Special Issue "BIM in Building Repair and Maintenance"

A special issue of Buildings (ISSN 2075-5309).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Ali M. Memari

Penn State University
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Residential and commercial building envelope systems evaluation, Building science and energy efficiency of buildings, Full-scale structural and environmental testing of building envelope systems, Evaluation of building structural and nonstructural and envelope systems under natural hazard effects, Building Information Modeling, 3D Printing of Concrete
Guest Editor
Dr. Issa Ramaji

Roger Williams University
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Building Information Modeling (BIM), Prefabrication in Construction, Cyber-Physical Systems, Collaborative Project Deliveries, Sustainability

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Adoption of Building Information Modelling (BIM) as a capability that allows all disciplines involved in a project to communicate through interoperability between their respective software platforms for effective and timely use of information and optimum workflow, operation, productivity and profitability has significantly increased in the industry over the past couple of decades.  Of course, BIM is still mainly leveraged for new construction sector and mostly limited to uses in pre-operation stages of building lifecycle such as planning, simulation, visualization, design, construction, and project delivery. However, as a result of recent advancements in this technology such as the development of related information management standards, integration with Virtual/Augment Reality, and availability of several BIM-related tools and gadgets, BIM is becoming easily accessible for post-commissioning uses with potential application to handling issues related to existing buildings, including conservation, repair and maintenance work, which could account for about 40% of the construction activities in some countries. As a result of increasing BIM adoption in the building industry, such models are available to owners readily upon completion of the project. This creates a lot of opportunities for owners and facility managers to benefit from BIM technology at a very low cost.

Management of repair and maintenance is one of the major challenges in the operation stage of buildings. It is a complex task for facility managers who mostly still process unformatted data manually to schedule and run inspections, identify problems and anomalies, predict and schedule repairs and maintenances, and estimate costs during the long operation stage of data-rich buildings and facilities. Throughout this period, a significant amount of information such as material information, equipment and warranty information, supplier information, inspections data, and maintenance and repair information are frequently created or consumed for decision makings. Manual management of such unformatted maintenance and repair data throughout a long period decreases efficiency and increases the risk of errors. Due to its capability to store rigorous and significantly large database in one single model and automatic update of the model, BIM can potentially transform the way such information is formatted, integrated, and managed, and consequently can increase productivity and minimize error.

For this Special Issue of the Buildings Journal, authors are invited to submit papers related to the general theme of the Special Issue for all types of buildings. We invite authors to submit original papers discussing issues related to application of BIM to repair and maintenance, including the following topics:

  • Application of BIM in maintenance scheduling
  • Building system management
  • Integration of BIM with current systems and processes of repair and maintenance management
  • Incorporation of BIM models into building facilities and asset management systems
  • Data formatting and interoperability
  • Building performance tracking
  • BIM integration with sensors
  • Application of Virtual/Augmented Reality for repair and maintenance of facilities are highly encouraged
  • Development of 3D models of existing buildings using aerial mapping and 3D laser scanning for application of BIM to repair and retrofit projects
  • Application of BIM to building operational energy use maintenance  
  • Application of BIM in existing building condition assessment and structural health monitoring and maintenance

Prof. Ali M. Memari
Dr. Issa Ramaji
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Buildings is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Building Information Modeling (BIM)
  • Repair, Retrofit, Rehabilitation
  • Inspection, Maintenance
  • Asset and Facility Management

