Special Issue "Surface Treatments and Coatings for Structural Steel and Reinforced Concrete"

A special issue of Coatings (ISSN 2079-6412).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2017).

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Paul Lambert Website E-Mail
Centre for Infrastructure Management, Materials and Engineering Research Institute, Sheffield Hallam University, Howard Street, Sheffield, S1 1WB, United Kingdom
Interests: structural materials, protective coatings, durability modelling, corrosion, cathodic protection, recycled materials

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The built environment accounts for the largest use of steel and reinforced concrete and covers a wide range of structures, from private dwellings to shared infrastructure. The exposure environments may be as benign as domestic interiors or as chemically aggressive as wastewater treatment plants, but, in all cases, the requirement is to provide safe and durable structures with minimal maintenance demands. There is usually also an aesthetic requirement, as society rightly expects even its common resources, such as bridges, to be visually acceptable.

The long-established challenges to reinforced concrete have been exposure to chloride ions, from the sea, ground, admixtures or de-icing salts, and the neutralisation of the protective alkalinity by reaction with atmospheric carbon dioxide. Changes in legislation and the expectations of end users can result in further problems, for example, the increasingly common practice of enclosing wastewater tanks and culverts. While this helps to control odour, it can also greatly increase the degree of damage caused by hydrogen sulphide and sulphuric acid attack.

For structural steel, including weathering steel, the combination of chlorides and moisture can result in greatly reduced times to first maintenance, disrupting access by the general public and wastefully consuming additional materials. The current rated life for steel protective coating systems is typically only 20% of the intended life of the structure, requiring multiple re-applications.

This Special Issue of Coatings is intended to provide a forum for original research and critical reviews on current advances in the field of coatings and surface treatment for steel and reinforced concrete employed in structural applications. Areas of interest include coatings and treatments to prevent the ingress of moisture, chlorides and carbon dioxide, conductive coatings for the application of electrochemical corrosion control and coatings and treatments to prevent or allow easy removal of graffiti and other surface contamination.  Aspects of research of interest include sustainable coatings and surface treatments, multi-functional coatings providing both passive and active protection against loss of durability, laboratory testing methods and in situ coating evaluation.

Prof. Dr. Paul Lambert
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Coatings is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Carbonation

