Concrete structures undergo different forms of damage during their service life. The aim of this study is to identify the most common forms of concrete damage in field conditions. A number of concrete elements and structures were visually inspected and the damage was photographed. The damage phenomena covered are delamination, popout, spalling, scaling, drying shrinkage cracking, corrosion-induced cracking, map cracking, rust and salt stains, discoloration, and mold and moss growths. The probable reasons for these damage phenomena are discussed in this study. Moreover, this study highlights how concrete structures can be protected from the aforementioned forms of damage by using sealer and coating systems as surface treatments. Different sealer and coating systems, emphasizing their selection for specific uses, installation on concrete substrate, effects on concrete durability, performance criteria, and performance evaluation methods have been discussed. Furthermore, some recommendations are given to improve the performance of concrete sealer and coating systems for the protection of concrete structures in field conditions.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited