Special Issue "C and N Cycling and Greenhouse Gases Emission in Agroecosystem"

A special issue of Atmosphere (ISSN 2073-4433). This special issue belongs to the section "Biosphere/Hydrosphere/Land - Atmosphere Interactions".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2018)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Ryusuke Hatano

Graduate School of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan
E-Mail
Phone: +81-11-706-3857
Fax: +81-11-706-2494
Interests: soil science; soil processes; soil qualities; soil degradation; biogeochemistry; greenhouse gas emissions; CO2; CH4; N2O; global warming; nitrogen cycling; nitrate leaching; water pollution; carbon cycling; soil respiration; organic matter decomposition; microbial biomass; soil carbon sequestration; land use change; climate change; watershed; agriculture management practices

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The agriculture sector is an important source of greenhouse gas (CO2, CH4 and N2O) emissions to the atmosphere. IPCC reported that global anthropogenic greenhouse gases emission in 2010 increased to 49 Gt CO2 yr-1, in which CO2 emission from agriculture, forestry and other land uses accounts for 11%, and CH4 and N2O emissions from agriculture account for 8% and 4%, respectively. These emissions are caused by agricultural management practices, including landuse change, tillage, harvest, slash and burn, application of chemical fertilizer and manure, irrigation and drainage, grazing and animal husbandry, which influence C and N cycling in agroecosystems. However, some of agricultural management practices can mitigate environmental impacts, for example, manure and residue applications in upland field can enhance soil C sequestration, intermittent irrigation in paddy field can reduce CH4 emission, and increasing N use efficiency can reduce N2O emissions. An agroecosystem is, not only present as an ecosystem under agricultural management, but also connected to other ecosystems, including natural ecosystems. Therefore, comparative studies between agroecosystem and natural ecosystem, or synthetic studies in agricultural watersheds, are crucial to understand the magnitude of impacts from agricultural land use and management practices. Studies on the relationship between microbial activities (aerobic and anaerobic organic matter decomposition, nitrification and denitrification) and climate factors (temperature, precipitation, humidity, etc.) and soil environmental factors (soil temperature, soil moisture, groundwater level, soil pH, SOC, SON, mineral nitrogen, water soluble organic carbon, etc.) are also important to parameterization for simulation models. I would like to invite all of you, studying C and N cycling and greenhouse gas emissions in agroecosystems, to contribute your papers to this Special Issue.

Prof. Dr. Ryusuke Hatano
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Atmosphere is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • C and N cycling in agroecosystem
  • greenhouse gases emission
  • landuse changes
  • agricultural management practices
  • soil C sequestration

