Special Issue "Atomic and Molecular Opacity Data for Astrophysics"
A special issue of Atoms (ISSN 2218-2004).
Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2018).
Dr. Jean-Christophe Pain
Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique (CEA), DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon, France
Interests: helio- and asteroseismology; stellar spectra; multicharged-ion plasmas; local and non-local thermodynamic equilibrium plasmas; radiative opacity; atomic processes in stellar interiors and envelopes; photo-ionization; photo-excitation; inverse Bremsstrahlung; databases; radiative transfer; radiative acceleration; molecular opacity
The revision of the standard Los Alamos opacities thirty years ago by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (OPAL) and the Opacity Project (OP) teams was an early example of collaborative big-data science, yielding reliable computed quantities (spectral and mean opacities, radiative accelerations) that were widely used to investigate many astrophysical topics. The precision of the calculated opacities is a key point of comparisons between theory, laboratory (laser or Z-pinch) plasma spectroscopy experiments, and stellar observations in different frameworks: Standard Solar Model (SSM); helio- and astero-seismology (for instance of Beta Cephei-type pulsating stars); non-local thermodynamic-equilibrium 3D hydrodynamic photospheric modeling; nuclear reaction rates, solar neutrino detections, etc. In this context, the recent revision of the solar photospheric metal abundances in 2005 spoiled the agreement between the helioseismic indicators (depth of the convection zone, sound-speed profile, and helium surface abundance) and the SSM predictions, agreement that could be recovered with a substantial opacity increase.
Spectroscopic observations of brown dwarfs and extrasolar giant planets (hot Jupiter stars and super-Earths) in the infrared to the ultraviolet ranges are now possible. The model atmospheres can be tested for atmospheric temperatures (100–3000 K) and pressures (10-6–100 atm) at which many molecules reside. Molecular opacities (accounting for rotational-vibrational and electronic bound-free, bound-bound, free-free, and collision-induced transitions) for alkali metals, iron, heavy metal oxides, metal hydrides, H2, CO, H2O, N2, CH4, NH3, CO2, HCN, H2S, PH3, etc., needed to simulate astronomical observations, can be obtained from laboratory measurements or ab initio calculations.
This Special Issue of Atoms will highlight the need for continuing research on the atomic and molecular opacity data for astrophysics. It will present recent theoretical and experimental works, as well as investigations in astrophysics where opacities have been used as a tool to investigate physical properties of celestial objects.
Dr. Jean-Christophe Pain
Manuscript Submission Information
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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.
- stellar spectra
- Active-Galactic-Nuclei spectra
- interstellar spectra
- pulsating stars
- beta Cephei
- Standard Solar Model
- extragalactic objects
- laboratory plasma
- atomic and molecular opacity