  • Chlorides

  • Reinforced Concrete

  • Structural Steel

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Prediction of the Corrosion Current Density in Reinforced Concrete Using a Self-Organizing Feature Map
Coatings 2017, 7(10), 160; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings7100160 - 29 Sep 2017
Cited by 7
Abstract
A disadvantage of using linear polarization resistance (LPR) in the measurement of corrosion current density is the need to partially destroy a concrete cover. In this article, a new technique of predicting the corrosion current density in reinforced concrete using a self-organizing feature [...] Read more.
A disadvantage of using linear polarization resistance (LPR) in the measurement of corrosion current density is the need to partially destroy a concrete cover. In this article, a new technique of predicting the corrosion current density in reinforced concrete using a self-organizing feature map (SOFM) is presented. For this purpose, air temperature, and also the parameters determined by the resistivity four-probe method and galvanostatic resistivity measurements, were employed as input variables. The corrosion current density, predicted by the destructive LPR method, was employed as the output variable. The weights of the SOFM were optimized using the genetic algorithm (GA). To evaluate the accuracy of the SOFM, a comparison with the radial basis function (RBF) and linear regression (LR) was performed. The results indicate that the SOFM–GA model has a higher ability, flexibility, and accuracy than the RBF and LR. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Concrete Damage in Field Conditions and Protective Sealer and Coating Systems
Coatings 2017, 7(7), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings7070090 - 29 Jun 2017
Cited by 16
Abstract
Concrete structures undergo different forms of damage during their service life. The aim of this study is to identify the most common forms of concrete damage in field conditions. A number of concrete elements and structures were visually inspected and the damage was [...] Read more.
Concrete structures undergo different forms of damage during their service life. The aim of this study is to identify the most common forms of concrete damage in field conditions. A number of concrete elements and structures were visually inspected and the damage was photographed. The damage phenomena covered are delamination, popout, spalling, scaling, drying shrinkage cracking, corrosion-induced cracking, map cracking, rust and salt stains, discoloration, and mold and moss growths. The probable reasons for these damage phenomena are discussed in this study. Moreover, this study highlights how concrete structures can be protected from the aforementioned forms of damage by using sealer and coating systems as surface treatments. Different sealer and coating systems, emphasizing their selection for specific uses, installation on concrete substrate, effects on concrete durability, performance criteria, and performance evaluation methods have been discussed. Furthermore, some recommendations are given to improve the performance of concrete sealer and coating systems for the protection of concrete structures in field conditions. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
Effect on Concrete Surface Water Absorption upon Addition of Lactate Derived Agent
Coatings 2017, 7(4), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings7040051 - 07 Apr 2017
Cited by 7
Abstract
Water tightness of a concrete cover layer is important, as it is typically used as a protective coating of the steel reinforcement. Water tightness can be impaired by crack formation or by permeability. A bacteria-based lactate-derived healing agent (HA) can be added to [...] Read more.
Water tightness of a concrete cover layer is important, as it is typically used as a protective coating of the steel reinforcement. Water tightness can be impaired by crack formation or by permeability. A bacteria-based lactate-derived healing agent (HA) can be added to concrete to enhance the potential for restoration of water tightness. Bacterial conversion of the included carbon source results in CO2 production and subsequent CaCO3 precipitation, similar to the mechanism of concrete carbonation. Carbonation is known to densify concrete, particularly when using ordinary Portland cement (OPC), but to a much lower extend in slag-based concrete (CEM III/B). To identify the effect of HA addition on concrete properties, this study focusses on the ingress of moisture in non-cracked concrete surfaces by assessing capillary water absorption. Surface properties were determined for sealed and unsealed surfaces of concrete—either based on OPC or CEM III/B—before and after curing under three different conditions: Dry, wet, or humid. HA addition to concrete containing slag cement generated a surface less prone to continued drying, but resulted in higher water absorption. In contrast, surface water absorption significantly decreased upon HA addition to OPC-based samples, independent of the curing regime. It is therefore concluded that HA in its current form is suitable for application in OPC, but less in CEM III/B-based mixtures. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Hybrid Metaheuristic-Neural Assessment of the Adhesion in Existing Cement Composites
Coatings 2017, 7(4), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings7040049 - 01 Apr 2017
Cited by 10
Abstract
The article presents the hybrid metaheuristic-neural assessment of the pull-off adhesion in existing multi-layer cement composites using artificial neural networks (ANNs) and the imperialist competitive algorithm (ICA). The ICA is a metaheuristic algorithm inspired by the human political-social evolution. This method is based [...] Read more.
The article presents the hybrid metaheuristic-neural assessment of the pull-off adhesion in existing multi-layer cement composites using artificial neural networks (ANNs) and the imperialist competitive algorithm (ICA). The ICA is a metaheuristic algorithm inspired by the human political-social evolution. This method is based solely on the use of ANNs and two non-destructive testing (NDT) methods: the impact-echo method (I-E) and the impulse response method (IR). In this research, the ICA has been used to optimize the weights of the ANN. The combined ICA-ANN model has been compared to the genetic algorithm (GA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) to evaluate its accuracy. The results showed that the ICA-ANN model outperforms other techniques when testing datasets in terms of both effectiveness and efficiency. As presented in the validation stage, it is possible to reliably map the adhesion level on a tested surface without local damage to the latter. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Ozone Resistance, Water Permeability, and Concrete Adhesion of Metallic Films Sprayed on a Concrete Structure for Advanced Water Purification
Coatings 2017, 7(3), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings7030041 - 10 Mar 2017
Abstract
We evaluated the applicability of metal spray coating as a waterproofing/corrosion protection method for a concrete structure used for water purification. We carried out an ozone resistance test on four metal sprays and evaluated the water permeability and bond strength of the metals [...] Read more.
We evaluated the applicability of metal spray coating as a waterproofing/corrosion protection method for a concrete structure used for water purification. We carried out an ozone resistance test on four metal sprays and evaluated the water permeability and bond strength of the metals with superior ozone resistance, depending on the surface treatment method. In the ozone resistance test, four metal sprays and an existing ozone-proof paint were considered. In the experiment on the water permeability and bond strength depending on the surface treatment method, the methods of no treatment, surface polishing, and two types of pore sealing agents were considered. The results showed that the sprayed titanium had the best ozone resistance. Applying a pore sealing agent provided the best adhesion performance, of about 3.2 MPa. Applying a pore sealing agent also provided the best waterproofing performance. Scanning electron microscope analysis showed that applying a pore sealing agent resulted in an excellent waterproofing performance because a coating film formed on top of the metal spray coating. Thus, when using a metal spray as waterproofing/corrosion protection for a water treatment concrete structure, applying a pore sealing agent on top of a film formed by spraying titanium was concluded to be the most appropriate method. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Graphite–Cement Paste: A New Coating of Reinforced Concrete Structural Elements for the Application of Electrochemical Anti-Corrosion Treatments
Coatings 2016, 6(3), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings6030032 - 28 Jul 2016
Cited by 11
Abstract
This paper reviews research carried out towards the development of a novel conductive coating for reinforced concrete structures in order to enable the application of electrochemical anti-corrosion treatments. The coating is composed of a hardened paste containing graphite powder and cement. The applied [...] Read more.
This paper reviews research carried out towards the development of a novel conductive coating for reinforced concrete structures in order to enable the application of electrochemical anti-corrosion treatments. The coating is composed of a hardened paste containing graphite powder and cement. The applied techniques were electrochemical chloride extraction (ECE), cathodic protection (CP), and cathodic prevention, as well as combined treatments such as ECE-CP. This research has demonstrated their efficiency when using the new conductive coating as an anode system. The influence of the shape of the structural elements on the performance of the electrochemical treatments was also studied. Several characteristics of the coating have been determined, such as conductivity, durability, adhesion to the concrete surfaces, and ease of application. The results demonstrate the adequacy of using this coating as the anode for anti-corrosion treatments on reinforced concrete structural elements of different shapes, for the purpose of extending service life. Full article
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