Special Issue "Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Cancers: Ovarian Cancer"

A special issue of Cells (ISSN 2073-4409). This special issue belongs to the section "Cellular Pathology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Delia Mezzanzanica
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan, Unit of Molecular Therapies, Milan, Italy
Interests: Translational research; ovarian cancer; prognostic/predictive biomarker identification; miRNA/gene expression profiling; mechanisms of chemoresistance
Dr. Gustavo Baldassarre
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Director, Division of Molecular Oncology, Department of Research and Diagnostic, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico (CRO-Aviano), National Cancer Institute, 33081 Aviano, Italy
Tel. +39-0434-659759; +39-0434-659233; Fax: +39-0434-659428
Interests: translational research on breast, ovarian and head and neck cancers; investigating the molecular mechanisms controlling cell proliferation, motility, metastasis and drug resistance in cancer; molecular diagnostic of solid tumor on both solid and liquid biopsies
Dr. Stefano Indraccolo
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Istituto Oncologico Veneto IOV - IRCCS, Padova, Italy
Tel. +39-0498215875; Fax: +39-0498072854
Interests: Translational research; lung cancer and ovarian cancer; Notch signaling in cancer; tumor angiogenesis and metabolism; mechanisms of resistance to antiangiogenic therapy; prognostic/predictive biomarker identification
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Marina Bagnoli
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori di Milano, Department of Research, Unit of Molecular Therapies, Milan, Italy
Interests: Translational research; ovarian cancer; functional genomics; prognostic/predictive biomarker identification; mechanisms of chemoresistance

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Epithelial ovarian cancer (OC) is the leading cause of death among gynecological cancers. No effective screening strategies for early detection are available and the majority of patients are diagnosed with advanced stage disease. Front-line debulking surgery and platinum-based chemotherapeutic regimens have been the standard of care for almost 40 years worldwide.

Large efforts have been made in the last decade to better understand the cellular and molecular biology of this highly heterogeneous malignancy. Almost 10 years ago, OCs were proposed to be classified into Type I (low grade tumors harboring BRAF, KRAS, and PTEN mutations) and Type II tumors (high-grade tumors characterized by p53, BRCA1/2 mutations). Subsequent genomic studies then subdivided serous high-grade OC into four molecular subgroups, but this classification is still not yet clinically applied. However, the realization that ovarian cancer is composed of several different subtypes with different molecular landscapes, the improved understanding of the genomics of these subtypes, and the development of new active biological agents all promise to improve ovarian cancer outcomes and mortality. The change in perspective from one disease with several epithelial subtypes to several distinct diseases has begun to affect treatment strategies. The shift in trial design toward eligibility restriction rather than testing agents in unselected populations provides potential opportunities to improve therapy in targeted populations, as it has been observed for PARP inhibitors for patients harboring BRCA mutation or homologous recombination deficiency.

Although we are entering into the era of personalized medicine, for the majority of OC patients we are still dealing with the development of an incurable state of platinum-resistant disease that keeps the five-year survival rate below 40%. These data justify the incredible effort to change the standard of care with a considerable number of clinical trials and in particular with the introduction of translational studies in the design of clinical trials to better understand the molecular mechanisms driving OC onset, progression and the development of chemoresistance and to better design tailored therapeutic interventions.

The main focus of this Special Issue will be to provide a platform for clinicians and translational researchers for the most recent breakthroughs in the definition of the molecular pathways/mechanisms related to the natural history of this life-threatening disease.

Potential topics may include:

  1. Molecular characterizations associated with ovarian cancer onset, progression, dissemination into the peritoneal cavity, and the development of chemoresistance.
  2. Models of development and growth
  3. New molecular-based therapeutic strategies
  4. Identification of prognostic/predictive biomarkers
  5. Characterization of metabolic alterations
  6. Immunotherapy

Dr. Delia Mezzanzanica
Dr. Gustavo Baldassarre
Dr. Stefano Indraccolo
Dr. Marina Bagnoli
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Cells is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Genetics and molecular drivers
  • Epigenomic regulation of gene expression
  • DNA damage and repairs
  • BRCA1/2
  • Synthetic lethality
  • PARP inhibitors
  • Drug response
  • Resistance to chemotherapy
  • Resistance to targeted therapies
  • Response to platinum
  • Response to immunomodulators
  • Response to Immune check point inhibitors
  • Intratumor heterogeneity
  • Tumor microenvironment
  • Tumor angiogenesis
  • Notch
  • Inflammation
  • Chemokines
  • Lipid metabolism
  • Cell plasticity
  • 3D cultures, organoids
  • Genetically-modified mouse models
  • Cancer stem cells

