Adaptation and Mitigation Practices and Frameworks

A topical collection in Climate (ISSN 2225-1154). This collection belongs to the section "Climate Adaptation and Mitigation".

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Editors


E-Mail Website1 Website2
Collection Editor
Northern Institute of Applied Climate Science, Northern Research Station, USDA Forest Service, 410 MacInnes Dr, Houghton, MI 49931, USA
Interests: climate adaptation; forest ecology; carbon management; soil carbon biogeochemistry

E-Mail Website
Co-Collection Editor
Office of Sustainability and Climate, USDA Forest Service, 1992 Folwell Ave., St. Paul, MN 55108, USA
Interests: climate change adaptation; climate change communication; vulnerability assessments; applied science; ecosystem ecology

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

These manuscripts should present novel applications of framework, technology, or technique to the fields of adaptation and mitigation. These applications may be presented in the context of best practices, human dimensions, and case studies. They provide an opportunity to share findings from programmatic and practice-based efforts that were not designed as research but are nonetheless of interest to research and professional communities. Evidence for the efficacy of applications should be thoroughly presented within the context of scientific and professional literature.

Special Note:
Collections may not be classic hypothesis-driven studies and they may also be organized outside of the typical template "introduction-methods-results-discussion".

Dr. Chris Swanston
Dr. Leslie Brandt
Collection Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • best practices
  • adaptation strategies
  • decision support tools and approaches
  • case studies
  • adaptation and mitigation frameworks

Published Papers (20 papers)

2023

Jump to: 2022, 2021

16 pages, 1972 KiB  
Article
Regional Climate Change Adaptation Based on the PSR Model—Multi-Case Comparative Analysis on a Global Scale
by Mengzhi Xu, Jixia Li and Shixin Luan
Climate 2023, 11(7), 155; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli11070155 - 23 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2018
Abstract
Regional climate change is affected by global warming, large-scale inter-regional circulation, and land use/cover. As a result of different ecological, economic, and social conditions, climate adaptation actions vary from region to region, including community-based adaptation in small island developing states, enhancing flood resilience [...] Read more.
Regional climate change is affected by global warming, large-scale inter-regional circulation, and land use/cover. As a result of different ecological, economic, and social conditions, climate adaptation actions vary from region to region, including community-based adaptation in small island developing states, enhancing flood resilience in Europe, weather index insurance promotion in Africa, climate change adaptation based on traditional knowledge in the Polar Regions, and global joint decision-making in terms of regional issues of the Ocean. This paper takes the above five typical cases as the research objects, and the multi-case comparative research method is adopted to discuss regional climate change adaptation based on the pressure–state–response framework. It found that: (1) regional climate change adaptation faces significant pressure from cross-regional flows of finance, population, and species under climate change; (2) climate change hotspot maps based on climate change projections show regional climate vulnerability; (3) responses for regional climate change adaptation require active promotion of multi-level governance with horizontal and vertical cooperation. In the future, regional climate change adaptation should focus on inter-regional climate justice and equality, regional climate change adaptation pathways optimization, and how to effectively learn from typical regional climate adaptation cases. Full article
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17 pages, 779 KiB  
Article
Climate Change Knowledge and Perception among Farming Households in Nigeria
by Mustapha Yakubu Madaki, Steffen Muench, Harald Kaechele and Miroslava Bavorova
Climate 2023, 11(6), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli11060115 - 24 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3283
Abstract
Nigeria is committed to achieving a 20% unconditional and 45% conditional reduction of GHG emissions by 2030 through a strong focus on awareness of and preparedness for climate change impacts via the mobilization of local communities for climate change mitigation actions. As land [...] Read more.
Nigeria is committed to achieving a 20% unconditional and 45% conditional reduction of GHG emissions by 2030 through a strong focus on awareness of and preparedness for climate change impacts via the mobilization of local communities for climate change mitigation actions. As land cover changes and forestry contribute 38% and agriculture contributes 13% of the country’s GHGs, farmers are among the stakeholders to be aware of and prepare for climate change mitigations and adaptations. This study assessed the knowledge of agriculturally related practices associated with climate change and its relation to climate change perception. One thousand and eighty (1080) smallholder farmers were interviewed across six agroecological zones (AEZs) of Nigeria using a structured questionnaire. The results revealed that most farmers know that deforestation and land clearance by bush burning contributes to climate change. However, many farmers did not know that methane emissions from livestock (enteric fermentation) can cause climate change. Our results further show that the farmers’ perception of climate change is associated with climate change knowledge. Factors affecting the climate change knowledge of farmers include information received from government extension services, environmental NGOs, and radio, as well as experiencing extreme weather events. Farmers of dry AEZs were more aware and knowledgeable of the agricultural practices contributing to the changing environment. Increased exposure to climate change events thus appears to elevate the knowledge on the topic. Using government services, environmental NGOs, and radio to disseminate climate change information will help further in guiding and shaping farmers’ perceptions towards scientific findings for appropriate actions. Full article
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27 pages, 1110 KiB  
Review
Enhancing Climate Neutrality and Resilience through Coordinated Climate Action: Review of the Synergies between Mitigation and Adaptation Actions
by Grigorios L. Kyriakopoulos and Ioannis Sebos
Climate 2023, 11(5), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli11050105 - 10 May 2023
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 4010
Abstract
Recently, reported long-term climate change consequences, such as rising temperatures and melting glaciers, have emphasized mitigation and adaptation actions. While moderating the severity of climate changes, precautionary human actions can also protect the natural environment and human societies. Furthermore, public and private collaboration [...] Read more.
Recently, reported long-term climate change consequences, such as rising temperatures and melting glaciers, have emphasized mitigation and adaptation actions. While moderating the severity of climate changes, precautionary human actions can also protect the natural environment and human societies. Furthermore, public and private collaboration can leverage resources and expertise, resulting in more impactful mitigation and adaptation actions for effective climate change responses. A coordinated and strategic approach is necessary in order to prioritize these actions across different scales, enabling us to maximize the benefits of climate action and ensure a coordinated response to this global challenge. This study examines the interplay between climate mitigation and adaptation actions in Greece and the European Union (EU). We conducted a literature search using relevant keywords. The search results were systematically approached in alignment with two pairs of thematic homologous entities, enabling the review of these literature findings to be organized and holistically investigated. In this respect, the three fields of agriculture, energy, and multi-parametric determinants of climate neutrality have emerged and been discussed. Our analysis also focused on the key implemented and planned mitigation and adaptation climate actions. Through this review, we identified the most important motives and challenges related to joint adaptation and mitigation actions. Our findings underscore the need for a comprehensive approach to climate action planning that incorporates both adaptation and mitigation measures. Full article
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25 pages, 1389 KiB  
Article
Climate-Induced Non-Economic Loss and Damage: Understanding Policy Responses, Challenges, and Future Directions in Pacific Small Island Developing States
by Alvin Chandra, Karen E. McNamara, Rachel Clissold, Tammy Tabe and Ross Westoby
Climate 2023, 11(3), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli11030074 - 20 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4183
Abstract
Despite mitigation and adaptation efforts, the residual risks of climate change will continue to impact the most vulnerable communities globally. Highly exposed regions, such as the Pacific Islands, will continue to experience profound negative loss and damage as a result of climate change, [...] Read more.
Despite mitigation and adaptation efforts, the residual risks of climate change will continue to impact the most vulnerable communities globally. Highly exposed regions, such as the Pacific Islands, will continue to experience profound negative loss and damage as a result of climate change, which will challenge current ways of life. Knowledge on the extent to which regional and national climate change polices can identify and respond to non-economic loss and damage (NELD) is limited. From the perspectives of stakeholders in the Pacific Islands region, this research aims to gain insights into how regional and national policies are responding to NELD, as the well as the barriers, shortcomings, and requirements for future responses. Utilising a mixed qualitative–quantitative approach, this research explores the perspectives of expert informants, including those from the government, donors and development partners, civil society, intergovernmental organisations, and other relevant bodies, such as universities. The key findings of this study indicate that current policy responses include a regional policy that integrates disaster and climate change losses, national efforts to preserve traditional and local knowledge, national adaptation and resilience planning, community-based projects, and relocation and resettlement. Additionally, NELD is a relatively new concept for policymakers, practitioners, and researchers, and it is difficult to conceptualise the diversity of issues related to NELD in the region. Owing to this poor understanding, a key gap relates to the dominance of the economic lens when characterising climate-induced impacts in the region. As such, there is a limited holistic consideration of climate change impacts, and thus a limited appreciation of the interrelated factors of NELD within policy responses that then cascade towards communities. Finally, the paper outlines key policy insights as follows: policies on integration, adaptation, resilience planning, relocation and resettlement have advanced; the economic lens dominates when characterising climate-induced impacts on the region; there is a limited appreciation of the interrelated factors of NELD; and there exists a need to account for residual and intangible losses to land, culture, traditional knowledge, biodiversity, ecosystem services, and human agency. The insights gained from this research can provide a practical basis for guiding local to regional action and help support and design comprehensive risk management solutions in order to address NELD associated with climate change. Full article
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11 pages, 253 KiB  
Article
Ten Lessons for Effective Place-Based Climate Adaptation Planning Workshops
by Marc J. Stern, Kristin F. Hurst, Jennifer J. Brousseau, Caleb O’Brien and Lara J. Hansen
Climate 2023, 11(2), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli11020043 - 10 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2096
Abstract
Community efforts to consider climate change within local planning processes are increasingly common. Place-based climate adaptation workshops are commonly employed tools within these larger processes. The research, to date, on these phenomena has yielded mixed results, and the empirical evidence regarding what makes [...] Read more.
Community efforts to consider climate change within local planning processes are increasingly common. Place-based climate adaptation workshops are commonly employed tools within these larger processes. The research, to date, on these phenomena has yielded mixed results, and the empirical evidence regarding what makes these workshops more or less effective has been mostly based on small samples in disparate contexts. In an effort to seek consensus regarding what factors lead to effective workshop outcomes, including participant learning and the motivation to take action; improved adaptation planning processes and implementation; and the development or strengthening of positive relationships between the participants, twenty-two experienced climate adaptation workshop facilitators participated in a Delphi study involving iterative surveys followed by focus groups. In this short report, we present a synthesis of consensus-based recommendations resulting from the Delphi study for enhancing place-based climate adaptation workshop outcomes. These recommendations address recruitment; fitting the local context; adequately preparing the participants; clarifying the objectives; facilitation strategies; promoting local leadership, efficacy and accountability; and providing post-workshop support. We discuss the role of these strategies in developing feelings of collective efficacy, local leadership and accountability through social learning. Full article
25 pages, 352 KiB  
Article
Opportunities for Post−COP26 Governance to Facilitate the Deployment of Low−Carbon Energy Infrastructure: An Open Door Policy
by Muhammad Imran, Shiraz Khan, Khalid Zaman, Muhammad Siddique and Haroon ur Rashid Khan
Climate 2023, 11(2), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli11020029 - 19 Jan 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1833
Abstract
Temperatures worldwide continue to climb, while carbon emissions have exceeded previous records. To achieve environmental sustainability, countries with the Kyoto Protocol and Paris Agreement (COP26) demonstrate sophisticated technical expertise and deploy environmentally driven technologies, such as greenfield investment and renewable energy infrastructure. This [...] Read more.
Temperatures worldwide continue to climb, while carbon emissions have exceeded previous records. To achieve environmental sustainability, countries with the Kyoto Protocol and Paris Agreement (COP26) demonstrate sophisticated technical expertise and deploy environmentally driven technologies, such as greenfield investment and renewable energy infrastructure. This proposal presents an intriguing opportunity for policymakers to identify the distinct characteristics of institutional reforms and green energy sources that may be used to mitigate carbon emissions. Governance regulatory factors, foreign direct investment (FDI), renewable energy consumption (REC), research and development expenditures, urbanization, and carbon emissions are examined in Pakistan. The study estimated the short- and long-run association between the variables using the ARDL bounds testing method for 1996Q1 to 2020Q4. In the short run, in terms of carbon emissions and economic output, the country has an upturned cord environmental Kuznets curve (EKC). The race-to-the-bottom concept holds for countries with U-shaped EKCs in the long term. The negative correlation between overseas investment and environmental damage supports the environmental halo hypothesis. Investment in research and technology may reduce emissions, even though urbanization increases them. Future and present REC are often intertwined with carbon footprints. Carbon emissions are also strongly connected with indicators of institutional quality (IQ), such as procedural efficiency, administrative effectiveness, and political unrest. The research findings demonstrated unidirectional Granger causality running from urbanization, government effectiveness, economic growth, and R&D expenditures to carbon emissions to validate urban-led emissions, institutional-led emissions, growth-led emissions, and innovation-led emissions in a country. Furthermore, R&D expenditure Granger causality was linked to inbound FDI, while government effectiveness Granger causality was linked to REC and R&D expenditures. Following the COP26 guidelines for achieving shared prosperity, the study concluded that good governance reforms, R&D expenditures, greenfield investment, and REC promote environmental sustainability and maintain air quality. Full article

2022

Jump to: 2023, 2021

22 pages, 2636 KiB  
Article
Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation in a Hill Farming System of the Himalayan Region: Climatic Trends, Farmers’ Perceptions and Practices
by Khem Raj Dahal, Piyush Dahal, Raj Kumar Adhikari, Veera Naukkarinen, Dinesh Panday, Niranjan Bista, Juha Helenius and Buddhi Marambe
Climate 2023, 11(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli11010011 - 30 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 5843
Abstract
Farming communities in the hills and mountains of the Himalayan region are some of the most vulnerable to the changing climate, owing to their specific biophysical and socioeconomic conditions. Understanding the observed parameters of the changing climate and the farmers’ perceptions of it, [...] Read more.
Farming communities in the hills and mountains of the Himalayan region are some of the most vulnerable to the changing climate, owing to their specific biophysical and socioeconomic conditions. Understanding the observed parameters of the changing climate and the farmers’ perceptions of it, together with their coping approaches, is an important asset to making farming communities resilient. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the observed change in climatic variables; understand farmers’ perceptions of the changing climate; and document their adaptation approaches in farming systems in the mid-hills of the central Himalayas. Data on the observed change in climatic variables were obtained from the nearby meteorological stations and gridded regional products, and farmers’ perceptions and their adaptation practices were collected from household surveys and from the interviews of key informants. The analysis of temperature data revealed that there has been a clear warming trend. Winter temperatures are increasing faster than summer and annual temperatures, indicating a narrowing temperature range. Results on precipitation did not show a clear trend but exhibited large inter-annual variability. The standardized precipitation index (SPI) showed an increased frequency of droughts in recent years. Farmers’ perceptions of the changing climate are coherent with the observed changes in climatic parameters. These changes may have a substantial impact on agriculture and the livelihood of the people in the study area. The farmers are adapting to climate change by altering their farming systems and practices. Location-specific adaptation approaches used by farmers are valuable assets for community resilience. Full article
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16 pages, 295 KiB  
Article
A Community Capitals Assessment of Climate Adaptations to Traditional Milpa Farming Practices in Mayan Communities of Southern Belize
by Kristin Drexler
Climate 2022, 10(11), 176; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli10110176 - 14 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1860
Abstract
Climate change has exacerbated food and livelihood insecurity for Mayan milpa farmers in Central America. For centuries, milpa farming has been sustainable for subsistence; however, in the last 50 years, milpas have become less reliable due to accelerating climate change, resource degradation, declining [...] Read more.
Climate change has exacerbated food and livelihood insecurity for Mayan milpa farmers in Central America. For centuries, milpa farming has been sustainable for subsistence; however, in the last 50 years, milpas have become less reliable due to accelerating climate change, resource degradation, declining markets, poverty, and other factors. Increasing climate-smart agriculture (CSA) practices may be needed. Using interviews with extension leaders and milpa farmers in Belize, this qualitative study examines the capacity for increasing CSA aspects of existing traditional milpa practices, specifically no-burn mulching, soil enrichment, and the use of cover plants. Applying a modified Community Capitals Framework, this study finds four key capitals were perceived by farmers and agriculture extension leaders as barriers for increasing CSA practices. Recommendations to reduce the key barriers include reinstating markets and crop-buying programs and easing border customs restrictions (Governance-Justice and Financial Capitals), improving roads and cellular access for farmers (Infrastructure Capital), and increasing budgets and resources for agriculture extension services and building farmer capacity for CSA practices of mulching, soil enrichment, and cover plants (Human-Capacity Capital). Reducing barriers to these key capitals can facilitate an increase in milpa CSA practices and crop productivity, promote food and livelihood security, and enable climate resilience of Mayan milpa communities in Belize. Full article
38 pages, 2198 KiB  
Article
Exploring Gender and Climate Change Nexus, and Empowering Women in the South Western Coastal Region of Bangladesh for Adaptation and Mitigation
by Ashrafuzzaman Md, Carla Gomes, João Miguel Dias and Artemi Cerdà
Climate 2022, 10(11), 172; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli10110172 - 7 Nov 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 7412
Abstract
This study has been conducted to identify vulnerabilities and effects of climate change on women in 12 unions in Shyamnagar upazila in the Satkhira district in the Southwestern Coastal Region of Bangladesh (SWCRB). Climate vulnerability and gender inequality may increase due to climate [...] Read more.
This study has been conducted to identify vulnerabilities and effects of climate change on women in 12 unions in Shyamnagar upazila in the Satkhira district in the Southwestern Coastal Region of Bangladesh (SWCRB). Climate vulnerability and gender inequality may increase due to climate change. Women may, thus, face specific conditions of vulnerability in society and daily livelihood. This paper focuses on investigating factors that influence women’s vulnerability from climate change, their adaptations, and the importance of women empowerment to reduce their inequality in SWCRB. This study also emphasizes gender inequality caused by climate change, and looks at accommodations for women to reduce hostile influences of climate change. From the 9 unions in SWCRB, a total of 320 household respondents were randomly selected to complete a questionnaire. The results of the statistical analysis showed that most of the survey’s perimeter has significant. Interviews, case studies, focus group discussions, workshops, and key informant interviews were also conducted from 12 unions, and it was found that climate change impacts men and women differently, with women being more vulnerable than men. Through case study this paper investigated the main factors influencing the vulnerability of women. In terms of empowerment women may also be well positioned to lead adaptation efforts alongside men, as this analysis represent that gender inequalities are leading by social norms. Women being more vulnerable both in short-term i.e., major natural disasters, cyclones, flood, and long-term i.e., sea level rise, salinity intrusion in water and soil, land erosion, droughts, climatic events, as they enhance gender inequalities. Further, gender inequality is seen in illiteracy, food shortages and poor health conditions, traditional norms, religious taboos, and patriarchy. Moreover, gender-based economic opportunities, women’s mobility, and income are changing, while household authority relations and gender-based socio-economic, cultural, and institutional constraints remain. This study examines the increased vulnerability of women in SWCRB to climate change, which can be mitigated through women empowerment; female involvement with environmentally friendly stoves, rural electrification and renewable energy development, microfinancing, and nakshikantha. (Nakshikantha is a special type of sewing art that is made by creating designs with different types of colored threads on plain stitches). Lastly, women may also lead adaptation efforts alongside men, make decisions, and promote their participation. Full article
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20 pages, 3140 KiB  
Article
Climate Shocks and Social Networks: Understanding Adaptation among Rural Indian Households
by Richard Anthony Ramsawak
Climate 2022, 10(10), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli10100149 - 12 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1629
Abstract
This paper seeks to uncover the impact of negative rainfall shocks on household social network relationships. I leverage the uncertainty generated from fluctuating long-term rainfall patterns across India, to estimate the impact of heightened climate risks on investments in social network relationships. In [...] Read more.
This paper seeks to uncover the impact of negative rainfall shocks on household social network relationships. I leverage the uncertainty generated from fluctuating long-term rainfall patterns across India, to estimate the impact of heightened climate risks on investments in social network relationships. In so doing, I attempt to disentangle the “direct” and “adaptive” impacts of climate shocks on social network relationships. I found that households that experience higher than average negative rainfall shocks (lower than average rainfall levels over the long term) tend to invest more in family–caste and vertical or linked network relationships. These network relationships were also found to be associated with greater access to financial credit, credit sourced specifically from family members, higher reported collaboration, more diversified businesses, and the use of private irrigation technologies, all of which are key to mitigating the negative impacts of climate shocks. Unlike past research, these results suggest that households’ decisions to invest in social networks may be an adaptive response to higher climate risk. In terms of policy implications, these results highlight the importance of strengthening and supporting family-based and linked networks (such as links to local governmental agencies and extension services) in the face of higher climate risks. Full article
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33 pages, 694 KiB  
Review
Adaptation Strategies and Approaches for Managing Fire in a Changing Climate
by Martha Sample, Andrea E. Thode, Courtney Peterson, Michael R. Gallagher, William Flatley, Megan Friggens, Alexander Evans, Rachel Loehman, Shaula Hedwall, Leslie Brandt, Maria Janowiak and Christopher Swanston
Climate 2022, 10(4), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli10040058 - 8 Apr 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 7697
Abstract
As the effects of climate change accumulate and intensify, resource managers juggle existing goals and new mandates to operationalize adaptation. Fire managers contend with the direct effects of climate change on resources in addition to climate-induced disruptions to fire regimes and subsequent ecosystem [...] Read more.
As the effects of climate change accumulate and intensify, resource managers juggle existing goals and new mandates to operationalize adaptation. Fire managers contend with the direct effects of climate change on resources in addition to climate-induced disruptions to fire regimes and subsequent ecosystem effects. In systems stressed by warming and drying, increased fire activity amplifies the pace of change and scale of severe disturbance events, heightening the urgency for management action. Fire managers are asked to integrate information on climate impacts with their professional expertise to determine how to achieve management objectives in a changing climate with altered fire regimes. This is a difficult task, and managers need support as they incorporate climate adaptation into planning and operations. We present a list of adaptation strategies and approaches specific to fire and climate based on co-produced knowledge from a science–management partnership and pilot-tested in a two-day workshop with natural resource managers and regional stakeholders. This “menu” is a flexible and useful tool for fire managers who need to connect the dots between fire ecology, climate science, adaptation intent, and management implementation. It was created and tested as part of an adaptation framework used widely across the United States and should be applicable and useful in many fire-prone forest ecosystems. Full article
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20 pages, 1941 KiB  
Article
Climate Change, Voluntary Immobility, and Place-Belongingness: Insights from Togoru, Fiji
by Merewalesi Yee, Annah E. Piggott-McKellar, Celia McMichael and Karen E. McNamara
Climate 2022, 10(3), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli10030046 - 20 Mar 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 5416
Abstract
Many low-lying communities around the world are increasingly experiencing coastal hazard risks. As such, climate-related relocation has received significant global attention as an adaptation response. However, emerging cases of populations resisting relocation in preference for remaining in place are emerging. This paper provides [...] Read more.
Many low-lying communities around the world are increasingly experiencing coastal hazard risks. As such, climate-related relocation has received significant global attention as an adaptation response. However, emerging cases of populations resisting relocation in preference for remaining in place are emerging. This paper provides an account of residents of Togoru, a low-lying coastal settlement on Viti Levu Island, Fiji. Despite facing significant coastal impacts in the form of coastal erosion, tidal inundation, and saltwater intrusion, Togoru residents are opposing plans for relocation; instead opting for in-situ adaptation. We conceptualize place-belongingness to a land and people—through personal, historic and ancestral, relational, cultural, economic, and legal connections—as critical to adaptation and mobility decision-making. We argue that for adaptation strategies to be successful and sustainable, they must acknowledge the values, perspectives, and preferences of local people and account for the tangible and intangible connections to a place. Full article
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2021

Jump to: 2023, 2022

15 pages, 3284 KiB  
Article
Assessing Farmers’ Typologies of Perception for Adopting Sustainable Adaptation Strategies in Bangladesh
by Abu Reza Md. Towfiqul Islam, Md. Hasanuzzaman, Mahmud Jaman, Edris Alam, Javed Mallick, G. M. Monirul Alam, Md. Abdus Sattar and Kuaanan Techato
Climate 2021, 9(12), 167; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli9120167 - 23 Nov 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3286
Abstract
The implementation of sustainable adaptation strategies (SASs) is crucial to mitigate climate change impact as well as reduce the loss of natural disasters and increase agricultural crop production. However, current policies and programs based on agricultural incentives are mostly inadequate to increase SASs [...] Read more.
The implementation of sustainable adaptation strategies (SASs) is crucial to mitigate climate change impact as well as reduce the loss of natural disasters and increase agricultural crop production. However, current policies and programs based on agricultural incentives are mostly inadequate to increase SASs practices at the farm level. Hence, a deeper understanding of farmers’ ‘perceived typologies to the environmental issue and climate change’ is necessary for implementing SASs to enhance farmers’ ability to adapt at the farm level. This research intends to demarcate farmers in various categories, according to their perceptions on environmental and climate change issues in the northern part of Bangladesh. Principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) were employed to analyze the survey data collected from 501 households in the study area. Farmers were clustered into three types, ‘Ecocentric’, ‘Worried’, and ‘Anthropocentric’, based on their perceived knowledge regarding environmental issues and climate change, which guides the adoption of SASs. The ‘Worried’ cluster showed a high sense of perceived risk of climate change and a significant positive association with the adoption of SASs. By contrast, ‘Ecocentric’ and ‘Anthropocentric’ groups showed a low sense of awareness of climate change and a significant negative association with the adoption of SASs. The findings can assist policymakers in promoting the adoption of SASs based on the farmers’ cluster and thus enhance their resilience. Full article
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17 pages, 7344 KiB  
Article
Water Sensitive Cities: An Integrated Approach to Enhance Urban Flood Resilience in Parma (Northern Italy)
by Arianna Dada, Christian Urich, Francesca Berteni, Michèle Pezzagno, Patrizia Piro and Giovanna Grossi
Climate 2021, 9(10), 152; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli9100152 - 16 Oct 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3518
Abstract
Climate change is globally causing more intense meteorological phenomena. Our cities experience increased rainfall intensity, more intense heat waves, and prolonged droughts providing economic, social, health and environmental challenges. Combined with population growth and rapid urbanization, the increasing impact of climate change will [...] Read more.
Climate change is globally causing more intense meteorological phenomena. Our cities experience increased rainfall intensity, more intense heat waves, and prolonged droughts providing economic, social, health and environmental challenges. Combined with population growth and rapid urbanization, the increasing impact of climate change will make our cities more and more vulnerable, especially to urban flooding. In order to adapt our urban water systems to these challenges, the adoption of newly emerging water management strategies is required. The complexity and scale of this challenge calls for the integration of knowledge from different disciplines and collaborative approaches. The water sensitive cities principles provide guidance for developing new techniques, strategies, policies, and tools to improve the livability, sustainability, and resilience of cities. In this study, the DAnCE4Water modeling approach promoting the development of water sensitive cities was applied to Parma, an Italian town that has faced serious water issues in the last few years. The city, indeed, had to face the consequences of flooding several times, caused by the inadequacy of both the network of open channels and the sewerage network due to the urban expansion and climate change of the last 30 years. Through the model, the efficiency of decentralized technologies, such as green roofs and porous pavement, and their integration with the existing centralized combined sewer system was assessed under a range of urban development scenarios. The obtained results show that the adoption of an integrated approach, including soft engineering hydraulic strategies, consisting in the use of natural and sustainable solutions, can increase resilience to urban flooding. Further, the study shows that there is a critical need for strategic investment in solutions that will deliver long-term sustainable outcomes. Full article
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21 pages, 1518 KiB  
Review
Review and Comparative Study of Decision Support Tools for the Mitigation of Urban Heat Stress
by Aiman Mazhar Qureshi and Ahmed Rachid
Climate 2021, 9(6), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli9060102 - 21 Jun 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3630
Abstract
Over the last few decades, Urban Heat Stress (UHS) has become a crucial concern of scientists and policy-makers. Many projects have been implemented to mitigate Urban Heat Island (UHI) effects using nature-based solutions. However, decision-making and selecting an adequate framework are difficult because [...] Read more.
Over the last few decades, Urban Heat Stress (UHS) has become a crucial concern of scientists and policy-makers. Many projects have been implemented to mitigate Urban Heat Island (UHI) effects using nature-based solutions. However, decision-making and selecting an adequate framework are difficult because of complex interactions between natural, social, economic and built environments. This paper contributes to the UHI issue by: (i) identifying the most important key factors of a Decision Support Tool (DST) used for urban heat mitigation, (ii) presenting multi-criteria methods applied to urban heat resilience, (iii) reviewing existing spatial and non-spatial DSTs, (iv) and analyzing, classifying and ranking DSTs. It aims to help decision-makers through an overview of the pros and cons of existing DSTs and indicate which tool is providing maximum support for choosing and planning heat resilience measures from the designing phase to the heat mitigation phase. This review shows that Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) can be used for any pilot site and the criteria can be adapted to the given location accordingly. It also highlights that GIS-based spatial tools have an effective decision support system (DSS) because they offer a quick assessment of interventions and predict long-term effects of urban heat. Through a comparative study using specific chosen criteria, we conclude that the DSS tool is well suited and fulfils many prerequisites to support new policies and interventions to mitigate UHS. Full article
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14 pages, 5024 KiB  
Article
An Alternative Co-Benefit Framework Prioritizing Health Impacts: Potential Air Pollution and Climate Change Mitigation Pathways through Energy Sector Fuel Substitution in South Korea
by Dafydd Phillips and Tae Yong Jung
Climate 2021, 9(6), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli9060101 - 20 Jun 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 7125
Abstract
South Korea had the highest annual average PM2.5 exposure levels in the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in 2019, and air pollution is consistently ranked as citizens’ top environmental concern. South Korea is also one of the world’s top ten emitter [...] Read more.
South Korea had the highest annual average PM2.5 exposure levels in the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in 2019, and air pollution is consistently ranked as citizens’ top environmental concern. South Korea is also one of the world’s top ten emitter countries of CO2. Co-benefit mitigation policies can address both air pollution and climate change. Utilizing an alternative co-benefit approach, which views air pollution reduction as the primary goal and climate change mitigation as secondary, this research conducts a scenario analysis to forecast the health and climate benefits of fuel substitution in South Korea’s electricity generation sector. Health benefits are calculated by avoided premature mortality and years of life lost (YLL) due to ischemic heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung cancer, and acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI). The study finds that use of liquefied natural gas (LNG) instead of coal over the 2022–2050 period would result in an average of 116 fewer premature deaths (1152 YLL) and 80.8 MTCO2e fewer emissions per year. Over the same period, maintaining and maximizing the use of its nuclear energy capacity, combined with replacing coal use with LNG, would result in an average of 161 fewer premature deaths (1608 YLL) and 123.7 MTCO2e fewer emissions per year. Full article
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13 pages, 875 KiB  
Review
Ecosystem-Based Adaptation to Protect Avian Species in Coastal Communities in the Greater Niagara Region, Canada
by Samantha Gauthier, Bradley May and Liette Vasseur
Climate 2021, 9(6), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli9060091 - 4 Jun 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3733
Abstract
Coastal communities are increasingly vulnerable to climate change and its effects may push coastal ecosystems to undergo irreversible changes. This is especially true for shorebirds with the loss of biodiversity and resource-rich habitats to rest, refuel, and breed. To protect these species, it [...] Read more.
Coastal communities are increasingly vulnerable to climate change and its effects may push coastal ecosystems to undergo irreversible changes. This is especially true for shorebirds with the loss of biodiversity and resource-rich habitats to rest, refuel, and breed. To protect these species, it is critical to conduct research related to nature-based Solutions (NbS). Through a scoping review of scientific literature, this paper initially identified 85 articles with various ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA) strategies that could help conserve shorebird populations and promote ecotourism. Of these 85 articles, 28 articles had EbA strategies that were examined, with some like coral reefs and mangroves eliminated as they were inappropriate for this region. The scoping review identified four major EbA strategies for the Greater Niagara Region with living shorelines and beach nourishment being the most suitable, especially when combined. These strategies were then evaluated against the eight core principles of nature-based solutions protecting shorebird as well as human wellbeing. Living shoreline strategy was the only one that met all eight NbS principles. As the coastline of the region greatly varies in substrate and development, further research will be needed to decide which EbA strategies would be appropriate for each specific area to ensure their efficacy. Full article
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16 pages, 805 KiB  
Article
Beyond Planning Tools: Experiential Learning in Climate Adaptation Planning and Practices
by Kristen M. Schmitt, Todd A. Ontl, Stephen D. Handler, Maria K. Janowiak, Leslie A. Brandt, Patricia R. Butler-Leopold, P. Danielle Shannon, Courtney L. Peterson and Christopher W. Swanston
Climate 2021, 9(5), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli9050076 - 7 May 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 5074
Abstract