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Identification of the Best 3D Viewpoint within the BIM Model: Application to Visual Tasks Related to Facility Management
Buildings 2019, 9(7), 167; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings9070167
Received: 23 June 2019 / Revised: 5 July 2019 / Accepted: 8 July 2019 / Published: 10 July 2019
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Abstract
Visualizing building assets within building information modeling (BIM) offers significant opportunities in facility management as it can assist the maintenance and the safety of buildings. Nevertheless, taking decisions based on 3D visualization remains a challenge since the high density of spatial information inside [...] Read more.
Visualizing building assets within building information modeling (BIM) offers significant opportunities in facility management as it can assist the maintenance and the safety of buildings. Nevertheless, taking decisions based on 3D visualization remains a challenge since the high density of spatial information inside the 3D model requires suitable visualization techniques to achieve the visual task. The occlusion is ubiquitous and, whilst solutions already exist such as transparency, none currently solve this issue with an automatic and suitable management of the camera. In this paper, we propose the first RESTful web application implementing a 3D viewpoint management algorithm and we demonstrate its usability in the visualization of assets based on a BIM model for visual counting in facility management. Via an online questionnaire, empirical tests are conducted with architects, the construction industry, engineers, and surveyors. The results show that a 3D viewpoint that maximizes the visibility of 3D geometric objects inside the viewport significantly improves the success rate, the accuracy, and the certainty of a visual counting task compared to the traditional four side points of view (i.e., from the front, back, left, and right viewpoints). Finally, this first validation lays the foundation of future investigations in the 3D viewpoint usability evaluation, both in terms of visual tasks and application domains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue BIM in Building Repair and Maintenance)
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Open AccessArticle
A BIM-based PSS Approach for the Management of Maintenance Operations of Building Equipment
Buildings 2019, 9(6), 139; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings9060139
Received: 30 April 2019 / Revised: 29 May 2019 / Accepted: 30 May 2019 / Published: 31 May 2019
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2327 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The service-centered economy has grown considerably in the last few years, shifting from product-based solutions towards service centered offerings, i.e., Product-Service System (PSS) solutions. Such an approach is also emerging in the context of building equipment, where maintenance activities play a fundamental role [...] Read more.
The service-centered economy has grown considerably in the last few years, shifting from product-based solutions towards service centered offerings, i.e., Product-Service System (PSS) solutions. Such an approach is also emerging in the context of building equipment, where maintenance activities play a fundamental role in facility management. In this field, Building Information Modeling (BIM) based tools are diffusely used to improve the performances of facility management. However, few studies have addressed the above issues while considering a shift from product-based approaches in favor of more advanced servitization models. The study aims at integrating BIM based approaches in a PSS context for the improvement of the management of maintenance operations of building equipment. A general framework for maintenance management has been developed, merging the implementation of the PSS components in a BIM model for the definition of maintenance management. A first application of this methodology to a real case study concerning the elevators of an existing building has shown the efficacy of the proposed approach. The study highlighted the benefits that can be achieved, especially in terms of reduced periods of equipment unavailability, reduced costs and augmented customer satisfaction, while enhancing the information exchange between the PSS actors. Hence, although further research is still needed for its validation, the proposed approach can offer practical insights for the development of promising BIM-based PSS solutions for facility management in the construction industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue BIM in Building Repair and Maintenance)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effects of Information Format and Spatial Cognition on Individual Wayfinding Performance
Received: 20 December 2018 / Revised: 14 January 2019 / Accepted: 17 January 2019 / Published: 22 January 2019
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1509 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Buildings with spatially complex interiors poise unique challenges during operations and maintenance. A complex interior makes wayfinding difficult, which can inhibit daily occupants from finding their desired location. Additionally, it can hamper emergency responders and evacuations during extreme emergency events. An experiment was [...] Read more.
Buildings with spatially complex interiors poise unique challenges during operations and maintenance. A complex interior makes wayfinding difficult, which can inhibit daily occupants from finding their desired location. Additionally, it can hamper emergency responders and evacuations during extreme emergency events. An experiment was conducted to analyze the effects of different information formats and spatial cognition on individual wayfinding in unknown environments. Participants were asked to memorize either a set of two-dimensional (2D) drawings or a three-dimensional (3D) model before navigating through a series of checkpoints in an unfamiliar environment. Individual wayfinding is dependent on an individual’s use of route knowledge or survey knowledge. Route knowledge was assessed from the start of the route to Checkpoint A (i.e., the first checkpoint). Meanwhile, survey knowledge was assessed from Checkpoint A to Checkpoint B. Spatial cognition of participants was measured by administering the card rotation and cube comparison tests. The research found that 3D models have a beneficial impact on the success of individual wayfinding. Furthermore, the success rate of the participants with a low spatial cognition improved significantly when using a 3D model rather than a set of 2D drawings. However, the success rates of participants with a high spatial cognition were not affected by the format of information. While the above results are significant, more experimentation is needed to confirm whether 3D information does effectively lower cognitive demand. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue BIM in Building Repair and Maintenance)
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Open AccessArticle
Active BIM Approach to Optimize Work Facilities and Tower Crane Locations on Construction Sites with Repetitive Operations
Received: 20 December 2018 / Revised: 4 January 2019 / Accepted: 8 January 2019 / Published: 14 January 2019
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2158 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents an active building information modeling (BIM) approach for work facilities and the optimal positioning of tower cranes on construction sites with repetitive operations. In this context, the metamorphosis of a passive BIM approach into an active approach is described. Here, [...] Read more.
This paper presents an active building information modeling (BIM) approach for work facilities and the optimal positioning of tower cranes on construction sites with repetitive operations. In this context, the metamorphosis of a passive BIM approach into an active approach is described. Here, the enhancement of the construction-ready BIM model starts with the export of the optimization input parameters, such as the 3D coordinates of the building, perimeter of the construction site, space for feasible solutions, relevant segment of the building with repetitive works, etc. Depending on the complexity of the problem, the user selects a suitable optimization approach and formulates the tower crane positioning optimization problem with the objective of minimizing the total duration of the operation’s cycle. Similarly, according to the model formulation, the user also chooses the optimization tool, including the search algorithm. The final step involves the post-optimal analysis and importing of the optimal solution into the BIM. An application example is demonstrated at the end of the paper to show the advantages of the proposed approach in which the optimization model has significantly improved the initial solution of the crane and depot positions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue BIM in Building Repair and Maintenance)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Blockchain and Building Information Modeling (BIM): Review and Applications in Post-Disaster Recovery
Buildings 2019, 9(6), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings9060149
Received: 29 April 2019 / Revised: 23 May 2019 / Accepted: 12 June 2019 / Published: 19 June 2019
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Abstract
Blockchain Technology (BCT) is a growing digital technology that in recent years has gained widespread traction in various industries in the public and private sectors. BCT is a decentralized ledger that records every transaction made in the network, known as a ‘block’, the [...] Read more.
Blockchain Technology (BCT) is a growing digital technology that in recent years has gained widespread traction in various industries in the public and private sectors. BCT is a decentralized ledger that records every transaction made in the network, known as a ‘block’, the body of which is comprised of encrypted data of the entire transaction history. BCT was introduced as the working mechanism that forms the operational basis of Bitcoin, the first digital cryptocurrency to gain mainstream appeal. The introduction of decentralized data exchange technology in any industry would require strengthened security, enforce accountability, and could potentially accelerate a shift in workflow dynamics from current centralized architectures to a decentralized, cooperative chain of command and affect a cultural and societal change by encouraging trust and transparency. BCT aims at creating a system that would offer a robust self-regulating, self-monitoring, and cyber-resilient data transaction operation, assuring the facilitation and protection of a truly efficient data exchange system. In the state of Florida, climate change and unpredicted weather disasters have put pressure on state and local decision-makers to adapt quick and efficient post-disaster recovery systems. Part of the recovery efforts is the reconstruction of buildings and infrastructure. The introduction of new technologies in the Architecture, Engineering, and Construction (AEC) industry can contribute to addressing recovery and rebuilding after the event of a natural disaster. With parallel technological advancement in geospatial data and Geographic Information System (GIS), as well as worsening climatic conditions, concerns can be suitably addressed by employing an integrated system of both Building Information Modeling (BIM) and BCT. While several potential applications of BIM must provide solutions to disaster-related issues, few have seen practical applications in recent years that indicate the potential benefits of such implementations. The feasibility of BIM-based applications still rests on the reliability of connectivity and cyber-security, indicating a strong use case for using BCT in conjunction with BIM for post-disaster recovery. This research depicts a survey of BCT and its applications in the Architecture, Engineering, and Construction (AEC) industries and examines the potential incorporation within the BIM process to address post-disaster rebuilding problems. Moreover, the study investigates the potential application of BCT in improving the framework for automating the building permitting process using Smart Contract (SC) technologies and Hyperledger Fabric (HLF), as well as discussing future research areas. The study proposes a new conceptualized framework resulting from the integration of BCT and BIM processes to improve the efficiency of building permit processes in post-disaster events. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue BIM in Building Repair and Maintenance)
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Open AccessReview
An Exploration of Synergies between Lean Concepts and BIM in FM: A Review and Directions for Future Research
Buildings 2019, 9(6), 147; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings9060147
Received: 7 May 2019 / Revised: 4 June 2019 / Accepted: 11 June 2019 / Published: 17 June 2019
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Abstract
Though Building Information Modeling (BIM) has been proposed as a lean solution for the construction industry, its implementation would itself benefit from a proactive lean approach. This paper aims to study the implementation of BIM in Facilities Management (FM), and explores the synergistic [...] Read more.
Though Building Information Modeling (BIM) has been proposed as a lean solution for the construction industry, its implementation would itself benefit from a proactive lean approach. This paper aims to study the implementation of BIM in Facilities Management (FM), and explores the synergistic potential of a lean approach. This was carried out through an integrative review of existing literature. BIM-FM implementation was categorized into three phases, which were analyzed to uncover the challenges and barriers faced in each; and explore the potential of a proactive lean approach to counter them. A number of key findings emerged. The existence of inefficiencies and variability in information management leading to an increase in labor hours was identified as a persistent problem in BIM-FM implementation. This had been derived by systematically mapping the challenges to their resultant effects on business processes based on the seven identified wastes in business. The paper provides both academics and practitioners with a collated list of issues based on a new way of examining BIM in FM implementation. It discusses the need for and synergistic potential of lean concepts to reduce information and time waste. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue BIM in Building Repair and Maintenance)
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