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
PIK3R1W624R Is an Actionable Mutation in High Grade Serous Ovarian Carcinoma
Cells 2020, 9(2), 442; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9020442 (registering DOI) - 14 Feb 2020
Abstract
Identifying cancer drivers and actionable mutations is critical for precision oncology. In epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) the majority of mutations lack biological or clinical validation. We fully characterized 43 lines of Patient-Derived Xenografts (PDXs) and performed copy number analysis and whole exome sequencing [...] Read more.
Identifying cancer drivers and actionable mutations is critical for precision oncology. In epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) the majority of mutations lack biological or clinical validation. We fully characterized 43 lines of Patient-Derived Xenografts (PDXs) and performed copy number analysis and whole exome sequencing of 12 lines derived from naïve, high grade EOCs. Pyrosequencing allowed quantifying mutations in the source tumours. Drug response was assayed on PDX Derived Tumour Cells (PDTCs) and in vivo on PDXs. We identified a PIK3R1W624R variant in PDXs from a high grade serous EOC. Allele frequencies of PIK3R1W624R in all the passaged PDXs and in samples of the source tumour suggested that it was truncal and thus possibly a driver mutation. After inconclusive results in silico analyses, PDTCs and PDXs allowed the showing actionability of PIK3R1W624R and addiction of PIK3R1W624R carrying cells to inhibitors of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. It is noteworthy that PIK3R1 encodes the p85α regulatory subunit of PI3K, that is very rarely mutated in EOC. The PIK3R1W624R mutation is located in the cSH2 domain of the p85α that has never been involved in oncogenesis. These data show that patient-derived models are irreplaceable in their role of unveiling unpredicted driver and actionable variants in advanced ovarian cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Cancers: Ovarian Cancer)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Identification and Characterization of a New Platinum-Induced TP53 Mutation in MDAH Ovarian Cancer Cells
Cells 2020, 9(1), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9010036 - 21 Dec 2019
Abstract
Platinum-based chemotherapy is the therapy of choice for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Acquired resistance to platinum (PT) is a frequent event that leads to disease progression and predicts poor prognosis. To understand possible mechanisms underlying acquired PT-resistance, we have recently generated and characterized [...] Read more.
Platinum-based chemotherapy is the therapy of choice for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Acquired resistance to platinum (PT) is a frequent event that leads to disease progression and predicts poor prognosis. To understand possible mechanisms underlying acquired PT-resistance, we have recently generated and characterized three PT-resistant isogenic EOC cell lines. Here, we more deeply characterize several PT-resistant clones derived from MDAH-2774 cells. We show that, in these cells, the increased PT resistance was accompanied by the presence of a subpopulation of multinucleated giant cells. This phenotype was likely due to an altered progression through the M phase of the cell cycle and accompanied by the deregulated expression of genes involved in M phase progression known to be target of mutant TP53. Interestingly, we found that PT-resistant MDAH cells acquired in the TP53 gene a novel secondary mutation (i.e., S185G) that accompanied the R273H typical of MDAH cells. The double p53S185G/R273H mutant increases the resistance to PT in a TP53 null EOC cellular model. Overall, we show how the selective pressure of PT is able to induce additional mutation in an already mutant TP53 gene in EOC and how this event could contribute to the acquisition of novel cellular phenotypes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Cancers: Ovarian Cancer)
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Open AccessArticle
TIMP-1 Is Overexpressed and Secreted by Platinum Resistant Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Cells
Cells 2020, 9(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9010006 - 18 Dec 2019
Abstract
Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (EOC) is the most lethal gynecological cancer in developed countries, and the development of new strategies to overcome chemoresistance is an awaited clinical need. Angiogenesis, the development of new blood vessels from pre-existing vasculature, has been validated as a therapeutic [...] Read more.
Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (EOC) is the most lethal gynecological cancer in developed countries, and the development of new strategies to overcome chemoresistance is an awaited clinical need. Angiogenesis, the development of new blood vessels from pre-existing vasculature, has been validated as a therapeutic target in this tumor type. The aim of this study is to verify if EOC cells with acquired resistance to platinum (PT) treatment display an altered angiogenic potential. Using a proteomic approach, we identified the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1) as the only secreted factor whose expression was up-regulated in PT-resistant TOV-112D and OVSAHO EOC cells used as study models. We report that TIMP-1 acts as a double-edged sword in the EOC microenvironment, directly affecting the response to PT treatment on tumor cells and indirectly altering migration and proliferation of endothelial cells. Interestingly, we found that high TIMP-1 levels in stage III–IV EOC patients associate with decreased overall survival, especially if they were treated with PT or bevacizumab. Taken together, these results pinpoint TIMP-1 as a key molecule involved in the regulation of EOC PT-resistance and progression disclosing the possibility that it could be used as a new biomarker of PT-resistance and/or therapeutic target. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Cancers: Ovarian Cancer)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Rewiring of Lipid Metabolism and Storage in Ovarian Cancer Cells after Anti-VEGF Therapy