In the past decade, several dedicated tools have been developed to help natural resources professionals integrate climate science into their planning and implementation; however, it is unclear how often these tools lead to on-the-ground climate adaptation. Here, we describe a training approach that [...] Read more.
In the past decade, several dedicated tools have been developed to help natural resources professionals integrate climate science into their planning and implementation; however, it is unclear how often these tools lead to on-the-ground climate adaptation. Here, we describe a training approach that we developed to help managers effectively plan to execute intentional, climate-informed actions. This training approach was developed through the Climate Change Response Framework (CCRF) and uses active and focused work time and peer-to-peer interaction to overcome observed barriers to using adaptation planning tools. We evaluate the effectiveness of this approach by examining participant evaluations and outlining the progress of natural resources projects that have participated in our trainings. We outline a case study that describes how this training approach can lead to place and context-based climate-informed action. Finally, we describe best practices based on our experience for engaging natural resources professionals and helping them increase their comfort with climate-informed planning. Full article
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16 pages, 2554 KiB  
Article
Mapping Vulnerability of Cotton to Climate Change in West Africa: Challenges for Sustainable Development
by Mary Ann Cunningham, Nicholas S. Wright, Penelope B. Mort Ranta, Hannah K. Benton, Hassan G. Ragy, Christopher J. Edington and Chloe A. Kellner
Climate 2021, 9(4), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli9040068 - 19 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3660
Abstract
Climate models project vulnerability to global warming in low-income regions, with important implications for sustainable development. While food crops are the priority, smallholder cash crops support food security, education, and other priorities. Despite its importance as a populous region subject to substantial climate [...] Read more.
Climate models project vulnerability to global warming in low-income regions, with important implications for sustainable development. While food crops are the priority, smallholder cash crops support food security, education, and other priorities. Despite its importance as a populous region subject to substantial climate change, West Africa has received relatively slight attention in spatial assessments of climate impacts. In this region, rainfed cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) provides essential smallholder income. We used a spatially explicit species distribution model to project likely changes in the spatial distribution of suitable climates for rainfed cotton in West Africa. We modeled suitable climate conditions from the recent past (1970–2000) and projected the range of those conditions in 2050 (Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5). The suitable area declined by 60 percent under RCP4.5 and by 80 percent under RCP8.5. Of 15 countries in the study area, all but two declined to less than ten percent suitable under RCP8.5. The annual precipitation was the most influential factor in explaining baseline cotton distribution, but 2050 temperatures appear to become the limiting factor, rising beyond the range in which rainfed cotton has historically been grown. Adaptation to these changes and progress on sustainable development goals will depend on responses at multiple scales of governance, including global support and cooperation. Full article
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17 pages, 277 KiB  
Article
Transforming Local Climate Adaptation Organization: Barriers and Progress in 13 Swedish Municipalities
by Ann-Catrin Kristianssen and Mikael Granberg
Climate 2021, 9(4), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli9040052 - 30 Mar 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4717
Abstract
Local strategies and policies are key in climate adaptation, although research shows significant barriers to progress. Sweden, often seen as progressive in climate change issues, has struggled in adopting a sufficient local climate adaptation organization. This article aimed to describe and analyze the [...] Read more.
Local strategies and policies are key in climate adaptation, although research shows significant barriers to progress. Sweden, often seen as progressive in climate change issues, has struggled in adopting a sufficient local climate adaptation organization. This article aimed to describe and analyze the climate adaptation organization in 13 Swedish municipalities from five perspectives: Problem framing, administrative and political agency, administrative and political structures, measures and solutions, and the role of learning. The mapping of these perspectives provides an opportunity to analyze barriers to local climate adaptation. Key policy documents have been studied including climate adaptation plans, crisis management plans, and regulatory documents, as well as documents from private consultants. This study showed that few municipalities have a formal organization for climate adaptation, clear structures, political support, and specific climate adaptation plans. At the same time, many of the municipalities are planning for transformation, due to a push from the county board, a lead agency in climate adaptation. There are also ample networks providing opportunities for learning among municipalities and regions. This study concluded that one key barrier is the lack of focus and prioritization in a majority of the municipalities, leaving the administrators, often planners, in a more activist position. The need for organizational mainstreaming and resources is emphasized. Full article
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