Special Issue "Innovative Design, Simulation and Monitoring of Daylighting and PV/Thermal Systems in Buildings"

A special issue of Buildings (ISSN 2075-5309).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2017).

Special Issue Editors

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Yuehong Su
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Architecture and Built Environment, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK
Interests: solar concentrators for PV & daylighting; PHOTOPIA optical simulation; EnergyPlus simulation; air conditioning; adsorption/absorption/ejector cooling; low temperature power generation; heat storage; desalination
Prof. Dr. Gang Pei
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Thermal Science & Energy Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027, China
Interests: PV/thermal; heat pump; organic rankine cycle; heat pipe; radiative cooling
Dr. Ahmed A. Freewan
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Architecture, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid 22110, Jordan
Interests: architectural design of daylighting; daylighting simulation
Dr. Hui Lv
Website
Guest Editor
Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for High-efficiency Utilization of Solar Energy, Hubei University of Technology, Wuhan 430068, China
Interests: laser technology; solar cell materials and charaterisation; solar concentrator PV; spectrum splitting
Dr. Irfan Ullah
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Electrical Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Management and Technology (UMT), C-II Johar Town, Lahore-54770, Pakistan
Interests: solar concentrators; daylighting; automation
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Yupeng Wu
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Architecture and Built Environment, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK
Interests: smart windows; building integrated PV systems; thermal energy storage
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

It is widely acknowledged that use of solar energy is a fundamental approach in the design of low/zero carbon emission buildings. Daylighting is usually the first consideration as it is not only a cost effective alternative to artificial lighting, but also provides a more vivid indoor environment. Daylighting offers the potential to reduce energy consumption significantly in commercial buildings, therefore innovative designs in daylighting have been extensively explored to maximise its benefits. Daylighting design is often integrated with the use of PV/thermal technology for advanced windows or facades, which can offer even more innovative features to be explored and investigated. For example, optics for daylighting and PV/thermal technology can be combined as a full spectrum management strategy of sunlight. Of course, PV/thermal technology alone may be considered for further reduction in carbon emissions in buildings. Daylighting design and PV/thermal technology both involve direct and highly efficient utilization of sun power, which will be one of the most important considerations for future buildings. We believe that a lot of innovative research activities are currently being investigated in this important area, so we cordially invite the relevant scholars to submit their research findings to this Special Issue which will hopefully serve as a platform for knowledge exchange and stimulation of new innovation.

Dr. Yuehong Su
Prof. Dr. Gang Pei
Dr. Ahmed A. Freewan
Dr. Hui Lv
Dr. Irfan Ullah
Dr. Yupeng Wu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Buildings is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • daylighting
  • PV/thermal technology
  • innovative design

