Non-Coding RNAs in Cancer Biology and Treatment

A special issue of Biomolecules (ISSN 2218-273X). This special issue belongs to the section "Biomacromolecules: Nucleic Acids".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2020) | Viewed by 6103

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Graduate Institute of Cancer Biology and Drug Discovery, College of Medical Science and Technology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
Interests: cancer biology; bioinformatics; drug repurposing
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Although more than 90% of the human genome is actively transcribed into the RNA, up to 70% of it has no protein-coding potential. Actually, genes that encode proteins can only account for less than 2% of the human genome. Dependent on their sizes in length, using 200 nucleotides as a cut-off value, these noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) can be classified into small ncRNAs and long ncRNAs (lncRNAs). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) with 18–25 nucleotides belong to the major class of small ncRNAs. miRNAs can post-transcriptionally regulate target gene expression through mediating mRNA degradation or translational repression. By contrast, lncRNAs execute their functions via binding with various macromolecules such as DNA, chromatin, RNA (including miRNAs), and proteins, suggesting that lncRNAs can regulate not only gene expression but also protein functions. Like oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, dysregulation of ncRNAs is frequently found in cancers, which reveals new targets for intervention. A deeper understanding for the interaction of ncRNA networks in cancers will facilitate the discovery of novel prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets. This Special Issue will focus on new insights into the role of ncRNAs (especially, but not limited to, miRNAs and lncRNAs) in cancers and their diagnoses and treatments. We welcome original research articles and review articles in this field.

Dr. Pei-Ming Yang
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Cancer biology
  • Cancer therapy
  • Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA)
  • microRNA (miRNA)
  • Non-coding RNA (ncRNA)

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

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17 pages, 7819 KiB  
Article
Unravelling the Role of LncRNA WT1-AS/miR-206/NAMPT Axis as Prognostic Biomarkers in Lung Adenocarcinoma
by Wen Li, Yu Liu, Zi Jin Li, Yi Shi, Jing Deng, Jie Bai, Liang Ma, Xiao Xi Zeng, Shan Shan Feng, Jia Li Ren, Fei Jun Luo, Duo Yan Rong, Xiao Qi Chen, Hua Qun Yin, Zhu Chen and Fu Da
Biomolecules 2021, 11(2), 203; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11020203 - 2 Feb 2021
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 2553
Abstract
Lung cancer is the world’s highest morbidity and mortality of malignant tumors, with lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) as a major subtype. The competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA) regulative network provides opportunities to understand the relationships among different molecules, as well as the regulative mechanisms among [...] Read more.
Lung cancer is the world’s highest morbidity and mortality of malignant tumors, with lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) as a major subtype. The competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA) regulative network provides opportunities to understand the relationships among different molecules, as well as the regulative mechanisms among them in order to investigate the whole transcriptome landscape in cancer pathology. We designed this work to explore the role of a key oncogene, MYC, in the pathogenesis of LUAD, and this study aims to identify important long noncoding RNA (lncRNA)-microRNA (miRNA)- transcription factor (TF) interactions in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) using a bioinformatics analysis. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database, containing mRNA expression data of NSCLC, was used to determine the deferentially expressed genes (DEGs), and the ceRNA network was composed of WT1-AS, miR-206, and nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) bashing on the MYC expression level. The Kaplan–Meier univariate survival analysis showed that these components may be closely related prognostic biomarkers and will become new ideas for NSCLC treatment. Moreover, the high expression of WT1-AS and NAMPT and low expression of miR-206 were associated with a shortened survival in NSCLC patients, which provided a survival advantage. In summary, the current study constructing a ceRNA-based WT1-AS/miR-206/NAMPT axis might be a novel important prognostic factor associated with the diagnosis and prognosis of LUAD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Coding RNAs in Cancer Biology and Treatment)
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Review

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29 pages, 1029 KiB  
Review
LncRNAs and microRNAs as Essential Regulators of Stemness in Breast Cancer Stem Cells
by Nadia Flores-Huerta, Macrina B. Silva-Cázares, Lourdes A. Arriaga-Pizano, Jessica L. Prieto-Chávez and César López-Camarillo
Biomolecules 2021, 11(3), 380; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11030380 - 3 Mar 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3124
Abstract
Breast cancer is an aggressive disease with a high incidence in women worldwide. Two decades ago, a controversial hypothesis was proposed that cancer arises from a subpopulation of “tumor initiating cells” or “cancer stem cells-like” (CSC). Today, CSC are defined as small subset [...] Read more.
Breast cancer is an aggressive disease with a high incidence in women worldwide. Two decades ago, a controversial hypothesis was proposed that cancer arises from a subpopulation of “tumor initiating cells” or “cancer stem cells-like” (CSC). Today, CSC are defined as small subset of somatic cancer cells within a tumor with self-renewal properties driven by the aberrant expression of genes involved in the maintenance of a stemness-like phenotype. The understanding of the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the maintenance of CSC subpopulation are fundamental in the development and persistence of breast cancer. Nowadays, the hypothesis suggests that genetic and epigenetic alterations give rise to breast cancer stem cells (bCSC), which are responsible for self-renewal, tumor growth, chemoresistance, poor prognosis and low survival in patients. However, the prominence of bCSC, as well as the molecular mechanisms that regulates and promotes the malignant phenotypes, are still poorly understood. The role of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), such as long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) acting as oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes has been recently highlighted by a plethora of studies in breast cancer. These ncRNAs positively or negatively impact on different signaling pathways that govern the cancer hallmarks associated with bCSC, making them attractive targets for therapy. In this review, we present a current summary of the studies on the pivotal roles of lncRNAs and microRNAs in the regulation of genes associated to stemness of bCSC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Coding RNAs in Cancer Biology and Treatment)
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