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Atmosphere 2018, 9(12), 485; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9120485

Temporal Dynamics of Nitrous Oxide Emission and Nitrate Leaching in Renovated Grassland with Repeated Application of Manure and/or Chemical Fertilizer

1
Laboratory of Soil Science, Graduate School of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Kita9, Nishi9, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8589, Japan
2
Civil Engineering Research Institute for Cold Region, 1–34, 1-jo 3-Choume Hiragishi, Toyohira-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 062-8602, Japan
3
Shizunai Livestock Farm, Field Science Center for Northern Biosphere, Hokkaido University, Shizunai Misono 111, Shin-Hidaka-cho, Hidaka-gun, Hokkaido 056-0141, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 October 2018 / Revised: 27 November 2018 / Accepted: 5 December 2018 / Published: 7 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue C and N Cycling and Greenhouse Gases Emission in Agroecosystem)
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Abstract

Managed grassland is occasionally renovated to maintain plant productivity by killing old vegetation, ploughing, and reseeding. This study aimed to investigate the combined effect of grassland renovation and long-term manure application on the temporal dynamics of nitrous oxide (N2O) emission and nitrate nitrogen (NO3–N) leaching. The study was conducted from September 2013 to September 2016 in a managed grassland renovated in September 2013. In this grassland, two treatments were managed—chemical fertilizer application (F treatment) and the combined application of chemical fertilizer and beef cattle manure (MF treatment)—for eight years before the renovation. The control treatment without fertilization (CT) was newly established in the F treatment. The soil N2O flux was measured using a closed chamber method. A leachate sample was collected using a tension-free lysimeter that was installed at the bottom of the Ap horizon (25 cm deep), and total NO3–N leaching was calculated from leachate NO3–N concentration and drainage volume was estimated by the water balance method. In the first year after renovation, the absence of plant nitrogen uptake triggered NO3–N leaching following rainfall during renovation and increased drainage water after thawing. NO3–N movement from topsoil to deeper soil enhanced N2O production and emission from the soil. N2O emission in MF treatment was 1.6–2.0 times larger than those of CT and F treatments, and NO3–N leaching in MF treatment was 2.3–2.6 times larger than those of CT and F treatments in the first year. Mineral nitrogen release derived from long-term manure application increased NO3–N leaching and N2O emission. In the second year, N2O emission and NO3–N leaching significantly decreased from the first year because of increased plant N uptake and decreased mineral nitrogen surplus, and no significant differences in N2O emission and NO3–N leaching were observed among the treatments. In the second and third years, NO3–N leaching was regulated by plant nitrogen uptake. There were no significant differences in NO3–N leaching among the treatments, but N2O emission in MF treatment was significantly smaller than in the F treatment. Long-term manure application could be a possible option to mitigate N2O emission in permanent grassland; however, the risk of increased NO3–N leaching and N2O emission in the renovation year induced by manure nitrogen release should be noted. View Full-Text
Keywords: N2O emission; NO3–N leaching; grassland renovation; long-term manure and chemical fertilizer application N2O emission; NO3–N leaching; grassland renovation; long-term manure and chemical fertilizer application
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Nagatake, A.; Mukumbuta, I.; Yasuda, K.; Shimizu, M.; Kawai, M.; Hatano, R. Temporal Dynamics of Nitrous Oxide Emission and Nitrate Leaching in Renovated Grassland with Repeated Application of Manure and/or Chemical Fertilizer. Atmosphere 2018, 9, 485.

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