Special Issue "Nanoparticles for Cancer Therapy"

A special issue of Biomolecules (ISSN 2218-273X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 April 2019

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Helen Townley

Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, Oxford, United Kingdom (UK)
Website | E-Mail
Interests: nanoparticles; cancer therapy; cancer imaging; drug delivery

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Cancer still remains one of the main causes of death in the Western world. New and innovative ways to tackle the disease are needed. Nanoparticle technology has the potential to provide such an opportunity due to the molecular scale and unique properties of nancoscale materials. Nanoparticles can be used to carry chemotherapeutics, peptides, nucleotides; may carry imaging agents; or have intrinsic properties such as radiosensitization. Furthermore, multimodal particles may be able to combine all of these properties to effect localization, monitoring and therapy all from one construct. This Special Issue will highlight the most novel and promising developments in the field.

Dr. Helen Townley
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Biomolecules is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 650 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Oncology
  • Cancer
  • Nanoparticle
  • delivery
  • release
  • therapy
  • multimodal
  • targetted
  • controlled
  • drug
  • chemotherapeutic
  • radiosensitizer
  • EPR
  • RNAi
  • Peptide
  • encapsulation.

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle pH-Sensitive Co-Adsorption/Release of Doxorubicin and Paclitaxel by Carbon Nanotube, Fullerene, and Graphene Oxide in Combination with N-isopropylacrylamide: A Molecular Dynamics Study
Biomolecules 2018, 8(4), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom8040127
Received: 31 August 2018 / Revised: 16 October 2018 / Accepted: 19 October 2018 / Published: 29 October 2018
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Abstract
Nanotechnology based drug delivery systems for cancer therapy have been the topic of interest for many researchers and scientists. In this research, we have studied the pH sensitive co-adsorption and release of doxorubicin (DOX) and paclitaxel (PAX) by carbon nanotube (CNT), fullerene, and
[...] Read more.
Nanotechnology based drug delivery systems for cancer therapy have been the topic of interest for many researchers and scientists. In this research, we have studied the pH sensitive co-adsorption and release of doxorubicin (DOX) and paclitaxel (PAX) by carbon nanotube (CNT), fullerene, and graphene oxide (GO) in combination with N-isopropylacrylamide (PIN). This simulation study has been performed by use of molecular dynamics. Interaction energies, hydrogen bond, and gyration radius were investigated. Results reveal that, compared with fullerene and GO, CNT is a better carrier for the co-adsorption and co-release of DOX and PAX. It can adsorb the drugs in plasma pH and release it in vicinity of cancerous tissues which have acidic pH. Investigating the number of hydrogen bonds revealed that PIN created many hydrogen bonds with water resulting in high hydrophilicity of PIN, hence making it more stable in the bloodstream while preventing from its accumulation. It is also concluded from this study that CNT and PIN would make a suitable combination for the delivery of DOX and PAX, because PIN makes abundant hydrogen bonds and CNT makes stable interactions with these drugs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles for Cancer Therapy)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle α-Tocopheryl Succinate-Based Polymeric Nanoparticles for the Treatment of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Biomolecules 2018, 8(3), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom8030097
Received: 27 July 2018 / Revised: 30 August 2018 / Accepted: 14 September 2018 / Published: 19 September 2018
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Abstract
The aim of this work is to study, in an in vitro head and neck squamous cell carcinomas model the anti-angiogenic and anti-migratory properties of self-assembled polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) with demonstrated selective anticancer activity. The NPs are based on α-tocopheryl succinate (α-TOS) encapsulated
[...] Read more.
The aim of this work is to study, in an in vitro head and neck squamous cell carcinomas model the anti-angiogenic and anti-migratory properties of self-assembled polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) with demonstrated selective anticancer activity. The NPs are based on α-tocopheryl succinate (α-TOS) encapsulated in the hydrophobic core of the NPs. We analyzed the effect of the newly synthetized α-TOS-loaded NPs in proliferating endothelial cells and hypopharynx carcinoma squamous cells and measured markers of angiogenesis, apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS). α-TOS-loaded NPs suppressed angiogenesis by inducing accumulation of ROS and inducing apoptosis of proliferating endothelial cells. These NPs also decrease the number and quality of capillary-like tubes in an in vitro three-dimensional (3D) experiment, decrease the production of the pro-angiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor and down-regulate the expression of its receptor. The anti-migratory efficacy of α-TOS is corroborated in hypopharynx carcinoma cells by decreasing the secretion of matrix metalloproteases 2 and 9 (MMP-2 and MMP-9) and inhibiting cell migration. These results confirm that α-TOS-based NPs not only present anticancer properties, but also antiangiogenic properties, therefore making them promising candidates for multi-active combinatorial anticancer therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles for Cancer Therapy)
Figures

Figure 1

Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

  • Proposed title: "Nanoparticle activation methods in cancer treatment" by Helen Townley (University of Oxford, United Kingdom).
    ABSTRACT: In the last decade, nanotechnology has seen a huge leap in development and found use across a huge number of fields in science, including energy, materials, environment, and medicine. In this review, we intend to highlight the progress which has been made in recent years around different types of smart activation nano-systems for cancer treatment. Conventional treatment methods, such as chemotherapy or radiotherapy, suffer from a lack of specific targeting and consequent off-target effects. This has led to the development of smart nanosystems which can effect specific regional and temporal activation. In this review, we will discuss the different methodologies which have been designed to permit activation at the tumour site. We will cover activation methods such as pH, polymer coatings, ultrasound, enzymes and a number of others.

