Special Issue "Frontiers in PET Molecular Imaging and Molecular Diagnostics"

A special issue of Biology (ISSN 2079-7737). This special issue belongs to the section "Medical Biology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 August 2022 | Viewed by 2165

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Xiang Li
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-Guided Therapy, Medical University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna, Austria
Interests: PET/CT; SPECT/CT; molecular imaging; nuclear cardiology; atherosclerosis; radiomics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The relevance of multiple causes of disease development, progression and treatment response is widely recognized in complex diseases. Integration of two disciplines of molecular imaging and molecular medicine (eg. genomics, proteomics), following a systems-biology approach become an emerging strategy that enables the noninvasive visualization, characterization, and quantification of molecular signatures and processes within living objectives in clinical practice. Positron emission tomography (PET) molecular imaging, stands out as a platform for advanced, noninvasive probing of metabolic and signaling pathways on a cellular, organ, or cross-organ level.

PET molecular imaging normally encompasses radiology and nuclear medicine and it is helpful for disease screening, early diagnosis, evaluation of disease location and expending, and prognosis. Its applications are essential to support the selection of therapy and evaluate the therapy response and follow-up. Joint PET molecular imaging and molecular diagnostics can be used to improve diagnostic work-up and therapeutic decision-making to the redefined molecular lesions with targeted therapy.

In the last decade, we have witnessed the development and combination of radiotracers and targeted radiopharmaceuticals which can map the disease within a patient and guide subsequently targeted radionuclide treatment, particularly in the era of personalized medicine. An array of technical and methodological approaches that entail imaging data analysis, advanced machine learning/deep learning, bioinformatics, radiomics, and interactomics analysis in PET molecular imaging provide insights into selected signaling. In turn, they could expand our understanding of the various pathomechanisms and help us consolidate an appreciation for a systemic approach to precision medicine.

For this Special Issue, we encourage all topics relevant to PET molecular imaging and molecular diagnostics. We accept reviews, original research (both clinical and preclinical), and brief communications.

Prof. Dr. Xiang Li 
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • PET molecular imaging
  • molecular diagnostics
  • radiopharmaceutical
  • radiomics
  • artificial intelligence
  • liquid biopsy
  • genomics
  • proteomics
  • trans-omics

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

Article
Reduced Segmentation of Lesions Is Comparable to Whole-Body Segmentation for Response Assessment by PSMA PET/CT: Initial Experience with the Keyhole Approach
Biology 2022, 11(5), 660; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11050660 - 26 Apr 2022
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Abstract
(1) Background: Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) positron emission tomography (PET)-derived parameters, such as the commonly used standardized uptake value (SUV) and PSMA-positive tumor volume (PSMA-TV), have been proposed for response assessment in metastatic prostate cancer (PCa) patients. However, the calculation of whole-body PSMA-TV [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) positron emission tomography (PET)-derived parameters, such as the commonly used standardized uptake value (SUV) and PSMA-positive tumor volume (PSMA-TV), have been proposed for response assessment in metastatic prostate cancer (PCa) patients. However, the calculation of whole-body PSMA-TV remains a time-consuming procedure. We hypothesized that it may be possible to quantify changes in PSMA-TV by considering only a limited number of representative lesions. (2) Methods: Sixty-five patients classified into different disease stages were assessed by PSMA PET/CT for staging and restaging after therapy. Whole-body PSMA-TV and whole-body SUVmax were calculated. We then repeated this calculation only including the five or ten hottest or largest lesions. The corresponding serum levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) were also determined. The derived delta between baseline and follow-up values provided the following parameters: ΔSUVmaxall, ΔSUVmax10, ΔSUVmax5, ΔPSMA-TVall, ΔPSMA-TV10, ΔPSMA-TV5, ΔPSA. Finally, we compared the findings from our whole-body segmentation with the results from our keyhole approach (focusing on a limited number of lesions) and correlated all values with the biochemical response (ΔPSA). (3) Results: Among patients with metastatic hormone-sensitive PCa (mHSPC), none showed a relevant deviation for ΔSUVmax10/ΔSUVmax5 or ΔPSMA-TV10/ΔPSMA-TV5 compared to ΔSUVmaxall and ΔPSMA-TVall. For patients treated with taxanes, up to 6/21 (28.6%) showed clinically relevant deviations between ΔSUVmaxall and ΔSUVmax10 or ΔSUVmax5, but only up to 2/21 (9.5%) patients showed clinically relevant deviations between ΔPSMA-TVall and ΔPSMA-TV10 or ΔPSMA-TV5. For patients treated with radioligand therapy (RLT), up to 5/28 (17.9%) showed clinically relevant deviations between ΔSUVmaxall and ΔSUVmax10 or ΔSUVmax5, but only 1/28 (3.6%) patients showed clinically relevant deviations between ΔPSMA-TVall and ΔPSMA-TV10 or ΔPSMA-TV5. The highest correlations with ΔPSA were found for ΔPSMA-TVall (r ≥ 0.59, p ≤ 0.01), followed by ΔPSMA-TV10 (r ≥ 0.57, p ≤ 0.01) and ΔPSMA-TV5 (r ≥ 0.53, p ≤ 0.02) in all cohorts. ΔPSA only correlated with ΔSUVmaxall (r = 0.60, p = 0.02) and with ΔSUVmax10 (r = 0.53, p = 0.03) in the mHSPC cohort, as well as with ΔSUVmaxall (r = 0.51, p = 0.01) in the RLT cohort. (4) Conclusion: Response assessment using PSMA-TV with a reduced number of lesions is feasible, and may allow for a simplified evaluation process for PSMA PET/CT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in PET Molecular Imaging and Molecular Diagnostics)
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Article
Immuno-PET Imaging of Atherosclerotic Plaques with [89Zr]Zr-Anti-CD40 mAb—Proof of Concept
Biology 2022, 11(3), 408; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11030408 - 06 Mar 2022
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Abstract
Non-invasive imaging of atherosclerosis can help in the identification of vulnerable plaque lesions. CD40 is a co-stimulatory molecule present on various immune and non-immune cells in the plaques and is linked to inflammation and plaque instability. We hypothesize that a 89Zr-labeled anti-CD40 [...] Read more.
Non-invasive imaging of atherosclerosis can help in the identification of vulnerable plaque lesions. CD40 is a co-stimulatory molecule present on various immune and non-immune cells in the plaques and is linked to inflammation and plaque instability. We hypothesize that a 89Zr-labeled anti-CD40 monoclonal antibody (mAb) tracer has the potential to bind to cells present in atherosclerotic lesions and that CD40 Positron Emission Tomography (PET) can contribute to the detection of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque lesions. To study this, wild-type (WT) and ApoE−/− mice were fed a high cholesterol diet for 14 weeks to develop atherosclerosis. Mice were injected with [89Zr]Zr-anti-CD40 mAb and the aortic uptake was evaluated and quantified using PET/Computed Tomography (CT) imaging. Ex vivo biodistribution was performed post-PET imaging and the uptake in the aorta was assessed with autoradiography and compared with Oil red O staining to determine the tracer potential to detect atherosclerotic plaques. On day 3 and 7 post injection, analysis of [89Zr]Zr-anti-CD40 mAb PET/CT scans showed a more pronounced aortic signal in ApoE−/− compared to WT mice with an increased aorta-to-blood uptake ratio. Autoradiography revealed [89Zr]Zr-anti-CD40 mAb uptake in atherosclerotic plaque areas in ApoE−/− mice, while no signal was found in WT mice. Clear overlap was observed between plaque areas as identified by Oil red O staining and autoradiography signal of [89Zr]Zr-anti-CD40 mAb in ApoE−/− mice. In this proof of concept study, we showed that PET/CT with [89Zr]Zr-anti-CD40 mAb can detect atherosclerotic plaques. As CD40 is associated with plaque vulnerability, [89Zr]Zr-anti-CD40 mAb has the potential to become a tracer to detect vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in PET Molecular Imaging and Molecular Diagnostics)
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