Cells 2019, 8(12), 1601; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8121601 - 09 Dec 2019
Abstract
Anti-angiogenic therapy triggers metabolic alterations in experimental and human tumors, the best characterized being exacerbated glycolysis and lactate production. By using both Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) analysis, we found that treatment of ovarian cancer xenografts with the anti-Vascular [...] Read more.
Anti-angiogenic therapy triggers metabolic alterations in experimental and human tumors, the best characterized being exacerbated glycolysis and lactate production. By using both Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) analysis, we found that treatment of ovarian cancer xenografts with the anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) neutralizing antibody bevacizumab caused marked alterations of the tumor lipidomic profile, including increased levels of triacylglycerols and reduced saturation of lipid chains. Moreover, transcriptome analysis uncovered up-regulation of pathways involved in lipid metabolism. These alterations were accompanied by increased accumulation of lipid droplets in tumors. This phenomenon was reproduced under hypoxic conditions in vitro, where it mainly depended from uptake of exogenous lipids and was counteracted by treatment with the Liver X Receptor (LXR)-agonist GW3965, which inhibited cancer cell viability selectively under reduced serum conditions. This multi-level analysis indicates alterations of lipid metabolism following anti-VEGF therapy in ovarian cancer xenografts and suggests that LXR-agonists might empower anti-tumor effects of bevacizumab. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Cancers: Ovarian Cancer)
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Open AccessArticle
Transcriptional Characterization of Stage I Epithelial Ovarian Cancer: A Multicentric Study
Cells 2019, 8(12), 1554; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8121554 - 01 Dec 2019
Abstract
Stage I epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) represents about 10% of all EOCs. It is characterized by a complex histopathological and molecular heterogeneity, and it is composed of five main histological subtypes (mucinous, endometrioid, clear cell and high, and low grade serous), which have [...] Read more.
Stage I epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) represents about 10% of all EOCs. It is characterized by a complex histopathological and molecular heterogeneity, and it is composed of five main histological subtypes (mucinous, endometrioid, clear cell and high, and low grade serous), which have peculiar genetic, molecular, and clinical characteristics. As it occurs less frequently than advanced-stage EOC, its molecular features have not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, using in silico approaches and gene expression data, on a multicentric cohort composed of 208 snap-frozen tumor biopsies, we explored the subtype-specific molecular alterations that regulate tumor aggressiveness in stage I EOC. We found that single genes rather than pathways are responsible for histotype specificities and that a cAMP-PKA-CREB1 signaling axis seems to play a central role in histotype differentiation. Moreover, our results indicate that immune response seems to be, at least in part, involved in histotype differences, as a higher immune-reactive behavior of serous and mucinous samples was observed with respect to other histotypes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Cancers: Ovarian Cancer)
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Open AccessArticle
Detection of Abundant Non-Haematopoietic Circulating Cancer-Related Cells in Patients with Advanced Epithelial Ovarian Cancer
Cells 2019, 8(7), 732; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8070732 - 17 Jul 2019
Abstract
Background: Current diagnosis and staging of advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (aEOC) has important limitations and better biomarkers are needed. We investigate the performance of non-haematopoietic circulating cells (CCs) at the time of disease presentation and relapse. Methods: Venous blood was collected [...] Read more.
Background: Current diagnosis and staging of advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (aEOC) has important limitations and better biomarkers are needed. We investigate the performance of non-haematopoietic circulating cells (CCs) at the time of disease presentation and relapse. Methods: Venous blood was collected prospectively from 37 aEOC patients and 39 volunteers. CCs were evaluated using ImageStream Technology™ and specific antibodies to differentiate epithelial cells from haematopoetic cells. qRT-PCR from whole blood of relapsed aEOC patients was carried out for biomarker discovery. Results: Significant numbers of CCs (CK+/WT1+/CD45) were identified, quantified and characterised from aEOC patients compared to volunteers. CCs are abundant in women with newly diagnosed aEOC, prior to any treatment. Evaluation of RNA from the CCs in relapsed aEOC patients (n = 5) against a 79-gene panel revealed several differentially expressed genes compared to volunteers (n = 14). Size differentiation of CCs versus CD45+ haematopoietic cells was not reliable. Conclusion: CCs of non-haematopoetic origin are prevalent, particularly in patients with newly diagnosed aEOC. Exploiting a CC-rich population in aEOC patients offers insights into a part of the circulating microenvironment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Cancers: Ovarian Cancer)