  • Proposed title: "The ROMP, a powerful approach to synthesize Novel pH-sensitive Nanoparticles for Tumor Therapy" by Valérie Heroguez *, Philippe Bertrand and Christophe Blanquart (Laboratoire de Chimie des Polymeres Organiques, IPB-ENSCBP, Pessac, France).
    ABSTRACT: Fast clearance, metabolism and systemic toxicity are major limits for the clinical use of anti-cancer drugs. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) present these defects despite displaying promising anti-tumor properties on tumor cells in vitro and in in vivo model of cancers. Specific delivery of anti-cancer drugs into the tumor should improve their clinical benefit by limiting systemic toxicity and by increasing the anti-tumor effect. The paper deals with the synthesis of polymeric nanoparticle platform produced by Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization in dispersion able to release anti-cancer drugs, like histone deacetylase inhibitors, into mesothelioma tumor. The core-shell nanoparticles have stealthy properties due to their PEO shell and can be viewed as universal nanocarriers on which any alkyne modified anti-cancer molecule can be grafted by click chemistry.  A cleavage reaction of the chemical bond between NPs and drug by the contact of NP with a medium presenting an acidic pH, typically cancer tumor environment or acidic intracellular compartments, induces controlled release of the bioactive molecule in its native form.
    In our in vivo syngeneic model of mesothelioma, a highly selective accumulation of the particles in the tumour was obtained. The release of the drugs leading to 80% reduction of tumor weight for the best compound without toxicity. Our work demonstrates that the use of theranostic nanovectors leads to an optimized delivery of epigenetic inhibitors in tumours and then, improving their anti-tumour properties in vivo.

  • Proposed title: "EGFR detection in extracellular vesicles of breast cancer patients through immunosensor based on silica-chitosan nanoplatform" by Martín Fernández Baldo (Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Buenos Aires, Argentina).
    ABSTRACT: In the present work, we present a microfluidic electrochemical immunosensor with a platform design of SiNPs coated with chitosan (SiNPs-CH) for the EGFR determination. This is based on the covalently immobilization of monoclonal anti-EGFR on SiNPs-CH retained in the central channel (CC) ofthe microfluidic device.The synthetized SiNPs-CHwere characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-visible), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), andtransmission electron microscopy (TEM).The epithelial cancer biomarker was quantified by a direct sandwich immunoassay measuring through a horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated anti-EGFR.The enzymatic product (benzoquinone) was detected by reduction at -100 mV on a sputtering gold electrode. The measured current was directly proportional to the level of EGFR in human serum samples.The linear range was from 0 ng mL-1 to 50 ng mL-1 . The detection limit was 1.37 pg mL-1 , and the within- and between-assay coefficients of variation were below 6.25%.Proteomic characterization of patient’s exosomesby this novel immunosensor showed that EGFR levels in extracellular vesicles (EVs-EGFR) were significantly higher than in the healthy control group (p = 0.002) and also has shown more sensitivity and specificity than normal serum markers like CEA and CA15.3. EVs-EGFR concentration correlates with EGFR tumor status (p=0.0003) as well as it correlate with the tumor size and pathological grade.

  • Title: "α-TOS-based polymeric nanoparticles with anti-angiogenic and anti-migratory properties for the treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma" by Carolina Sánchez-Rodríguez, Raquel Palao-Suay, Laura Rodrigáñez, María Rosa Aguilar*, Sergio Martín-Saldaña, Julio San Román and Ricardo Sanz-Fernández (Group of Biomaterials. Department of Polymeric Nanomaterials and Biomaterials. Institute of Polymer Science and Technology, ICTP-CSIC; Universidad Europea de Madrid, Faculty of Biomedical and Health Sciences and  Networking Biomedical Research Centre in Bioengineering, Biomaterials, and Nanomedicine, CIBER-BBN, Madrid, Spain).
    ABSTRACT: Objectives: the aim of this work is to study in an “in vitro” head and neck squamous cell carcinomas model the anti-angiogenic and anti-migratory properties of self-assembled polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) with demonstrated selective anticancer activity. Materials and Methods: The NPs are based on a-tocopheryl succinate (a-TOS), encapsulated in the hydrophobic core of the NPs. We analyse the effect of the newly synthetized α-TOS-loaded NPs in proliferating endothelial cells and hypopharynx carcinoma squamous cells. We measure markers of angiogenesis, apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Results: α-TOS-loaded NPs suppressed angiogenesis by inducing accumulation of ROS and inducing apoptosis of proliferating endothelial cells. These NPs also decrease the number and the quality of capillary-like tubes in an “in vitro” 3D experiment, decrease the production of the pro-angiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor and down-regulate the expression of its receptor. The anti-migratory efficacy of α-TOS is corroborated in hypopharynx carcinoma cells by decreasing the secretion of matrix metalloproteases 2 and 9 (MMP-2 and MMP-9) and inhibiting cell migration. Conclusion: These results confirm that a-TOS-based NPs not only present anticancer properties, but also antiangiogenic properties being promising candidates for multi-active combinatorial anticancer therapy.
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