Special Issue "Trends in Hydrological and Climate Extremes in Africa"

A special issue of Atmosphere (ISSN 2073-4433). This special issue belongs to the section "Climatology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Arona Diedhiou
E-Mail
Guest Editor
Institute of Environmental Geosciences (IGE), Université Grenoble Alpes/National Research Institute for Sustainable Development (IRD), F-38000, Grenoble, France
Interests: African climate system; West African monsoon dynamics and teleconnections; hydroclimatic extremes and drivers; atmospheric dynamic and climate change

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Several programs such as START, CCAA, ClimDev-Africa and recent past/ongoing projects such as “Future Climate for Africa” in Southern, Eastern, and Western Africa, ACASIS, WASCAL, and SASSCAL in Western and Southern Africa, MedCLIVAR, HyMEX in Northern Africa, based on in situ and remote sensing data as well as on outputs from CORDEX and CMIP5 with regional and global climate models have contributed to the understanding of climate change and impacts in the Africa continent. These regional and continental intiatives have provided significant inputs to the last UNFCCC assessments and reports on climate change in Africa, but efforts need to be pursued to deliver climate information at regional and local scales to support impact studies as well as adaptation and mitigation policies leading to a climate-resilient development to face increase of extreme events which are likely to be more frequent and more intense in several parts of the continent.

This Special Issue focuses on original contributions related to regional and local trends of hydrological and climate extremes,  (i) in documenting changes of observed extreme events in the past and present period, (ii) in adressing how they are linked to changing global/regional/local climate and land use, and (iii) how they may evoluate in the future. Papers contributing to these following objectives are welcome:

  • to understand of the impacts of global warming and/or land use on trends in hydrological and climate extremes in all the regions of Africa at different time scales;
  • to identify the atmospheric and large scale drivers of hydrological and climate extremes at regional and local levels and to describe how they may change at different time horizons;
  • to use different sources of climate information (from in situ and remote sensing) to reduce the uncertainty of the prediction of extreme events in regional and global climate models.

Manuscript on physical processes underpinning past, present and future trends in hydrological and climatic extremes and impacts, both from an observational and modelling perspective are welcome, as well as case studies in different regions of Africa quantifying the potential impacts of changes in hydrological and climate extremes on African cities or on key sectors such as agriculture, water resource or renewable energy at regional and local scales.

Dr. Arona Diedhiou
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Atmosphere is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Africa
  • CMIP
  • CORDEX-AFRICA
  • Hydrological extremes
  • Climate extremes
  • Global warming
  • Land use and land cover
  • Drought
  • Floods
  • Landslides
  • Heat waves
  • Tipping point
  • Slow onset

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Recent Trends in the Daily Rainfall Regime in Southern West Africa
Atmosphere 2019, 10(12), 741; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10120741 - 26 Nov 2019
Abstract
Extreme climate events, either being linked to dry spells or extreme precipitation, are of major concern in Africa, a region in which the economy and population are highly vulnerable to climate hazards. However, recent trends in climate events are not often documented in [...] Read more.
Extreme climate events, either being linked to dry spells or extreme precipitation, are of major concern in Africa, a region in which the economy and population are highly vulnerable to climate hazards. However, recent trends in climate events are not often documented in this poorly surveyed continent. This study makes use of a large set of daily rain gauge data covering Southern West Africa (extending from 10° W to 10° E and from 4° N to 12° N) from 1950 to 2014. The evolution of the number and the intensity of daily rainfall events, especially the most extremes, were analyzed at the annual and seasonal scales. During the first rainy season (April–July), mean annual rainfall is observed to have a minor trend due to less frequent but more intense rainfall mainly along the coast of Southern West Africa (SWA) over the last two decades. The north–south seasonal changes exhibit an increase in mean annual rainfall over the last decade during the second rainy season (September–November) linked by both an increase in the frequency of occurrence of rainy days as well as an increase in the mean intensity and extreme events over the last decade. The study also provides evidence of a disparity that exists between the west and east of SWA, with the east recording a stronger increase in the mean intensity of wet days and extreme rainfall during the second rainy season (September–November). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Hydrological and Climate Extremes in Africa)
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Open AccessArticle
Impacts of 1.5 and 2.0 °C Global Warming on Water Balance Components over Senegal in West Africa
Atmosphere 2019, 10(11), 712; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10110712 - 15 Nov 2019
Abstract
This study assesses the changes in precipitation (P) and in evapotranspiration (ET) under 1.5 °C and 2.0 °C global warming levels (GWLs) over Senegal in West Africa. A set of twenty Regional Climate Model (RCM) simulations within the Coordinated Regional Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) [...] Read more.
This study assesses the changes in precipitation (P) and in evapotranspiration (ET) under 1.5 °C and 2.0 °C global warming levels (GWLs) over Senegal in West Africa. A set of twenty Regional Climate Model (RCM) simulations within the Coordinated Regional Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) following the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) 4.5 emission scenario is used. Annual and seasonal changes are computed between climate simulations under 1.5 °C and 2.0 °C warming, with respect to 0.5 °C warming, compared to pre-industrial levels. The results show that annual precipitation is likely to decrease under both magnitudes of warming; this decrease is also found during the main rainy season (July, August, September) only and is more pronounced under 2 °C warming. All reference evapotranspiration calculations, from Penman, Hamon, and Hargreaves formulations, show an increase in the future under the two GWLs, except annual Penman evapotranspiration under the 1.5 °C warming scenario. Furthermore, seasonal and annual water balances (P-ET) generally exhibit a water deficit. This water deficit (up to 180 mm) is more substantial with Penman and Hamon under 2 °C. In addition, analyses of changes in extreme precipitation reveal an increase in dry spells and a decrease in the number of wet days. However, Senegal may face a slight increase in very wet days (95th percentile), extremely wet days (99th), and rainfall intensity in the coming decades. Therefore, in the future, Senegal may experience a decline in precipitation, an increase of evapotranspiration, and a slight increase in heavy rainfall. Such changes could have serious consequences (e.g., drought, flood, etc.) for socioeconomic activities. Thus, strong governmental politics are needed to restrict the global mean temperature to avoid irreversible negative climate change impacts over the country. The findings of this study have contributed to a better understanding of local patterns of the Senegal hydroclimate under the two considered global warming scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Hydrological and Climate Extremes in Africa)
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