Special Issue "C and N Cycling and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Agroecosystem"

A special issue of Agriculture (ISSN 2077-0472).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2017).

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Ryusuke Hatano

Graduate School of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan
E-Mail
Phone: +81-11-706-3857
Fax: +81-11-706-2494
Interests: soil science; soil processes; soil qualities; soil degradation; biogeochemistry; greenhouse gas emissions; CO2; CH4; N2O; global warming; nitrogen cycling; nitrate leaching; water pollution; carbon cycling; soil respiration; organic matter decomposition; microbial biomass; soil carbon sequestration; land use change; climate change; watershed; agriculture management practices

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The agriculture sector is an important source of greenhouse gas (CO2, CH4 and N2O) emissions. The IPCC reported that global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions in 2010 increased to 49 Gt CO2 yr-1; in which CO2 emission from agriculture, forestry, and other land uses accounts for 11%, and CH4 and N2O emissions from agriculture account for 8% and 4 %, respectively. These emissions are caused by the agricultural management practices including land use change, tillage, harvest, slash and burn, application of chemical fertilizer and manure, irrigation and drainage, grazing, and animal husbandry, which influence C and N cycling in agroecosystems. However, some agricultural management practices can mitigate environmental impact, for example, manure and residue applications in upland fields can increase soil C sequestration, intermittent irrigation in paddy fields can reduce CH4 emission, and increasing N use efficiency can decrease N2O emission. An agroecosystem is an ecosystem under agricultural management, but also connected to other ecosystems, including natural ecosystems. Therefore, comparative study between agroecosystems and natural ecosystems, or synthetic study in agricultural watersheds are crucial to understand the magnitude of the impact from agricultural management practices. Studies on the relationship between microbial activities (organic matter decomposition, nitrification and denitrification, and so on) and climate factors (temperature, precipitation, humidity, and so on) and soil environmental factors (soil temperature, soil moisture, groundwater level, soil pH, soil fertility, and so on) are also important to parameterizations for simulation models.

Prof. Dr. Ryusuke Hatano
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • C and N cycling in agroecosystem
  • CO2, CH4 and N2O
  • greenhouse gases emission
  • nitrification and denitrification
  • organic matter decomposition
  • soil C sequestration

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Net Greenhouse Gas Budget and Soil Carbon Storage in a Field with Paddy–Upland Rotation with Different History of Manure Application
Agriculture 2017, 7(6), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture7060049
Received: 28 February 2017 / Revised: 7 June 2017 / Accepted: 8 June 2017 / Published: 10 June 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1157 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes were measured from paddy–upland rotation (three years for soybean and three years for rice) with different soil fertility due to preceding compost application for four years (i.e., 3 kg FW m−2 [...] Read more.
Methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes were measured from paddy–upland rotation (three years for soybean and three years for rice) with different soil fertility due to preceding compost application for four years (i.e., 3 kg FW m−2 year−1 of immature or mature compost application plots and a control plot without compost). Net greenhouse gas (GHG) balance was evaluated by integrating CH4 and N2O emissions and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions calculated from a decline in soil carbon storage. N2O emissions from the soybean upland tended to be higher in the immature compost plot. CH4 emissions from the rice paddy increased every year and tended to be higher in the mature compost plot. Fifty-two to 68% of the increased soil carbon by preceding compost application was estimated to be lost during soybean cultivation. The major component of net GHG emission was CO2 (82–94%) and CH4 (72–84%) during the soybean and rice cultivations, respectively. Net GHG emissions during the soybean and rice cultivations were comparable. Consequently, the effects of compost application on the net GHG balance from the paddy–upland rotation should be carefully evaluated with regards to both advantages (initial input to the soil) and disadvantages (following increases in GHG). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue C and N Cycling and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Agroecosystem)
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Open AccessArticle
Changes in the Nitrogen Budget and Soil Nitrogen in a Field with Paddy–Upland Rotation with Different Histories of Manure Application
Agriculture 2017, 7(5), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture7050039
Received: 27 February 2017 / Revised: 24 April 2017 / Accepted: 25 April 2017 / Published: 28 April 2017
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (2009 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In northern Japan, declines in soil nitrogen fertility have occurred in paddy–upland rotation systems with soybean cultivation. A six-year lysimeter experiment was conducted to evaluate the nitrogen budget in paddy–upland rotation (three-year for upland soybean, then three-year for flooded paddy rice) and to [...] Read more.
