Special Issue "Label-Free Biosensors and Chemical Sensors"

A special issue of Chemosensors (ISSN 2227-9040).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Despina Moschou

Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY, United Kingdom
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Lab-on-Chip; electrochemical biosensors; Point-of-Care diagnostics
Guest Editor
Dr. Pedro Estrela

Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Bath, Bath, United Kingdom
Website | E-Mail
Interests: BioFETs; electrochemical impedance; aptamer-based sensors; label-free electrochemical arrays

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Until recently, the employment of labels (radioisotope, fluorescent dyes, enzymes) has been considered as a pre-requisite in monitoring biological interactions. While label strategies seem straightforward in biological and chemical sensor technology, they suffer from inherent disadvantages: Impact on labelled molecule bioactivity, variability when tagging different molecules, increased cost, increased assay time, increased complexity for microsystem implementations. Label-free approaches on the other hand, reduce biochemical interaction to the minimum required: Molecule/cell A and molecule/cell B. Owing to this specific advantage, label-free sensors are increasingly being pursued both by researchers and by the relevant industries as an alternative.

The purpose of this Special Issue in “Label-Free Biosensors and Chemical Sensors” is to present the state-of-the-art of this wide field, including all relevant transduction approaches: Optical, electronic, mechanical. Molecular and biomolecular sensors will be presented, along with whole cell-based sensing methodologies. Emphasis will be placed in sensing assays with potential in high-throughput analysis and miniaturization into microsystems.

Dr. Despina Moschou
Dr. Pedro Estrela
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Chemosensors is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 350 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Label-free assay
  • Biosensor
  • Chemical sensor
  • High-throughput
  • Miniaturization