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Daylighting System Based on Novel Design of Linear Fresnel lens
Buildings 2017, 7(4), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings7040092 - 16 Oct 2017
Cited by 6
Abstract
In this paper, we present a design and optical simulation of a daylighting system using a novel design of linear Fresnel lens, which is constructed based on the conservation of optical path length and edge ray theorem. The linear Fresnel lens can achieve [...] Read more.
In this paper, we present a design and optical simulation of a daylighting system using a novel design of linear Fresnel lens, which is constructed based on the conservation of optical path length and edge ray theorem. The linear Fresnel lens can achieve a high uniformity by using a new idea of design in which each groove of the lens distributes sunlight uniformly over the receiver so that the whole lens also uniformly distributes sunlight over the receiver. In this daylighting system, the novel design of linear Fresnel lens significantly improves the uniformity of collector and distributor. Therefore, it can help to improve the performance of the daylighting system. The structure of the linear Fresnel lenses is designed by using Matlab. Then, the structure of lenses is appreciated by ray tracing in LightToolsTM to find out the optimum lens shape. In addition, the simulation is performed by using LightToolsTM to estimate the efficiency of the daylighting system. The results show that the designed collector can achieve the efficiency of ~80% with the tolerance of ~0.60 and the concentration ratio of 340 times, while the designed distributor can reach a high uniformity of >90%. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Investigation of the Optical Performance of a Novel Planar Static PV Concentrator with Lambertian Rear Reflectors
Buildings 2017, 7(4), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings7040088 - 13 Oct 2017
Cited by 4
Abstract
Due to the demands for energy saving and environmental conservation, the development of sustainable zero-carbon buildings has become an inevitable trend. Building Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV) is a promising technology capable of producing clean electricity onsite and replacing conventional building materials. This paper designs [...] Read more.
Due to the demands for energy saving and environmental conservation, the development of sustainable zero-carbon buildings has become an inevitable trend. Building Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV) is a promising technology capable of producing clean electricity onsite and replacing conventional building materials. This paper designs and investigates the performance of a planar Lambertian reflector-based concentrating BIPV system. A comprehensive 3D ray-tracing simulation was applied to study the optical characteristics of the proposed module. It was found that when the geometric concentration ratio is 2.0, the optical efficiency of the investigated Concentrating Photovoltaics (CPV) module is 62.5% and the radiant flux received by the solar cells is about 1.4 times that of the counterpart module without solar concentrators. Through parametric analyses, it was concluded that the optical performance can be enhanced by selecting a suitable glass thickness and type, integrating the glazing cover with edge mirrors, adjusting the distance between the solar cells and improving the reflectivity of the Lambertian reflectors. Comparative analysis was also conducted for the CPV systems integrated with Lambertian and v-groove rear reflectors under different incident light angles, respectively. It was confirmed that the system integrated with Lambertian rear reflectors shows less angular dependence. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Computational Colour Matching of Laminated Photovoltaic Modules for Building Envelopes
Buildings 2017, 7(3), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings7030072 - 18 Aug 2017
Cited by 6
Abstract
The widespread adoption of photovoltaics (PV) in architecture as a source of renewable energy is often limited due to poor visual acceptance. We propose the use of coloured frontglass manufactured by digital ceramic printing to cover the PV cells, thus concealing the latter [...] Read more.
The widespread adoption of photovoltaics (PV) in architecture as a source of renewable energy is often limited due to poor visual acceptance. We propose the use of coloured frontglass manufactured by digital ceramic printing to cover the PV cells, thus concealing the latter while admitting sufficient light to produce electricity. The apparent colour of the PV laminate is a combination of the transparent colour on glass and the colour of the PV cells, which is difficult to predict. In this paper we compare 1400 unknown PV laminate colours with 320 known façade colours from the NCS Exterior Set to find potential matches. We use an image-based approach in which photographs are compared computationally by CIE ΔE colour difference. For a barely discernible ΔE < 3.5, this yielded 20 unique matches between the candidate and target sample sets, increasing to 74 matches for an obvious difference of ΔE ≤ 10. A subset of these computed matches was then visually confirmed by untrained volunteer observers, with average deviations of ΔE ≈ 5 between computed and visual matches, and a similar tolerance for the visual matches based on standard deviation. We conclude that our image-based computational approach enables a rapid and comprehensive matching of large sets of printed glass colours, which would be impractical with human subjects, yet delivers matches consistent with the latter’s observations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Computational Combination of the Optical Properties of Fenestration Layers at High Directional Resolution
Buildings 2017, 7(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings7010022 - 10 Mar 2017
Cited by 5
Abstract
Complex fenestration systems typically comprise co-planar, clear and scattering layers. As there are many ways to combine layers in fenestration systems, a common approach in building simulation is to store optical properties separate for each layer. System properties are then computed employing a [...] Read more.
