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Open AccessArticle

Intensification of Summer Rainfall Extremes over Nigeria during Recent Decades

1
International Center for Climate and Environment Sciences, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China
2
Energy, Climate, and Environment Sciences Group, Imo State Polytechnic Umuagwo, Ohaji P.M.B 1472, Imo State, Nigeria
3
Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2020, 11(10), 1084; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11101084
Received: 30 June 2020 / Revised: 24 August 2020 / Accepted: 28 September 2020 / Published: 12 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Hydrological and Climate Extremes in Africa)
Rainfall extremes can cause a significant loss of lives and economic losses in Nigeria. This study aims to investigate the trends of summer rainfall extremes over Nigeria with daily station datasets from 1975 to 2013. Using the rainfall extreme indices recommended by the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection Monitoring Indices (ETCCDMI), it is found that regionally averaged summer total wet-day rainfall amount (PRCPTOT), maximum consecutive 5-day rainfall amount (RX5day), and wet-day rainfall intensity (SDII) have increased in the three climatic regions of Nigeria namely Guinea coast, Sub-Sahel, and the Sahel regions. Meanwhile, heavy rainfall days (R20mm) increased significantly over the Guinea coast and sub-Sahel regions, while the wet-day frequency (RR1) only increased slightly. The increase in PRCPTOT over the two regions is mainly resulting from the increasing intensity and frequency of rainfall extremes. However, the Nigerian Sahel is characterized by a decreasing wet-day frequency, which demonstrates that a large proportion of the increasing PRCPTOT in the region is more associated with intense rainfall than its frequency. These characteristic increasing trends of rainfall extremes may explain the frequent flood events over Nigeria and as such this study may give guidance to stakeholders on how best to cope with it in the future. View Full-Text
Keywords: extreme rainfall; ETCCDMI; rainfall intensity; trends; Nigeria Sahel; Sub-Sahel; Guinea Coast extreme rainfall; ETCCDMI; rainfall intensity; trends; Nigeria Sahel; Sub-Sahel; Guinea Coast
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MDPI and ACS Style

Dike, V.N.; Lin, Z.-H.; Ibe, C.C. Intensification of Summer Rainfall Extremes over Nigeria during Recent Decades. Atmosphere 2020, 11, 1084.

AMA Style

Dike VN, Lin Z-H, Ibe CC. Intensification of Summer Rainfall Extremes over Nigeria during Recent Decades. Atmosphere. 2020; 11(10):1084.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Dike, Victor N.; Lin, Zhao-Hui; Ibe, Chikwem C. 2020. "Intensification of Summer Rainfall Extremes over Nigeria during Recent Decades" Atmosphere 11, no. 10: 1084.

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