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Label-Free Biosensing Method for the Detection of a Pancreatic Cancer Biomarker Based on Dielectrophoresis Spectroscopy
Chemosensors 2018, 6(3), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors6030033
Received: 9 July 2018 / Revised: 7 August 2018 / Accepted: 7 August 2018 / Published: 11 August 2018
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Abstract
We show that negative dielectrophoresis (DEP) spectroscopy is an effective transduction mechanism of a biosensor for the diagnosis and prognosis of pancreatic cancer using the biomarker CA 19-9. A substantial change in the negative DEP force applied to functionalized polystyrene microspheres (PM) was
[...] Read more.
We show that negative dielectrophoresis (DEP) spectroscopy is an effective transduction mechanism of a biosensor for the diagnosis and prognosis of pancreatic cancer using the biomarker CA 19-9. A substantial change in the negative DEP force applied to functionalized polystyrene microspheres (PM) was observed with respect to both the concentration level of the pancreatic cancer biomarker CA 19-9 and the frequency of the electric field produced by a pearl shaped interdigitated gold micro-electrode. The velocity of repulsion of a set of PM functionalized to a monoclonal antibody to CA 19-9 was calculated for several concentration cutoff levels of CA 19-9, including 0 U/mL and 37 U/mL, at the frequency range from 0.5 to 2 MHz. The velocity of repulsion of the PM from the electrode was determined using a side illumination and an automated software using a real-time image processing technique that captures the Mie scattering from the PM. Since negative DEP spectroscopy is an effective transduction mechanism for the detection of the cutoff levels of CA 19-9, it has the potential to be used in the early stage diagnosis and in the prognosis of pancreatic cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Label-Free Biosensors and Chemical Sensors)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Towards Rational Chemosensor Design through Improved Understanding of Experimental Parameter Variation and Tolerance in Cyclodextrin-Promoted Fluorescence Detection
Chemosensors 2017, 5(4), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors5040034
Received: 18 October 2017 / Revised: 1 December 2017 / Accepted: 7 December 2017 / Published: 12 December 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3232 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
We have previously developed a highly efficient fluorescence-based toxicant-detection method that operates in complex environments to detect aromatic toxicants and toxicant metabolites with high sensitivity and selectivity. This method relies on the ability of γ-cyclodextrin to act as a supramolecular scaffold, and uses
[...] Read more.
We have previously developed a highly efficient fluorescence-based toxicant-detection method that operates in complex environments to detect aromatic toxicants and toxicant metabolites with high sensitivity and selectivity. This method relies on the ability of γ-cyclodextrin to act as a supramolecular scaffold, and uses a variety of non-covalent interactions between the cyclodextrin, toxicant, and fluorophore to enable efficient detection. Reported herein is an investigation of the effect of various experimental parameters, including host concentration, temperature, pH, salt, and solvent, on the observed energy-transfer efficiencies. These results advance our understanding of γ-cyclodextrin-based association complexes and provide crucial information for the development of fluorescence-based sensors using such complexation and the resultant fluorescence-based detection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Label-Free Biosensors and Chemical Sensors)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Label-Free Biosensors Based onto Monolithically Integrated onto Silicon Optical Transducers
Chemosensors 2018, 6(4), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors6040052
Received: 13 September 2018 / Revised: 2 November 2018 / Accepted: 6 November 2018 / Published: 12 November 2018
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Abstract
The article reviews the current status of label-free integrated optical biosensors focusing on the evolution over the years of their analytical performance. At first, a short introduction to the evanescent wave optics is provided followed by detailed description of the main categories of
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The article reviews the current status of label-free integrated optical biosensors focusing on the evolution over the years of their analytical performance. At first, a short introduction to the evanescent wave optics is provided followed by detailed description of the main categories of label-free optical biosensors, including sensors based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR), grating couplers, photonic crystals, ring resonators, and interferometric transducers. For each type of biosensor, the detection principle is first provided followed by description of the different transducer configurations so far developed and their performance as biosensors. Finally, a short discussion about the current limitations and future perspectives of integrated label-free optical biosensors is provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Label-Free Biosensors and Chemical Sensors)
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Open AccessReview Advancements and Potential Applications of Microfluidic Approaches—A Review
Chemosensors 2018, 6(4), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors6040046
Received: 15 August 2018 / Revised: 11 October 2018 / Accepted: 12 October 2018 / Published: 15 October 2018
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Abstract
A micro-level technique so-called “microfluidic technology or simply microfluidic” has gained a special place as a powerful tool in bioengineering and biomedical engineering research due to its core advantages in modern science and engineering. Microfluidic technology has played a substantial role in numerous
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A micro-level technique so-called “microfluidic technology or simply microfluidic” has gained a special place as a powerful tool in bioengineering and biomedical engineering research due to its core advantages in modern science and engineering. Microfluidic technology has played a substantial role in numerous applications with special reference to bioscience, biomedical and biotechnological research. It has facilitated noteworthy development in various sectors of bio-research and upsurges the efficacy of research at the molecular level, in recent years. Microfluidic technology can manipulate sample volumes with precise control outside cellular microenvironment, at micro-level. Thus, enable the reduction of discrepancies between in vivo and in vitro environments and reduce the overall reaction time and cost. In this review, we discuss various integrations of microfluidic technologies into biotechnology and its paradigmatic significance in bio-research, supporting mechanical and chemical in vitro cellular microenvironment. Furthermore, specific innovations related to the application of microfluidics to advance microbial life, solitary and co-cultures along with a multiple-type cell culturing, cellular communications, cellular interactions, and population dynamics are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Label-Free Biosensors and Chemical Sensors)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Microfluidic Devices for Label-Free DNA Detection
Chemosensors 2018, 6(4), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors6040043
Received: 2 August 2018 / Revised: 17 September 2018 / Accepted: 18 September 2018 / Published: 25 September 2018
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Abstract
Sensitive and specific DNA biomarker detection is critical for accurately diagnosing a broad range of clinical conditions. However, the incorporation of such biosensing structures in integrated microfluidic devices is often complicated by the need for an additional labelling step to be implemented on
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Sensitive and specific DNA biomarker detection is critical for accurately diagnosing a broad range of clinical conditions. However, the incorporation of such biosensing structures in integrated microfluidic devices is often complicated by the need for an additional labelling step to be implemented on the device. In this review we focused on presenting recent advances in label-free DNA biosensor technology, with a particular focus on microfluidic integrated devices. The key biosensing approaches miniaturized in flow-cell structures were presented, followed by more sophisticated microfluidic devices and higher integration examples in the literature. The option of full DNA sequencing on microfluidic chips via nanopore technology was highlighted, along with current developments in the commercialization of microfluidic, label-free DNA detection devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Label-Free Biosensors and Chemical Sensors)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Label-Free Sensing in Microdroplet-Based Microfluidic Systems
Chemosensors 2018, 6(2), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors6020023
Received: 31 March 2018 / Revised: 14 May 2018 / Accepted: 17 May 2018 / Published: 24 May 2018
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Abstract
Droplet microfluidic systems have evolved as fluidic platforms that use much less sample volume and provide high throughput for biochemical analysis compared to conventional microfluidic devices. The variety of droplet fluidic applications triggered several detection techniques to be applied for analysis of droplets.
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Droplet microfluidic systems have evolved as fluidic platforms that use much less sample volume and provide high throughput for biochemical analysis compared to conventional microfluidic devices. The variety of droplet fluidic applications triggered several detection techniques to be applied for analysis of droplets. In this review, we focus on label-free droplet detection techniques that were adapted to various droplet microfluidic platforms. We provide a classification of most commonly used droplet platform technologies. Then we discuss the examples of various label-free droplet detection schemes implemented for these platforms. While providing the research landscape for label-free droplet detection methods, we aim to highlight the strengths and shortcomings of each droplet platform so that a more targeted approach can be taken by researchers when selecting a droplet platform and a detection scheme for any given application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Label-Free Biosensors and Chemical Sensors)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Detection and Digital Resolution Counting of Nanoparticles with Optical Resonators and Applications in Biosensing
Chemosensors 2018, 6(2), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors6020013
Received: 4 December 2017 / Revised: 16 March 2018 / Accepted: 23 March 2018 / Published: 29 March 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (69330 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The interaction between nanoparticles and the electromagnetic fields associated with optical nanostructures enables sensing with single-nanoparticle limits of detection and digital resolution counting of captured nanoparticles through their intrinsic dielectric permittivity, absorption, and scattering. This paper will review the fundamental sensing methods, device
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The interaction between nanoparticles and the electromagnetic fields associated with optical nanostructures enables sensing with single-nanoparticle limits of detection and digital resolution counting of captured nanoparticles through their intrinsic dielectric permittivity, absorption, and scattering. This paper will review the fundamental sensing methods, device structures, and detection instruments that have demonstrated the capability to observe the binding and interaction of nanoparticles at the single-unit level, where the nanoparticles are comprised of biomaterial (in the case of a virus or liposome), metal (plasmonic and magnetic nanomaterials), or inorganic dielectric material (such as TiO2 or SiN). We classify sensing approaches based upon their ability to observe single-nanoparticle attachment/detachment events that occur in a specific location, versus approaches that are capable of generating images of nanoparticle attachment on a nanostructured surface. We describe applications that include study of biomolecular interactions, viral load monitoring, and enzyme-free detection of biomolecules in a test sample in the context of in vitro diagnostics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Label-Free Biosensors and Chemical Sensors)
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