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Open AccessArticle

Holistic Analysis of Waste Copper Slag Based Concrete by Means of EIPI Method

1
Faculty of Civil Engineering, Mechanics and Petrochemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, Płock 09-400, Poland
2
Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Lublin University of Technology, Lublin 20-618, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Buildings 2020, 10(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings10010001
Received: 5 November 2019 / Revised: 13 December 2019 / Accepted: 16 December 2019 / Published: 19 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Architecture and Engineering: the Challenges - Trends - Achievements)
The aim of the research is a comprehensive evaluation of concrete using the EIPI method. In the evaluation the compressive strength of concrete and its durability properties represented by sorptivity and air permeability are taken into account. Since waste copper slag with increased natural radioactivity is used in the assessed concrete, additional evaluation is carried out taking into account the influence of natural radioactivity within the performance index. Additionally, the reference concrete, which is made without the use of waste copper slag, is evaluated for comparative purposes. In order to make the evaluation as comprehensive as possible, the concrete made with the use of three types of cement is subjected to CEM I, CEM II and CEM III assessments. If natural radioactivity is not taken into account in the evaluation, the best result of the most favourable value of Gross Ecological and Performance Indicator (GEPI) is obtained by the concrete made with waste copper slag, and if radioactivity is considered, the most favourable value of GEPI is obtained with concrete without addition of the waste. The results show that in both approaches the best result is achieved by concrete with CEM III cement. It follows from the above that although natural radioactivity has a significant impact on the EIPI evaluation result, the decisive factor is still the type of cement. View Full-Text
Keywords: concrete performance; concrete durability; EIPI method; waste copper slag; natural radioactivity concrete performance; concrete durability; EIPI method; waste copper slag; natural radioactivity
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Kubissa, W.; Jaskulski, R.; Gil, D.; Wilińska, I. Holistic Analysis of Waste Copper Slag Based Concrete by Means of EIPI Method. Buildings 2020, 10, 1.

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