Complex fenestration systems typically comprise co-planar, clear and scattering layers. As there are many ways to combine layers in fenestration systems, a common approach in building simulation is to store optical properties separate for each layer. System properties are then computed employing a fast matrix formalism, often based on a directional basis devised by JHKlems comprising 145 incident and 145 outgoing directions. While this low directional resolution is found sufficient to predict illuminance and solar gains, it is too coarse to replicate the effects of directionality in the generation of imagery. For increased accuracy, a modification of the matrix formalism is proposed. The tensor-tree format of RADIANCE, employing an algorithm subdividing the hemisphere at variable resolutions, replaces the directional basis. The utilization of the tensor-tree with interfaces to simulation software allows sharing and re-use of data. The light scattering properties of two exemplary fenestration systems as computed employing the matrix formalism at variable resolution show good accordance with the results of ray-tracing. Computation times are reduced to 0.4% to 2.5% compared to ray-tracing through co-planar layers. Imagery computed employing the method illustrates the effect of directional resolution. The method is supposed to foster research in the field of daylighting, as well as applications in planning and design. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Side-View Atmospheres under Outdoor Midday High Luminance
Buildings 2016, 6(4), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings6040053 - 20 Dec 2016
Cited by 4
Abstract
This work deals with daylighting for indoor quality atmospheres, considering building skins and side-views. We also tested the vision perception provided by highly glazed façades. Several Spanish restaurants were analyzed, and two were assessed and measured under outside midday high luminance. The selected [...] Read more.
This work deals with daylighting for indoor quality atmospheres, considering building skins and side-views. We also tested the vision perception provided by highly glazed façades. Several Spanish restaurants were analyzed, and two were assessed and measured under outside midday high luminance. The selected pictures can be identified as restaurants via MIT Scene Recognition software and are used to demonstrate working, stressful, and socializing atmospheres. Light and vision detailed analysis was performed defining three workplanes—“table”, “person”, and “outside”—from the viewpoint of the user. The obtained DGP (daylight glare probability) for the first case (facing southeast) shows a higher glare probability than the second (facing north). In both restaurants, there is notable spatial contrast and high information content. If, in the overall perception, the adaptation from the intermediate workplane is considered, the DGP is lower than if only one workplane is considered. The conducted indicative survey shows that there is a high light contrast, and there are some undesirable visual elements. The studied fully glazed façades tend to provide fraught atmospheres. These would be useful for some stimulating activities; however, for calm restaurants that offer tasting menus with quality food, it seems that the studied fully glazed façades may not be suitable. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Accordance of Light Scattering from Design and De-Facto Variants of a Daylight Redirecting Component
Buildings 2016, 6(3), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings6030030 - 18 Aug 2016
Cited by 8
Abstract
For the systematic development of a small-scale daylight-redirecting louver system the impact of manufacturing on light scattering characteristics has to be quantified, localized and understood. In this research, the accordance of the measured scattering distributions of a de-facto production sample V1 with the [...] Read more.
For the systematic development of a small-scale daylight-redirecting louver system the impact of manufacturing on light scattering characteristics has to be quantified, localized and understood. In this research, the accordance of the measured scattering distributions of a de-facto production sample V1 with the computed predictions based on its design geometry V2 are quantified for selected incident light directions. A metric describing the global accordance of distributions is adapted to quantify their overall difference. A novel metric of local accordance allows further analysis. A particular low global accordance between V1 and V2 is found for an incident elevation θ i = 35 . To test the hypothesis that this result can be explained by observed geometric deviations, a simulation model V3 replicating these is compared to the design. The hypothesis is supported by the resulting high degree of accordance. The low local accordance for individual outgoing light directions indicates geometric non-uniformity of the sample V1. This method has been found useful for product development and quality assurance. Beyond their application in the proposed method, global and local accordance have potential applications in all fields of light scattering measurements. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
A Review of Daylighting Strategies in Schools: State of the Art and Expected Future Trends
Buildings 2017, 7(2), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings7020041 - 13 May 2017
Cited by 10
Abstract
The study of daylight conditions within educational buildings has been a topic of interest since the nineteenth century in western countries, and European ones in particular. Although it has been argued that providing a view outside—or even using daylight instead of more stable [...] Read more.
The study of daylight conditions within educational buildings has been a topic of interest since the nineteenth century in western countries, and European ones in particular. Although it has been argued that providing a view outside—or even using daylight instead of more stable and manageable artificial light—could reduce students’ performance without providing a pleasant and healthy environment, nowadays it seems that a large consensus upon the need to design well daylit spaces is being reached. This paper reviews how the research community has tackled the task of understanding and solving the complex relationships amongst local climate, users’ needs and design constraints in school buildings by showing the different approaches used and technological solutions suggested. The reported case studies, based either on experimental measurements or on simulations, highlight the need of a comprehensive approach to the topic to fully understand the non-trivial requirements of a daylit educational environment. Full article
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