Published Papers (6 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-6
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Open AccessArticle Comparison of Closed Chamber and Eddy Covariance Methods to Improve the Understanding of Methane Fluxes from Rice Paddy Fields in Japan
Atmosphere 2018, 9(9), 356; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9090356
Received: 9 June 2018 / Revised: 5 September 2018 / Accepted: 13 September 2018 / Published: 15 September 2018
PDF Full-text (2787 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Greenhouse gas flux monitoring in ecosystems is mostly conducted by closed chamber and eddy covariance techniques. To determine the relevance of the two methods in rice paddy fields at different growing stages, closed chamber (CC) and eddy covariance (EC) methods were used to
[...] Read more.
Greenhouse gas flux monitoring in ecosystems is mostly conducted by closed chamber and eddy covariance techniques. To determine the relevance of the two methods in rice paddy fields at different growing stages, closed chamber (CC) and eddy covariance (EC) methods were used to measure the methane (CH4) fluxes in a flooded rice paddy field. Intensive monitoring using the CC method was conducted at 30, 60 and 90 days after transplanting (DAT) and after harvest (AHV). An EC tower was installed at the centre of the experimental site to provide continuous measurements during the rice cropping season. The CC method resulted in CH4 flux averages that were 58%, 81%, 94% and 57% higher than those measured by the EC method at 30, 60 and 90 DAT and after harvest (AHV), respectively. A footprint analysis showed that the area covered by the EC method in this study included non-homogeneous land use types. The different strengths and weaknesses of the CC and EC methods can complement each other, and the use of both methods together leads to a better understanding of CH4 emissions from paddy fields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue C and N Cycling and Greenhouse Gases Emission in Agroecosystem)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Changes of Soil C Stock under Establishment and Abandonment of Arable Lands in Permafrost Area—Central Yakutia
Atmosphere 2018, 9(8), 308; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9080308
Received: 10 July 2018 / Revised: 6 August 2018 / Accepted: 7 August 2018 / Published: 8 August 2018
PDF Full-text (1315 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Central Yakutia is in one of the most northern agricultural centers of the world. In this territory a notable area of arable land was made by removing the boreal Taiga with the primary purpose of crop cultivation. Such a method of cultivation significantly
[...] Read more.
Central Yakutia is in one of the most northern agricultural centers of the world. In this territory a notable area of arable land was made by removing the boreal Taiga with the primary purpose of crop cultivation. Such a method of cultivation significantly changes soil total carbon (STC, soil organic carbon + soil carbonate carbon) balance, because of the destroyed upper humus horizon. Soil organic carbon (SOC) of cultivated arable lands is almost a half of that in forest. In abandoned arable lands with grass vegetation, the recovery of SOC has increased to 30% in comparison with cultivated arable lands. On arable lands recovering with new growth of trees, the SOC is related to the abandonment period. Soil carbonates carbon (SCC) content was significantly lower than SOC and showed significant difference among abandoned and other types of arable lands. Objectives of this study are to identify how STC stocks change in response to conversion of the forests to agricultural land and to analyze the arable land system’s recovery process after abandonment. Furthermore, after transformation of forest to arable land, a significant decrease of STC was observed, primarily due to mechanical loss after plant residue removal. It was also identified that the restoration and self-recovery of STC in abandoned arable lands of Central Yakutia continuously and slightly increase. Grass vegetation regenerates STC for 20 years. While the difference of average STC of forests and cultivated arable lands reached 41%, a new growth of forest on some abandoned arable land follows the tendency of STC decrease due to a low productivity level and suppressing effect on grass vegetation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue C and N Cycling and Greenhouse Gases Emission in Agroecosystem)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Application of Farmyard Manure Rather Than Manure Slurry Mitigates the Net Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Herbage Production System in Nasu, Japan
Atmosphere 2018, 9(7), 261; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9070261
Received: 1 May 2018 / Revised: 8 July 2018 / Accepted: 9 July 2018 / Published: 12 July 2018
PDF Full-text (839 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In Japan, it is important to recycle the nutrients in manure for forage production because most dairy cattle are fed inside, mainly with imported grain and home-grown roughage. To understand the overall effect of manure use on grassland on the net greenhouse gas
[...] Read more.
In Japan, it is important to recycle the nutrients in manure for forage production because most dairy cattle are fed inside, mainly with imported grain and home-grown roughage. To understand the overall effect of manure use on grassland on the net greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and GHG intensity of herbage production systems, the integrated evaluation of emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) is essential. The objective of this study was to compare the net GHG emissions (expressed in CO2-eq ha−1 y−1) and GHG intensity (expressed in CO2-eq Mg–1 dry matter yield) of herbage production based on manure slurry + synthetic fertilizer (slurry system) with that based on farmyard manure + synthetic fertilizer (FYM system). Calculations of net GHG emissions and GHG intensity took into account the net ecosystem carbon balance (NECB) in grassland, the CH4 and N2O emissions from grassland, and GHG emissions related to cattle waste management, synthetic fertilizer manufacture, and fuel consumption for grassland management based on literature data from previous studies. The net GHG emissions and GHG intensity were 36% (6.9 Mg CO2-eq ha−1 y−1) and 41% (0.89 Mg CO2-eq Mg−1), respectively, lower in the FYM system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue C and N Cycling and Greenhouse Gases Emission in Agroecosystem)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Impact of Management Practices on Methane Emissions from Paddy Grown on Mineral Soil over Peat in Central Hokkaido, Japan
Atmosphere 2018, 9(6), 212; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9060212
Received: 15 January 2018 / Revised: 14 May 2018 / Accepted: 23 May 2018 / Published: 31 May 2018
PDF Full-text (1461 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study was carried out at Kita-mura near Bibai located in central Hokkaido, Japan, with the intention of investigating the effects of different agronomical managements on CH4 emissions from paddy fields on mineral soil over peat under farmers’ actual management conditions in
[...] Read more.
This study was carried out at Kita-mura near Bibai located in central Hokkaido, Japan, with the intention of investigating the effects of different agronomical managements on CH4 emissions from paddy fields on mineral soil over peat under farmers’ actual management conditions in the snowy temperate region. Four fields were studied, including two fields with twice drainage (D1-M and D2-M) and also a single-drainage field (D3-S) under annual single-cropping and a paddy-fallow-paddy crop rotation as their systems. The other field was under single cropping annual with continuous flooding (CF-R) in the pattern of soybean (upland crop)-fallow-paddy. The mineral-soil thickness of these soil-dressed peatland fields varied from 20 to 47 cm. The amount of crop residues leftover in the fields ranged from 277 to 751 g dry matter m−2. Total CH4 emissions ranged from 25.3 to 116 g CH4-C m−2 per growing season. There was a significant relationship between crop-residue carbon (C) and total CH4 emissions during the rice-growing season. Methane fluxes from paddy soils had a strong interaction between readily available C source for methanogens and anaerobic conditions created by water management. Despite the differences in water regime and soil type, the average values of straw’s efficiency on CH4 production in this study were significantly higher than those of southern Japan and statistically identical with central Hokkaido. Our results suggest that the environmental conditions of central Hokkaido in association with crop-residue management had a significant influence on CH4 emission from paddy fields on mineral soil over peat. Rotation soybean (upland)-to-paddy followed by drainage-twice practices also largely reduces CH4 emission. However, mineral-soil dressing on peat could have a significant impact on suppression of CH4 emissions from beneath the peat reservoir. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue C and N Cycling and Greenhouse Gases Emission in Agroecosystem)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Returning Tea Pruning Residue and Its Biochar Had a Contrasting Effect on Soil N2O and CO2 Emissions from Tea Plantation Soil
Atmosphere 2018, 9(3), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9030109
Received: 16 February 2018 / Revised: 12 March 2018 / Accepted: 12 March 2018 / Published: 15 March 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1492 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A laboratory incubation experiment is conducted for 90 days under controlled conditions where either pruning residue or its biochar is applied to determine which application generates the lowest amount of greenhouse gas from tea plantation soil. To study the effect of incorporation depth
[...] Read more.
A laboratory incubation experiment is conducted for 90 days under controlled conditions where either pruning residue or its biochar is applied to determine which application generates the lowest amount of greenhouse gas from tea plantation soil. To study the effect of incorporation depth on soil N2O and CO2 emissions, experiment 1 is performed with three treatments: (1) control; (2) tea pruning residue; and (3) residue biochar mixed with soil from two different depths (0–5 cm and 0–10 cm layers). In experiment 2, only the 0–10 cm soil layer is used to study the effect of surface application of tea pruning residue or its biochar on soil N2O and CO2 emissions compared with the control. The results show that biochar significantly increases soil pH, total C and C/N ratio in both experiments. The addition of pruning residue significantly increases soil total C content, cumulative N2O and CO2 emissions after 90 days of incubation. Converting pruning residue to biochar and its application significantly decreases cumulative N2O emission by 17.7% and 74.2% from the 0–5 cm and 0–10 cm soil layers, respectively, compared to their respective controls. However, biochar addition increases soil CO2 emissions for both the soil layers in experiment 1. Surface application of biochar to soil significantly reduces both N2O and CO2 emissions compared to residue treatment and the control in experiment 2. Our results suggest that converting pruning residue to biochar and its addition to soil has the potential to mitigate soil N2O emissions from tea plantation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue C and N Cycling and Greenhouse Gases Emission in Agroecosystem)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Effects of N Fertilizer Application on Soil N2O Emissions and CH4 Uptake: A Two-Year Study in an Apple Orchard in Eastern China
Atmosphere 2017, 8(10), 181; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos8100181
Received: 18 August 2017 / Revised: 11 September 2017 / Accepted: 14 September 2017 / Published: 21 September 2017
PDF Full-text (2445 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Land use changes from cropland to orchards in Eastern China have raised serious concerns about the regional nitrogen (N) cycle and greenhouse gas balance. We measured soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and methane (CH4) uptake using manual static chambers
[...] Read more.
Land use changes from cropland to orchards in Eastern China have raised serious concerns about the regional nitrogen (N) cycle and greenhouse gas balance. We measured soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and methane (CH4) uptake using manual static chambers in an apple orchard. The primary aims were to assess the effect of N fertilizer application on gas fluxes and quantify the site-specific N2O emission factor (EFd). Field experiments were arranged in a randomized block design with three N input rates (0, 800 and 2600/2000 kg N ha−1 year−1). We found that orchard soils were a negligible CH4 sink (−1.1 to −0.4 kg C ha−1 year−1). Annual N2O emissions responded positively to N input rates, ranging from 34.1 to 60.3 kg N ha−1 year−1. EFd ranged from 1.00% to 1.65% with a mean of 1.34%. The extremely large background emissions of N2O (34.1–34.3 kg N ha−1 year−1) most likely originated from nitrate accumulation in the soil profile because of historical overuse of N fertilizer. We conclude that (1) site-specific EFd is suitable for assessing regional direct N2O emissions from upland orchards; and (2) conventional fertilization regimes must be avoided, and reduced N input rates are recommended in the study region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue C and N Cycling and Greenhouse Gases Emission in Agroecosystem)
Figures

Figure 1

Back to Top