Ecotoxicology of Emerging Contaminants and the Role of Bioactive Molecules on Marine Environmental Safety

A special issue of Biology (ISSN 2079-7737). This special issue belongs to the section "Biotechnology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (24 October 2023) | Viewed by 4875

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical and Environmental Science, University of Messina, 98166 Messina, Italy
Interests: environmental pollutants; ecotoxicology; inflammation; marine biotechnology; biochemistry
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
1. Department of Biomedical, Dental Sciences and Morphological and Functional Images, University of Messina, 98125 Messina, Italy
2. Institute for Marine Biological Resources and Biotechnology (IRBIM), National Research Council (CNR), 98122 Messina, Italy
Interests: marine ecology; marine biology

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Co-Guest Editor
Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical and Environmental Science, University of Messina, 98166 Messina, Italy
Interests: marine biotechnology; marine ecology; toxicology; marine pollution; biochemistry
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are pleased to invite you to contribute to a Special Issue of Biology focused on ecotoxicology.

The presence of numerous contaminants in aquatic feed and their effects on target species are topics that continue to be attractive. Environmental contaminants cause significant effects at different levels of biological organization, culminating in developmental alterations, with structural malformations in larvae and adult fish.

Moreover, the ocean shelters most of the global biodiversity that makes the marine environment a great reservoir of bioactive natural products that are mostly not found in the terrestrial environment. Seaweeds have been shown to be a great source of bioactive natural products with therapeutic properties.

It has been widely documented as numerous algae or extracts from animals that populate the marine environment, show anti-inflammatory, antioxidant actions, and antibacterial and viral effects, as well.

In particular, we call for review and original research papers that pay attention to effects of emerging contaminants to marine organisms and the beneficial effects of natural (antioxidant-marine extract) molecules on inflammatory pathologies in fish but also for human, pets, and farm animals.

We invite scientists to provide their scientific knowledge and provide the latest and most up-to-date knowledge available on the topics addressed in a multidisciplinary and integrative perspective.

Dr. Alessio Filippo Peritore
Dr. Nunziacarla Spanò
Dr. Davide Di Paola
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • marine biotechnology
  • marine pollution
  • toxicology
  • immunity
  • inflammation

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

17 pages, 2057 KiB  
Article
Improving Tannery Wastewater Treatments Using an Additional Microbial Treatment with a Bacterial–Fungal Consortium
by Fuad Ameen
Biology 2023, 12(12), 1507; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology12121507 - 8 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1353
Abstract
Environmental pollutants such as toxic heavy metals and oxygen-demanding solids are generated by leather manufacturing. In most tanneries, wastewaters are treated with physico-chemical methods but overly high levels of pollutants remain in surface waters. The efficiency of tanning wastewater treatment with conventional techniques [...] Read more.
Environmental pollutants such as toxic heavy metals and oxygen-demanding solids are generated by leather manufacturing. In most tanneries, wastewaters are treated with physico-chemical methods but overly high levels of pollutants remain in surface waters. The efficiency of tanning wastewater treatment with conventional techniques was evaluated in four tanneries in Saudi Arabia. It was observed that the wastewaters contained high amounts of pollutants, needing further treatment. We isolated microorganisms from the wastewaters and carried out experiments to treat the effluents with different bacteria, fungi, and their consortia. We hypothesized that a consortium of microorganisms is more efficient than the single microorganisms in the consortium. The efficiency of five single bacterial and five fungal species from different genera was tested. In a consortium experiment, the efficiency of nine bacterial–fungal consortia was studied. The bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum and the fungus Acremonium sp. were the most efficient in the single-microbe treatment. In the consortium treatment, the consortium of these two was the most efficient at treating the effluent. The factory wastewater treatment reduced total dissolved solids (TDS) from 1885 mg/L to 880 mg/L. C. glutamicum treatment reduced TDS to 150 mg/L and Acremonium sp. to 140 mg/L. The consortium of these two reduced TDS further to 80 mg/L. Moreover, the factory treatment reduced BOD from 943 mg/L to 440 mg/L, C. glutamicum to 75 mg/L, and Acremonium sp. 70 mg/L. The consortium reduced BOD further to 20 mg/L. The total heavy-metal concentration (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, and Pb) was reduced by the factory treatment from 43 μg/L to 26 μg/L and by the consortium to 0.2 μg/L. The collagen concentration that was studied using hydroxyproline assay decreased from 120 mg/L to 39 mg/L. It was shown that the consortium of the bacterium C. glutamicum and the fungus Acremonium sp. was more efficient in reducing the pollutants than the single species. The consortium reduced almost all parameters to below the environmental regulation limit for wastewater discharge to the environment in Saudi Arabia. The consortium should be studied further as an additional treatment to the existing conventional tannery wastewater treatments. Full article
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22 pages, 4967 KiB  
Article
Dunaliella salina Microalga Restores the Metabolic Equilibrium and Ameliorates the Hepatic Inflammatory Response Induced by Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) in Male Zebrafish
by Suzan Attia Mawed, Gerardo Centoducati, Mayada R. Farag, Mahmoud Alagawany, Shimaa M. Abou-Zeid, Walaa M. Elhady, Mohamed T. El-Saadony, Alessandro Di Cerbo and Sheren A. Al-Zahaby
Biology 2022, 11(10), 1447; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11101447 - 1 Oct 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2811
Abstract
Microalgae are rich in bioactive compounds including pigments, proteins, lipids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, carbohydrates, and vitamins. Due to their non-toxic and nutritious characteristics, these are suggested as important food for many aquatic animals. Dunaliella salina is a well-known microalga that accumulates valuable amounts [...] Read more.
Microalgae are rich in bioactive compounds including pigments, proteins, lipids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, carbohydrates, and vitamins. Due to their non-toxic and nutritious characteristics, these are suggested as important food for many aquatic animals. Dunaliella salina is a well-known microalga that accumulates valuable amounts of carotenoids. We investigated whether it could restore the metabolic equilibrium and mitigate the hepatic inflammation induced by zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) using male zebrafish which were exposed to 1/5th 96 h-LC50 for 4 weeks, followed by dietary supplementation with D. salina at two concentrations (15% and 30%) for 2 weeks. Collectively, ZnO-NPs affected fish appetite, whole body composition, hepatic glycogen and lipid contents, intestinal bacterial and Aeromonas counts, as well as hepatic tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF-α). In addition, the mRNA expression of genes related to gluconeogenesis (pck1, gys2, and g6pc3), lipogenesis (srepf1, acaca, fasn, and cd36), and inflammatory response (tnf-α, tnf-β, nf-kb2) were modulated. D. salina reduced the body burden of zinc residues, restored the fish appetite and normal liver architecture, and mitigated the toxic impacts of ZnO-NPs on whole-body composition, intestinal bacteria, energy metabolism, and hepatic inflammatory markers. Our results revealed that the administration of D. salina might be effective in neutralizing the hepatotoxic effects of ZnO-NPs in the zebrafish model. Full article
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