Special Issue "Glucose Sensors—an Essential Tool in Diabetes Management"

A special issue of Biosensors (ISSN 2079-6374). This special issue belongs to the section "Biosensors and Healthcare".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 July 2022) | Viewed by 5517

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Julia Mader
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Guest Editor
Medical University of Graz, Division of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Department of Internal Medicine, Auenbruggerplatz 15, 8036 Graz, Austria
Interests: diabetes technology; glucose sensing; artificial pancreas; automated insulin delivery; connected care; decision support systems
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Martin Tauschmann
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine,Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna, Austria
Interests: diabetes technology; artificial pancreas; pediatric diabetes
Dr. Lilian Witthauer
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Diabetes Center Berne, University of Bern, Freiburgstrasse 3, 3010 Bern, Switzerland
Interests: diabetes technology; glucose sensing; artificial pancreas

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Diabetes management is a challenge not only for people affected by the condition but also their healthcare providers too. To achieve the treatment goals, reliable and accurate glucose sensors are important. Novel glucose sensors that use new technology, such as optical sensing via implant, are under development. Currently, little is understood about the reaction of subcutaneous tissue towards glucose sensors.

The aims and scope of this Special Issue of Biosensors allow for submissions over a broad range of topics on glucose sensing technology, such as sensor accuracy, including hypoglycemia, data on novel glucose sensor technology and the reaction of the subcutaneous adipose tissue to glucose sensors. This issue is intended to cover preclinical development and clinical applications of glucose sensors, novel algorithms to improve hypoglycemia detection and methods to assess tissue reaction. 

Dr. Julia Mader
Dr. Martin Tauschmann
Dr. Lilian Witthauer
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Biosensors is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • continuous glucose monitoring
  • diabetes management
  • hypoglycemia
  • time in range
  • sensor accuracy
  • novel glucose sensing techniques
  • sensor longevity
  • subcutaneous tissue reaction

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Article
Accuracy Assessment of the GlucoMen® Day CGM System in Individuals with Type 1 Diabetes: A Pilot Study
Biosensors 2022, 12(2), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12020106 - 09 Feb 2022
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and usability of a novel continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) system designed for needle-free insertion and reduced environmental impact. We assessed the sensor performance of two GlucoMen® Day CGM systems worn simultaneously by [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and usability of a novel continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) system designed for needle-free insertion and reduced environmental impact. We assessed the sensor performance of two GlucoMen® Day CGM systems worn simultaneously by eight participants with type 1 diabetes. Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) was performed regularly over 14 days at home. Participants underwent two standardized, 5-h meal challenges at the research center with frequent plasma glucose (PG) measurements using a laboratory reference (YSI) instrument. When comparing CGM to PG, the overall mean absolute relative difference (MARD) was 9.7 [2.6–14.6]%. The overall MARD for CGM vs. SMBG was 13.1 [3.5–18.6]%. The consensus error grid (CEG) analysis showed 98% of both CGM/PG and CGM/SMBG pairs in the clinically acceptable zones A and B. The analysis confirmed that GlucoMen® Day CGM meets the clinical requirements for state-of-the-art CGM. In addition, the needle-free insertion technology is well tolerated by users and reduces medical waste compared to conventional CGM systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Glucose Sensors—an Essential Tool in Diabetes Management)
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Article
Real-World Outcomes of Glucose Sensor Use in Type 1 Diabetes—Findings from a Large UK Centre
Biosensors 2021, 11(11), 457; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios11110457 - 15 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1493
Abstract
Flash glucose monitoring (FGM) and real-time continuous glucose monitoring (RT-CGM) are increasingly used in clinical practice, with improvements in HbA1c and time in range (TIR) reported in clinical studies. We aimed to evaluate the impact of FGM and RT-CGM use on glycaemic outcomes [...] Read more.
Flash glucose monitoring (FGM) and real-time continuous glucose monitoring (RT-CGM) are increasingly used in clinical practice, with improvements in HbA1c and time in range (TIR) reported in clinical studies. We aimed to evaluate the impact of FGM and RT-CGM use on glycaemic outcomes in adults with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) under routine clinical care. We performed a retrospective data analysis from electronic outpatient records and proprietary web-based glucose monitoring platforms. We measured HbA1c (pre-sensor vs. on-sensor data) and sensor-based outcomes from the previous three months as per the international consensus on RT-CGM reporting guidelines. Amongst the 789 adults with T1DM, HbA1c level decreased from 61.0 (54.0, 71.0) mmol/mol to 57 (49, 65.8) mmol/mol in 561 people using FGM, and from 60.0 (50.0, 70.0) mmol/mol to 58.8 (50.3, 66.8) mmol/mol in 198 using RT-CGM (p < 0.001 for both). We found that 23% of FGM users and 32% of RT-CGM users achieved a time-in-range (TIR) (3.9 to 10 mmol/L) of >70%. For time-below-range (TBR) < 4 mmol/L, 70% of RT-CGM users and 58% of FGM users met international recommendations of <4%. Our data add to the growing body of evidence supporting the use of FGM and RT-CGM in T1DM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Glucose Sensors—an Essential Tool in Diabetes Management)
Article
Noncontact Optical Measurement of Aqueous Humor Glucose Levels and Correlation with Serum Glucose Levels in Rabbit
Biosensors 2021, 11(10), 387; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios11100387 - 13 Oct 2021
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Abstract
The noninvasive measurement of serum glucose levels has been investigated for the monitoring of blood sugar control in diabetes. In our study, we aimed to develop a novel noncontact glucometer (NCGM) utilizing an optical approach to measure the intraocular aqueous humor glucose levels [...] Read more.
The noninvasive measurement of serum glucose levels has been investigated for the monitoring of blood sugar control in diabetes. In our study, we aimed to develop a novel noncontact glucometer (NCGM) utilizing an optical approach to measure the intraocular aqueous humor glucose levels in the anterior chamber of rabbit eyes. The NCGM consists of a hybrid optical system that simultaneously measures near-infrared absorption and the polarized rotatory distribution of glucose molecules in the aqueous humor. In vitro optical measurements demonstrated that NCGM measurements had high precision and repeatability for different glucose levels, including 50 mg/dL (14.36%), 100 mg/dL (−4.05%), 200 mg/dL (−5.99%), 300 mg/dL (4.86%), 400 mg/dL (−2.84%), 500 mg/dL (−0.11%), and 600 mg/dL (4.48%). In the rabbit experiments, we found a high correlation between aqueous glucose levels and serum glucose levels, with a mean difference of 8 mg/dL. According to the testing results, the in vivo NCGM measurement of aqueous humor glucose levels also displayed a high correlation with serum glucose levels, with a mean difference of 29.2 mg/dL. In conclusion, aqueous humor glucose levels were accurately measured using the NCGM, and the results correlated with serum glucose levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Glucose Sensors—an Essential Tool in Diabetes Management)
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Review

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Review
Progress of Polyaniline Glucose Sensors for Diabetes Mellitus Management Utilizing Enzymatic and Non-Enzymatic Detection
Biosensors 2022, 12(3), 137; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12030137 - 22 Feb 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 1426
Abstract
Glucose measurement is a fundamental tool in the daily care of Diabetes Mellitus (DM) patients and healthcare professionals. While there is an established market for glucose sensors, the rising number of DM cases has promoted intensive research to provide accurate systems for glucose [...] Read more.
Glucose measurement is a fundamental tool in the daily care of Diabetes Mellitus (DM) patients and healthcare professionals. While there is an established market for glucose sensors, the rising number of DM cases has promoted intensive research to provide accurate systems for glucose monitoring. Polyaniline (PAni) is a conductive polymer with a linear conjugated backbone with sequences of single C–C and double C=C bonds. This unique structure produces attractive features for the design of sensing systems such as conductivity, biocompatibility, environmental stability, tunable electrochemical properties, and antibacterial activity. PAni-based glucose sensors (PBGS) were actively developed in past years, using either enzymatic or non-enzymatic principles. In these devices, PAni played roles as a conductive material for electron transfer, biocompatible matrix for enzymatic immobilization, or sensitive layer for detection. In this review, we covered the development of PBGS from 2015 to the present, and it is not even exhaustive; it provides an overview of advances and achievements for enzymatic and non-enzymatic PBGB PBGS for self-monitoring and continuous blood glucose monitoring. Additionally, the limitations of PBGB PBGS to advance into robust and stable technology and the challenges associated with their implementation are presented and discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Glucose Sensors—an Essential Tool in Diabetes Management)
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