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Open AccessArticle
Discovery and Validation of Novel Biomarkers for Detection of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer
Cells 2019, 8(7), 713; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8070713 - 12 Jul 2019
Abstract
Detection of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) poses a critical medical challenge. However, novel biomarkers for diagnosis remain to be discovered. Therefore, innovative approaches are of the utmost importance for patient outcome. Here, we present a concept for blood-based biomarker discovery, investigating both epithelial [...] Read more.
Detection of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) poses a critical medical challenge. However, novel biomarkers for diagnosis remain to be discovered. Therefore, innovative approaches are of the utmost importance for patient outcome. Here, we present a concept for blood-based biomarker discovery, investigating both epithelial and specifically stromal compartments, which have been neglected in search for novel candidates. We queried gene expression profiles of EOC including microdissected epithelium and adjacent stroma from benign and malignant tumours. Genes significantly differentially expressed within either the epithelial or the stromal compartments were retrieved. The expression of genes whose products are secreted yet absent in the blood of healthy donors were validated in tissue and blood from patients with pelvic mass by NanoString analysis. Results were confirmed by the comprehensive gene expression database, CSIOVDB (Ovarian cancer database of Cancer Science Institute Singapore). The top 25% of candidate genes were explored for their biomarker potential, and twelve were able to discriminate between benign and malignant tumours on transcript levels (p < 0.05). Among them T-cell differentiation protein myelin and lymphocyte (MAL), aurora kinase A (AURKA), stroma-derived candidates versican (VCAN), and syndecan-3 (SDC), which performed significantly better than the recently reported biomarker fibroblast growth factor 18 (FGF18) to discern malignant from benign conditions. Furthermore, elevated MAL and AURKA expression levels correlated significantly with a poor prognosis. We identified promising novel candidates and found the stroma of EOC to be a suitable compartment for biomarker discovery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Cancers: Ovarian Cancer)
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Open AccessArticle
New Challenges in Tumor Mutation Heterogeneity in Advanced Ovarian Cancer by a Targeted Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) Approach
Cells 2019, 8(6), 584; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8060584 - 14 Jun 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology has advanced knowledge of the genomic landscape of ovarian cancer, leading to an innovative molecular classification of the disease. However, patient survival and response to platinum-based treatments are still not predictable based on the tumor genetic profile. This retrospective [...] Read more.
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology has advanced knowledge of the genomic landscape of ovarian cancer, leading to an innovative molecular classification of the disease. However, patient survival and response to platinum-based treatments are still not predictable based on the tumor genetic profile. This retrospective study characterized the repertoire of somatic mutations in advanced ovarian cancer to identify tumor genetic markers predictive of platinum chemo-resistance and prognosis. Using targeted NGS, 79 primary advanced (III–IV stage, tumor grade G2-3) ovarian cancer tumors, including 64 high-grade serous ovarian cancers (HGSOCs), were screened with a 26 cancer-genes panel. Patients, enrolled between 1995 and 2011, underwent primary debulking surgery (PDS) with optimal residual disease (RD < 1 cm) and platinum-based chemotherapy as first-line treatment. We found a heterogeneous mutational landscape in some uncommon ovarian histotypes and in HGSOC tumor samples with relevance in predicting platinum sensitivity. In particular, we identified a poor prognostic signature in patients with HGSOC harboring concurrent mutations in two driver actionable genes of the panel. The tumor heterogeneity described, sheds light on the translational potential of targeted NGS approach for the identification of subgroups of patients with distinct therapeutic vulnerabilities, that are modulated by the specific mutational profile expressed by the ovarian tumor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Cancers: Ovarian Cancer)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Vitamin D and Ovarian Cancer: Systematic Review of the Literature with a Focus on Molecular Mechanisms
Cells 2020, 9(2), 335; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9020335 - 01 Feb 2020
Abstract
Vitamin D is a lipid soluble vitamin involved primarily in calcium metabolism. Epidemiologic evidence indicates that lower circulating vitamin D levels are associated with a higher risk of ovarian cancer and that vitamin D supplementation is associated with decreased cancer mortality. A vast [...] Read more.
Vitamin D is a lipid soluble vitamin involved primarily in calcium metabolism. Epidemiologic evidence indicates that lower circulating vitamin D levels are associated with a higher risk of ovarian cancer and that vitamin D supplementation is associated with decreased cancer mortality. A vast amount of research exists on the possible molecular mechanisms through which vitamin D affects cancer cell proliferation, cancer progression, angiogenesis, and inflammation. We conducted a systematic review of the literature on the effects of vitamin D on ovarian cancer cell. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Cancers: Ovarian Cancer)

Other

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Open AccessCase Report
Clonal Evolution of TP53 c.375+1G>A Mutation in Pre- and Post- Neo-Adjuvant Chemotherapy (NACT) Tumor Samples in High-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer (HGSOC)
Cells 2019, 8(10), 1186; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8101186 - 01 Oct 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Carboplatin/paclitaxel is the reference regimen in the treatment of advanced high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) in neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) before interval debulking surgery (IDS). To identify new genetic markers of platinum-resistance, next-generation sequencing (NGS) analysis of 26 cancer-genes was performed on paired matched [...] Read more.
Carboplatin/paclitaxel is the reference regimen in the treatment of advanced high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) in neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) before interval debulking surgery (IDS). To identify new genetic markers of platinum-resistance, next-generation sequencing (NGS) analysis of 26 cancer-genes was performed on paired matched pre- and post-NACT tumor and blood samples in a patient with stage IV HGSOC treated with NACT-IDS, showing platinum-refractory/resistance and poor prognosis. Only the TP53 c.375+1G>A somatic mutation was identified in both tumor samples. This variant, associated with aberrant splicing, was in trans configuration with the 72Arg allele of the known germline polymorphism TP53 c.215C>G (p. Pro72Arg). In the post-NACT tumor sample we observed the complete expansion of the TP53 c.375+1G>A driver mutant clone with somatic loss of the treatment-sensitive 72Arg allele. NGS results were confirmed with Sanger method and immunostaining for p53, BRCA1, p16, WT1, and Ki-67 markers were evaluated. This study showed that (i) the splice mutation in TP53 was present as an early driver mutation at diagnosis; (ii) the mutational profile was shared in pre- and post-NACT tumor samples; (iii) the complete expansion of a single dominant mutant clone through loss of heterozygosity (LOH) had occurred, suggesting a possible mechanism of platinum-resistance in HGSOC under the pressure of NACT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Cancers: Ovarian Cancer)
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Open AccessFeature PaperPerspective
Gynecological Cancers Translational, Research Implementation, and Harmonization: Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup Consensus and Still Open Questions
Cells 2019, 8(3), 200; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8030200 - 26 Feb 2019
Abstract
In the era of personalized medicine, the introduction of translational studies in clinical trials has substantially increased their costs, but provides the possibility of improving the productivity of trials with a better selection of recruited patients. With the overall goal of creating a [...] Read more.
In the era of personalized medicine, the introduction of translational studies in clinical trials has substantially increased their costs, but provides the possibility of improving the productivity of trials with a better selection of recruited patients. With the overall goal of creating a roadmap to improve translational design for future gynecological cancer trials and of defining translational goals, a main discussion was held during a brainstorming day of the Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup (GCIG) Translational Research Committee and overall conclusions are here reported. A particular emphasis was dedicated to the new frontier of the immunoprofiling of gynecological cancers. The discussion pointed out that to maximize patients’ benefit, translational studies should be integral to clinical trial design with standardization and optimization of procedures including a harmonization program of Standard Operating Procedures. Pathology-reviewed sample collection should be mandatory and ensured by dedicated funding. Biomarker validation and development should be made public and transparent to ensure rapid progresses with positive outcomes for patients. Guidelines/templates for patients’ informed consent are needed. Importantly for the public, recognized goals are to increase the involvement of advocates and to improve the reporting of translational data in a forum accessible to patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Cancers: Ovarian Cancer)
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