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Open AccessArticle

Monte Carlo Simulations of Heat Deposition during Photothermal Skin Cancer Therapy Using Nanoparticles

1
Living Systems Institute, University of Exeter, EX4 4PU, UK
2
Physics and Astronomy, University of Exeter, EX4 4PU, UK
3
University of Exeter Medical School, University of Exeter, EX4 4PU, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biomolecules 2019, 9(8), 343; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom9080343
Received: 31 May 2019 / Revised: 22 July 2019 / Accepted: 31 July 2019 / Published: 5 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles for Cancer Therapy)
Photothermal therapy using nanoparticles is a promising new approach for the treatment of cancer. The principle is to utilise plasmonic nanoparticle light interaction for efficient heat conversion. However, there are many hurdles to overcome before it can be accepted in clinical practice. One issue is a current poor characterization of the thermal dose that is distributed over the tumour region and the surrounding normal tissue. Here, we use Monte Carlo simulations of photon radiative transfer through tissue and subsequent heat diffusion calculations, to model the spatial thermal dose in a skin cancer model. We validate our heat rise simulations against experimental data from the literature and estimate the concentration of nanorods in the tumor that are associated with the heat rise. We use the cumulative equivalent minutes at 43 °C (CEM43) metric to analyse the percentage cell kill across the tumour and the surrounding normal tissue. Overall, we show that computer simulations of photothermal therapy are an invaluable tool to fully characterize thermal dose within tumour and normal tissue. View Full-Text
Keywords: Monte Carlo simulations; photodynamic therapy; photothermal therapy; nanoparticles; gold nanorods; theranostics Monte Carlo simulations; photodynamic therapy; photothermal therapy; nanoparticles; gold nanorods; theranostics
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Jeynes, J.C.G.; Wordingham, F.; Moran, L.J.; Curnow, A.; Harries, T.J. Monte Carlo Simulations of Heat Deposition during Photothermal Skin Cancer Therapy Using Nanoparticles. Biomolecules 2019, 9, 343.

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