio of the embedded nanostructures. These findings are pivotal for the design of nanocrystal arrays with on-demand size and shape, essential requirements for the implementation into functional devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MOVPE Growth of Crystalline Film)
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Open AccessArticle
Interfacial Mixing Analysis for Strained Layer Superlattices by Atom Probe Tomography
Crystals 2018, 8(11), 437; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst8110437 - 21 Nov 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Quantum wells and barriers with precise thicknesses and abrupt composition changes at their interfaces are critical for obtaining the desired emission wavelength from quantum cascade laser devices. High-resolution X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy are commonly used to calibrate and characterize the layers’ [...] Read more.
Quantum wells and barriers with precise thicknesses and abrupt composition changes at their interfaces are critical for obtaining the desired emission wavelength from quantum cascade laser devices. High-resolution X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy are commonly used to calibrate and characterize the layers’ thicknesses and compositions. A complementary technique, atom probe tomography, was employed here to obtain a direct measurement of the 3-dimensional spatially-resolved compositional profile in two InxGa1−xAs/InyAl1−yAs III-V strained-layer superlattice structures, both grown at 605 °C. Fitting the measured composition profiles to solutions to Fick’s Second Law yielded an average interdiffusion coefficient of 3.5 × 10−23 m2 s−1 at 605 °C. The extent of interdiffusion into each layer determined for these specific superlattices was 0.55 nm on average. The results suggest that quaternary active layers will form, rather than the intended ternary compounds, in structures with thicknesses and growth protocols that are typically designed for quantum cascade laser devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MOVPE Growth of Crystalline Film)
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Open AccessArticle
MOCVD Growth of InGaAs/GaAs/AlGaAs Laser Structures with Quantum Wells on Ge/Si Substrates
Crystals 2018, 8(8), 311; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst8080311 - 31 Jul 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
The paper presents the results of the application of MOCVD growth technique for formation of the GaAs/AlAs laser structures with InGaAs quantum wells on Si substrates with a relaxed Ge buffer. The fabricated laser diodes were of micro-striped type designed for the operation [...] Read more.
The paper presents the results of the application of MOCVD growth technique for formation of the GaAs/AlAs laser structures with InGaAs quantum wells on Si substrates with a relaxed Ge buffer. The fabricated laser diodes were of micro-striped type designed for the operation under the electrical pumping. Influence of the Si substrate offcut from the [001] direction, thickness of a Ge buffer and insertion of the AlAs/GaAs superlattice between Ge and GaAs on the structural and optical properties of fabricated samples was studied. The measured threshold current densities at room temperatures were 5.5 kA/cm2 and 20 kA/cm2 for lasers operating at 0.99 μm and 1.11 μm respectively. In order to obtain the stimulated emission at wavelengths longer than 1.1 μm, the InGaAs quantum well laser structures with high In content and GaAsP strain-compensating layers were grown both on Ge/Si and GaAs substrates. Structures grown on GaAs exhibited stimulated emission under optical pumping at the wavelengths of up to 1.24 μm at 300 K while those grown on Ge/Si substrates emitted at shorter wavelengths of up to 1.1 μm and only at 77 K. The main reasons for such performance worsening and also some approaches to overcome them are discussed. The obtained results have shown that monolithic integration of direct-gap A3B5 compounds on Si using MOCVD technology is rather promising approach for obtaining the Si-compatible on-chip effective light source. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MOVPE Growth of Crystalline Film)
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