Frontiers in PET Molecular Imaging and Molecular Diagnostics

A special issue of Biology (ISSN 2079-7737). This special issue belongs to the section "Medical Biology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 March 2023) | Viewed by 12113

Special Issue Editor

Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-Guided Therapy, Medical University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna, Austria
Interests: PET/CT; SPECT/CT; molecular imaging; nuclear cardiology; atherosclerosis; radiomics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The relevance of multiple causes of disease development, progression and treatment response is widely recognized in complex diseases. Integration of two disciplines of molecular imaging and molecular medicine (eg. genomics, proteomics), following a systems-biology approach become an emerging strategy that enables the noninvasive visualization, characterization, and quantification of molecular signatures and processes within living objectives in clinical practice. Positron emission tomography (PET) molecular imaging, stands out as a platform for advanced, noninvasive probing of metabolic and signaling pathways on a cellular, organ, or cross-organ level.

PET molecular imaging normally encompasses radiology and nuclear medicine and it is helpful for disease screening, early diagnosis, evaluation of disease location and expending, and prognosis. Its applications are essential to support the selection of therapy and evaluate the therapy response and follow-up. Joint PET molecular imaging and molecular diagnostics can be used to improve diagnostic work-up and therapeutic decision-making to the redefined molecular lesions with targeted therapy.

In the last decade, we have witnessed the development and combination of radiotracers and targeted radiopharmaceuticals which can map the disease within a patient and guide subsequently targeted radionuclide treatment, particularly in the era of personalized medicine. An array of technical and methodological approaches that entail imaging data analysis, advanced machine learning/deep learning, bioinformatics, radiomics, and interactomics analysis in PET molecular imaging provide insights into selected signaling. In turn, they could expand our understanding of the various pathomechanisms and help us consolidate an appreciation for a systemic approach to precision medicine.

For this Special Issue, we encourage all topics relevant to PET molecular imaging and molecular diagnostics. We accept reviews, original research (both clinical and preclinical), and brief communications.

Prof. Dr. Xiang Li 
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Biology is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • PET molecular imaging
  • molecular diagnostics
  • radiopharmaceutical
  • radiomics
  • artificial intelligence
  • liquid biopsy
  • genomics
  • proteomics
  • trans-omics