In northern Japan, declines in soil nitrogen fertility have occurred in paddy–upland rotation systems with soybean cultivation. A six-year lysimeter experiment was conducted to evaluate the nitrogen budget in paddy–upland rotation (three-year for upland soybean, then three-year for flooded paddy rice) and to clarify the effect of preceding compost application (immature or mature compost over four consecutive years of forage rice cultivation) on the nitrogen budget and soil nitrogen fertility. Available soil nitrogen throughout the experimental period and soybean and rice yields in both compost application plots tended to be higher than those in the control plot. The nitrogen budgets during both soybean and rice cultivation were negative, and the amount of nitrogen loss in both compost application plots tended to be higher than that in the control plot. The nitrogen loss during rice cultivation (−2.3 to −4.3 g N m−2 year−1) was less than that during soybean cultivation (−9.6 to −14.6 g N m−2 year−1). Nitrogen loss estimated based on the nitrogen budget agreed well with that estimated based on changes in soil nitrogen storage during soybean cultivation but not during rice cultivation, suggesting underestimation of nitrogen loss from the rice paddy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue C and N Cycling and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Agroecosystem)
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Composted Dairy Manure and Perennial Forage on Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Fractions during Transition into Organic Management
Agriculture 2017, 7(5), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture7050037
Received: 27 February 2017 / Revised: 3 April 2017 / Accepted: 17 April 2017 / Published: 25 April 2017
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Abstract
Composted dairy manure (CDM) is among the management practices used in transitioning from a conventional to an organic agricultural system. The objectives of this study are to evaluate the impact of several organic nitrogen (N) sources on: (i) soil organic C (SOC) and [...] Read more.
Composted dairy manure (CDM) is among the management practices used in transitioning from a conventional to an organic agricultural system. The objectives of this study are to evaluate the impact of several organic nitrogen (N) sources on: (i) soil organic C (SOC) and soil total N (STN) content; (ii) soil C and N distribution among soil fractions; and (iii) N mineralization. This study was initiated in 2007 on a recently renovated alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) field located at the Agricultural Research, Development and Education Center near Fort Collins, Colorado. The soil type is a Fort Collins loam (fine-loamy, mixed, superactive, mesic Aridic Haplustalfs). Alfalfa and sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.) were interseeded with the grass mixtures as organic N sources. Three grass treatments were established with and without alfalfa or sainfoin. The CDM was also applied to the grass and to grass-alfalfa mixture at a rate of 22.4 Mg ha−1 in 2008 and at rates of 0, 11.2, and 22.4 Mg ha−1 in 2009. Soil samples were collected from the 0–5 cm and 5–10 cm depths in the fall of 2008 and 2009. Throughout the study period, SOC and STN were significantly influenced by depth, but not by treatment combinations. Averaged across the treatments, SOC was greater by 13.7% in 2008 and 24.2% in 2009 at 0–5 than the 5–10 cm depth. Similarly, STN was significantly higher by approximately 9.4% at 0–5 cm in 2008 and 18.7% in 2009 compared with the 5–10 cm depth. The C and N parameters studied and their distributions among various fractions (mineralizable, slow, and resistant) were influenced by the C and N contents of the added CDM. The low C and N contents of the CDM added in the second year of the study did not contribute to soil C and N build-up. The results generated from this study supported our hypothesis because the quality of CDM addition highly influenced C and N distribution among different fractions. Overall, for a transitioning system, CDM should to be added based on the manure-N content to ensure an adequate amount of N addition. To fully evaluate treatment benefits, a longer study period would be required to allow for system adjustment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue C and N Cycling and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Agroecosystem)
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Open AccessArticle
Nitrous Oxide Emission from Organic Fertilizer and Controlled Release Fertilizer in Tea Fields
Agriculture 2017, 7(3), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture7030029
Received: 8 February 2017 / Revised: 9 March 2017 / Accepted: 9 March 2017 / Published: 21 March 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1350 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted for two years in the Green Tea Laboratory of Saitama Prefectural Agriculture and Forestry Research Center, Iruma, Saitama, Japan from March 2014 to December 2015. Controlled release fertilizers (CRF) or organic fertilizers (ORG), which are a mixture of [...] Read more.
A field experiment was conducted for two years in the Green Tea Laboratory of Saitama Prefectural Agriculture and Forestry Research Center, Iruma, Saitama, Japan from March 2014 to December 2015. Controlled release fertilizers (CRF) or organic fertilizers (ORG), which are a mixture of chicken manure and oil cake, were applied with the amount of 450 kg·N·ha−1·year−1 in 2014 and 397 kg·N·ha−1·year−1 in 2015. Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from soil in green tea fields were measured by the closed chamber method. The results showed that CRF has significantly lower N2O compared to ORG. The cumulative N2O emissions from CRF accounted for 51% of N2O emissions from ORG fields and 138% of control with no fertilizer treatment. The N2O flux from the row was higher than that under the canopy, since fertilizer was applied on the row. However, the total emission from the area between the rows was lower than that under the canopy because the area ratio between the row and canopy was 1:5. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue C and N Cycling and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Agroecosystem)
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Open AccessArticle
Changes in Carbon Cycling during Development of Successional Agroforestry
Agriculture 2017, 7(3), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture7030025
Received: 20 December 2016 / Revised: 28 February 2017 / Accepted: 6 March 2017 / Published: 11 March 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (940 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Successional agroforestry systems (SAFS) mimic the structure of natural forests while providing economical outputs. This study clarifies how carbon cycling and carbon sequestration change during successional development of SAFS. In Brazil, three successional stages of SAFS, 6, 12, and 34 years old, were [...] Read more.
Successional agroforestry systems (SAFS) mimic the structure of natural forests while providing economical outputs. This study clarifies how carbon cycling and carbon sequestration change during successional development of SAFS. In Brazil, three successional stages of SAFS, 6, 12, and 34 years old, were compared in terms of carbon balance. Aboveground biomass, fruit harvest, litterfall, soil respiration, and soil organic carbon were measured for two years and analyzed. Carbon sequestration expressed by net primary productivity increased with age of SAFS from 9.8 Mg·C·ha−1·year−1 in 6-year-old system to 13.5 Mg·C·ha−1·year−1 in 34-year-old system. Accumulation of plant biomass and increased internal carbon cycling in SAFS led to an intensive sequestration of carbon. SAFS can be a sustainable way of agricultural production on vulnerable tropical soils. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue C and N Cycling and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Agroecosystem)
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Open AccessArticle
Suppression of CH4 Emission by Rice Straw Removal  and Application of Bio‐Ethanol Production Residue  in a Paddy Field in Akita, Japan
Agriculture 2017, 7(3), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture7030021
Received: 6 February 2017 / Accepted: 6 March 2017 / Published: 8 March 2017
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1280 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
To elucidate the effects of rice straw removal and rice straw‐based bio‐ethanol production residue application on rice growth and methane (CH4) emission from a paddy field, a lysimeter experiment with three treatments (application of rice straw after harvesting (the rice‐straw plot); removal of [...] Read more.
To elucidate the effects of rice straw removal and rice straw‐based bio‐ethanol production residue application on rice growth and methane (CH4) emission from a paddy field, a lysimeter experiment with three treatments (application of rice straw after harvesting (the rice‐straw plot); removal of rice straw and the application of bio‐ethanol production residue (the Et‐residue plot); removal of rice straw (the no‐application plot)) was conducted over three years. Though the grain yields in the Et‐residue and no‐application plots tended to be slightly higher than that in the ricestraw plot, there were no significant differences among the plots (530–546 g∙m−2). Suppression of CH4 emission by the treatments was found clearly in the early part of the growing season. The total CH4 emissions during the rice‐growing season (unit: g∙C∙m−2∙period−1) followed the order of the noapplication plot (11.9) < the Et‐residue plot (14.6) < the rice‐straw plot (25.4), and a significant difference was found between the no‐application and rice‐straw plots. Consequently, bio‐ethanol production from rice straw and a following application of its residue to paddy fields is considered to be a promising technology which can obtain new sustainable energy and suppress CH4 emission without any inhibition on rice growth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue C and N Cycling and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Agroecosystem)
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Open AccessArticle
Mitigating Global Warming Potential and Greenhouse Gas Intensities by Applying Composted Manure in Cornfield: A 3-Year Field Study in an Andosol Soil
Agriculture 2017, 7(2), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture7020013
Received: 28 November 2016 / Revised: 24 January 2017 / Accepted: 7 February 2017 / Published: 13 February 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1218 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A 3-year study was conducted in cornfield to evaluate how composted cattle manure application affects net global warming potential (GWP; the sum of nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) minus net ecosystem carbon balance (NECB)) and greenhouse gas intensity [...] Read more.
A 3-year study was conducted in cornfield to evaluate how composted cattle manure application affects net global warming potential (GWP; the sum of nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) minus net ecosystem carbon balance (NECB)) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI; net GWP per unit of plant biomass yield). In the first experiment, conducted from 2010 to 2012, five fertilization strategies that included an unfertilized control plot, inorganic fertilizer-only plot, two plots with inorganic fertilizer plus composted cattle manure, and composted cattle manure-only plot were established. In the second experiment composted cattle manure was applied in autumn 2012 and the field was subdivided into three plots in spring 2013, with one plot receiving additional composted cattle manure, the second plot received additional inorganic fertilizer and the third plot did not receive any additional fertilization. Fluxes of N2O, CH4 and CO2 were measured using the static closed chamber method. NECB was calculated as carbon (C) inputs minus C output (where a negative value indicates net C loss). In experiment 1, manure application significantly increased NECB and reduced net GWP by more than 30% in each of the three years of the study. GHGI in the manure-amended plots was lower than in other plots, except in 2012 when the manure-only plot had higher GHGI than fertilizer-only plot. Application of inorganic fertilizer alone increased GWP by 5% and 20% in 2010 and 2011, but showed a 30% reduction in 2012 relative to the unfertilized control plot. However, due to higher net primary production (NPP), fertilizer-only plot had lower GHGI compared to the control. Application of inorganic fertilizer together with manure showed the greatest potential to reduce GWP and GHGI, while increasing NPP and NECB. In experiment 2, additional manure or inorganic fertilizer application in spring increased NPP by a similar amount, but additional manure application also increased NECB, and decreased GWP and GHGI. Manure application, as a partial substitute or supplemental fertilizer, shows potential to mitigate GWP and GHGI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue C and N Cycling and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Agroecosystem)
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Open AccessArticle
Efflux of Soil Nitrous Oxide from Applied Fertilizer Containing Organic Materials in Citrus unshiu Field in Southwestern Japan
Agriculture 2017, 7(2), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture7020010
Received: 7 December 2016 / Revised: 25 January 2017 / Accepted: 2 February 2017 / Published: 8 February 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1915 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from agricultural fields are an important source of the increasing atmospheric N2O concentration. We conducted a two-year investigation of soil N2O emissions induced by the application of combined organic and synthetic fertilizer (COS) [...] Read more.
Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from agricultural fields are an important source of the increasing atmospheric N2O concentration. We conducted a two-year investigation of soil N2O emissions induced by the application of combined organic and synthetic fertilizer (COS) and distilled silage waste (DSW). Three experimental treatments were applied to a Citrus unshiu field in January 2013 in Ehime, Japan: no fertilizer (NF), COS, and DSW. The applied nitrogen (N) from DSW was 192 and 244 kg N ha−1 in the first and second years, respectively, although the N application in COS was 192 kg N ha−1 in both years. The main N forms in COS and DSW were ammonium- and nitrate-N, respectively. Soil N2O and carbon dioxide fluxes, soil chemical properties, and mineral N leaching from topsoil were measured. The soil N2O flux increased after fertilization in COS and DSW, and a higher N2O efflux after supplemental fertilization was induced by warm and wet soil conditions. The emission factor of N2O was higher in COS (2.02%) than in DSW (1.18%), while N leaching was higher in DSW than in COS. The organic materials remaining after the application possibly increased the N2O emissions in the summer season. Therefore, to mitigate N2O emissions in citrus orchards, fertilizer containing organic materials should be applied during a cool and dry season. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue C and N Cycling and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Agroecosystem)
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Open AccessArticle
Practices for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Rice Production in Northeast Thailand
Received: 19 October 2016 / Revised: 30 December 2016 / Accepted: 3 January 2017 / Published: 16 January 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1268 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Land management practices for rice productivity and carbon storage have been a key focus of research leading to opportunities for substantial greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation. The effects of land management practices on global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) from rice [...] Read more.
Land management practices for rice productivity and carbon storage have been a key focus of research leading to opportunities for substantial greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation. The effects of land management practices on global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) from rice production within the farm gate were investigated. For the 13 study sites, soil samples were collected by the Land Development Department in 2004. In 2014, at these same sites, soil samples were collected again to estimate the soil organic carbon sequestration rate (SOCSR) from 2004 to 2014. Surveys were conducted at each sampling site to record the rice yield and management practices. The carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, Net GWP, and GHGI associated with the management practices were calculated. Mean rice yield and SOCSR were 3307 kg·ha−1·year−1 and 1173 kg·C·ha−1·year−1, respectively. The net GWP varied across sites, from 819 to 5170 kg·CO2eq·ha−1·year−1, with an average value of 3090 kg·CO2eq·ha−1·year−1. GHGI ranged from 0.31 to 1.68 kg·CO2eq·kg−1 yield, with an average value of 0.97 kg·CO2eq·kg−1 yield. Our findings revealed that the amount of potassium (potash, K2O) fertilizer application rate is the most significant factor explaining rice yield and SOCSR. The burning of rice residues in the field was the main factor determining GHGI in this area. An effective way to reduce GHG emissions and contribute to sustainable rice production for food security with low GHGI and high productivity is avoiding the burning of rice residues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue C and N Cycling and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Agroecosystem)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Ammonia and Methane Emission Factors from Cattle Operations Expressed as Losses of Dietary Nutrients or Energy
Agriculture 2017, 7(3), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture7030016
Received: 15 December 2016 / Revised: 28 January 2017 / Accepted: 20 February 2017 / Published: 23 February 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2738 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review of published literature on ammonia (NH3) and enteric methane (CH4) emissions from beef and dairy cattle operations to obtain statistically representative emission factors based on dietary intakes of [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review of published literature on ammonia (NH3) and enteric methane (CH4) emissions from beef and dairy cattle operations to obtain statistically representative emission factors based on dietary intakes of nutrients or energy, and to identify major causes of emission variations. NH3 emissions from lagoon or other manure storage facilities were not included in this review. The NH3 and CH4 emission rates, expressed as a percentage losses of dietary nutrients or energy, demonstrated much less variation compared with emission rates expressed in g/animal/day. Air temperature and dietary crude protein (CP) content were identified as two major factors that can affect NH3 emission rates in addition to farm type. Feed digestibility and energy intake were identified as two major factors that can affect CH4 emission rates expressed as a percentage losses of dietary energy. Generally, increasing productivity and feed efficiency represented the greatest opportunity for mitigating NH3 or CH4 emissions per unit of livestock product. Expressing CH4 loss on a digestible energy basis rather than a gross energy intake basis can better represent the large variation among diets and the effects of varying dietary emission mitigation strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue C and N Cycling and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Agroecosystem)
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Open AccessReview
Rice Cultivation and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: A Review and Conceptual Framework with Reference to Ghana
Received: 8 September 2016 / Revised: 22 December 2016 / Accepted: 3 January 2017 / Published: 20 January 2017
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (528 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Rice is an essential crop in Ghana. Several aspects of rice have been studied to increase its production; however, the environmental aspects, including impact on climate change, have not been studied well. There is therefore a gap in knowledge, and hence the need [...] Read more.
Rice is an essential crop in Ghana. Several aspects of rice have been studied to increase its production; however, the environmental aspects, including impact on climate change, have not been studied well. There is therefore a gap in knowledge, and hence the need for continuous research. By accessing academic portals, such as Springer Open, InTech Open, Elsevier, and the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology’s offline campus library, 61 academic publications including peer reviewed journals, books, working papers, reports, etc. were critically reviewed. It was found that there is a lack of data on how paddy rice production systems affect greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, particularly emissions estimation, geographical location, and crops. Regarding GHG emission estimation, the review identified the use of emission factors calibrated using temperate conditions which do not suit tropical conditions. On location, most research on rice GHG emissions have been carried out in Asia with little input from Africa. In regard to crops, there is paucity of in-situ emissions data from paddy fields in Ghana. Drawing on the review, a conceptual framework is developed using Ghana as reference point to guide the discussion on fertilizer application, water management rice cultivars, and soil for future development of adaptation strategies for rice emission reduction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue C and N Cycling and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Agroecosystem)
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