Published Papers (5 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

10 pages, 602 KiB  
Article
Added Value of Abnormal Lymph Nodes Detected with FDG-PET/CT in Suspected Vascular Graft Infection
Biology 2023, 12(2), 251; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology12020251 - 05 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2450
Abstract
Vascular graft and endograft infections (VGEI) cause a serious morbidity and mortality burden. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) imaging is frequently used in the diagnostic workup, but the additional value of abnormal (18F-FDG active and/or enlarged) [...] Read more.
Vascular graft and endograft infections (VGEI) cause a serious morbidity and mortality burden. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) imaging is frequently used in the diagnostic workup, but the additional value of abnormal (18F-FDG active and/or enlarged) locoregional lymph nodes is unknown. In this retrospective study, the additional diagnostic value of abnormal locoregional lymph nodes on 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging for VGEI was evaluated, including 54 patients with a culture-proven VGEI (defined according to the Management of Aortic Graft Infection [MAGIC] group classification) and 25 patients without VGEI. 18F-FDG PET/CT was qualitatively and quantitatively assessed for tracer uptake and pattern at the location of the vascular graft, and locoregional lymph node uptake and enlargement (>10 mm). 18F-FDG uptake intensity and pattern independently predicted the presence of VGEI by logistic regression (Χ2: 46.19, p < 0.001), with an OR of 7.38 (95% CI [1.65, 32.92], p = 0.009) and 18.32 (95% CI [3.95, 84.88], p < 0.001), respectively. Single visual assessment of abnormal locoregional lymph nodes predicted the presence of VGEI with a sensitivity of 35%, specificity of 96%, PPV of 95%, and NPV of 41%. The visual assessment of abnormal lymph nodes after qualitative assessment of 18F-FDG uptake intensity and pattern at the vascular graft location did not independently predict the presence of VGEI by logistic regression (Χ2: 3.60, p = 0.058; OR: 8.25, 95% CI [0.74, 63.37], p = 0.096). In conclusion, detection of abnormal locoregional lymph nodes on 18F-FDG PET/CT has a high specificity (96%) and PPV (95%) for VGEI. However, it did not add to currently used 18F-FDG PET/CT interpretation criteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in PET Molecular Imaging and Molecular Diagnostics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 2445 KiB  
Article
Functional Connectivity Alterations Based on Hypometabolic Region May Predict Clinical Prognosis of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: A Simultaneous 18F-FDG PET/fMRI Study
Biology 2022, 11(8), 1178; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11081178 - 05 Aug 2022
Viewed by 1396
Abstract
(1) Background: Accurate localization of the epileptogenic zone and understanding the related functional connectivity (FC) alterations are critical for the prediction of clinical prognosis in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). We aim to localize the hypometabolic region in TLE patients, compare the [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Accurate localization of the epileptogenic zone and understanding the related functional connectivity (FC) alterations are critical for the prediction of clinical prognosis in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). We aim to localize the hypometabolic region in TLE patients, compare the differences in FC alterations based on hypometabolic region and structural lesion, respectively, and explore their relationships with clinical prognosis. (2) Methods: Thirty-two TLE patients and 26 controls were recruited. Patients underwent 18F-FDG PET/MR scan, surgical treatment, and a 2–3-year follow-up. Visual assessment and voxel-wise analyses were performed to identify hypometabolic regions. ROI-based FC analyses were performed. Relationships between clinical prognosis and FC values were performed by using Pearson correlation analyses and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. (3) Results: Hypometabolic regions in TLE patients were found in the ipsilateral hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, and temporal lobe (p < 0.001). Functional alterations based on hypometabolic regions showed a more extensive whole-brain FC reduction. FC values of these regions negatively correlated with epilepsy duration (p < 0.05), and the ROC curve of them showed significant accuracy in predicting postsurgical outcome. (4) Conclusions: In TLE patients, FC related with hypometabolic region obtained by PET/fMRI may provide value in the prediction of disease progression and seizure-free outcome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in PET Molecular Imaging and Molecular Diagnostics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 1283 KiB  
Article
Reduced Segmentation of Lesions Is Comparable to Whole-Body Segmentation for Response Assessment by PSMA PET/CT: Initial Experience with the Keyhole Approach
Biology 2022, 11(5), 660; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11050660 - 26 Apr 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1603
Abstract
(1) Background: Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) positron emission tomography (PET)-derived parameters, such as the commonly used standardized uptake value (SUV) and PSMA-positive tumor volume (PSMA-TV), have been proposed for response assessment in metastatic prostate cancer (PCa) patients. However, the calculation of whole-body PSMA-TV [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) positron emission tomography (PET)-derived parameters, such as the commonly used standardized uptake value (SUV) and PSMA-positive tumor volume (PSMA-TV), have been proposed for response assessment in metastatic prostate cancer (PCa) patients. However, the calculation of whole-body PSMA-TV remains a time-consuming procedure. We hypothesized that it may be possible to quantify changes in PSMA-TV by considering only a limited number of representative lesions. (2) Methods: Sixty-five patients classified into different disease stages were assessed by PSMA PET/CT for staging and restaging after therapy. Whole-body PSMA-TV and whole-body SUVmax were calculated. We then repeated this calculation only including the five or ten hottest or largest lesions. The corresponding serum levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) were also determined. The derived delta between baseline and follow-up values provided the following parameters: ΔSUVmaxall, ΔSUVmax10, ΔSUVmax5, ΔPSMA-TVall, ΔPSMA-TV10, ΔPSMA-TV5, ΔPSA. Finally, we compared the findings from our whole-body segmentation with the results from our keyhole approach (focusing on a limited number of lesions) and correlated all values with the biochemical response (ΔPSA). (3) Results: Among patients with metastatic hormone-sensitive PCa (mHSPC), none showed a relevant deviation for ΔSUVmax10/ΔSUVmax5 or ΔPSMA-TV10/ΔPSMA-TV5 compared to ΔSUVmaxall and ΔPSMA-TVall. For patients treated with taxanes, up to 6/21 (28.6%) showed clinically relevant deviations between ΔSUVmaxall and ΔSUVmax10 or ΔSUVmax5, but only up to 2/21 (9.5%) patients showed clinically relevant deviations between ΔPSMA-TVall and ΔPSMA-TV10 or ΔPSMA-TV5. For patients treated with radioligand therapy (RLT), up to 5/28 (17.9%) showed clinically relevant deviations between ΔSUVmaxall and ΔSUVmax10 or ΔSUVmax5, but only 1/28 (3.6%) patients showed clinically relevant deviations between ΔPSMA-TVall and ΔPSMA-TV10 or ΔPSMA-TV5. The highest correlations with ΔPSA were found for ΔPSMA-TVall (r ≥ 0.59, p ≤ 0.01), followed by ΔPSMA-TV10 (r ≥ 0.57, p ≤ 0.01) and ΔPSMA-TV5 (r ≥ 0.53, p ≤ 0.02) in all cohorts. ΔPSA only correlated with ΔSUVmaxall (r = 0.60, p = 0.02) and with ΔSUVmax10 (r = 0.53, p = 0.03) in the mHSPC cohort, as well as with ΔSUVmaxall (r = 0.51, p = 0.01) in the RLT cohort. (4) Conclusion: Response assessment using PSMA-TV with a reduced number of lesions is feasible, and may allow for a simplified evaluation process for PSMA PET/CT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in PET Molecular Imaging and Molecular Diagnostics)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

14 pages, 2314 KiB  
Article
Immuno-PET Imaging of Atherosclerotic Plaques with [89Zr]Zr-Anti-CD40 mAb—Proof of Concept
Biology 2022, 11(3), 408; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11030408 - 06 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2893
Abstract
Non-invasive imaging of atherosclerosis can help in the identification of vulnerable plaque lesions. CD40 is a co-stimulatory molecule present on various immune and non-immune cells in the plaques and is linked to inflammation and plaque instability. We hypothesize that a 89Zr-labeled anti-CD40 [...] Read more.
Non-invasive imaging of atherosclerosis can help in the identification of vulnerable plaque lesions. CD40 is a co-stimulatory molecule present on various immune and non-immune cells in the plaques and is linked to inflammation and plaque instability. We hypothesize that a 89Zr-labeled anti-CD40 monoclonal antibody (mAb) tracer has the potential to bind to cells present in atherosclerotic lesions and that CD40 Positron Emission Tomography (PET) can contribute to the detection of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque lesions. To study this, wild-type (WT) and ApoE−/− mice were fed a high cholesterol diet for 14 weeks to develop atherosclerosis. Mice were injected with [89Zr]Zr-anti-CD40 mAb and the aortic uptake was evaluated and quantified using PET/Computed Tomography (CT) imaging. Ex vivo biodistribution was performed post-PET imaging and the uptake in the aorta was assessed with autoradiography and compared with Oil red O staining to determine the tracer potential to detect atherosclerotic plaques. On day 3 and 7 post injection, analysis of [89Zr]Zr-anti-CD40 mAb PET/CT scans showed a more pronounced aortic signal in ApoE−/− compared to WT mice with an increased aorta-to-blood uptake ratio. Autoradiography revealed [89Zr]Zr-anti-CD40 mAb uptake in atherosclerotic plaque areas in ApoE−/− mice, while no signal was found in WT mice. Clear overlap was observed between plaque areas as identified by Oil red O staining and autoradiography signal of [89Zr]Zr-anti-CD40 mAb in ApoE−/− mice. In this proof of concept study, we showed that PET/CT with [89Zr]Zr-anti-CD40 mAb can detect atherosclerotic plaques. As CD40 is associated with plaque vulnerability, [89Zr]Zr-anti-CD40 mAb has the potential to become a tracer to detect vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in PET Molecular Imaging and Molecular Diagnostics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

13 pages, 2505 KiB  
Review
Nuclear Molecular Imaging of Disease Burden and Response to Treatment for Cardiac Amyloidosis
Biology 2022, 11(10), 1395; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11101395 - 24 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2731
Abstract
Cardiac amyloidosis (CA) is a heterogeneous group of diseases in which extracellular insoluble amyloid proteins are deposited in specific organs and tissues locally or systemically, thereby interfering with physiological function. Transthyretin protein (TTR) and light chain (AL) amyloidosis are the most common types [...] Read more.
Cardiac amyloidosis (CA) is a heterogeneous group of diseases in which extracellular insoluble amyloid proteins are deposited in specific organs and tissues locally or systemically, thereby interfering with physiological function. Transthyretin protein (TTR) and light chain (AL) amyloidosis are the most common types of cardiac amyloidosis. Radionuclide bone scintigraphy has recently become the most common non-invasive test for the diagnosis of TTR-CA but is of limited value for the diagnosis of AL-CA. PET has proved promising for the diagnosis of CA and its applications are expected to expand in the future. This review summarizes the current bone scintigraphy and amyloid-targeting Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging, the binding imaging properties of radiotracers, and the values of diagnosis, prognosis, and monitoring therapy response in CA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in PET Molecular Imaging and Molecular Diagnostics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop