Rainfall extremes can cause a significant loss of lives and economic losses in Nigeria. This study aims to investigate the trends of summer rainfall extremes over Nigeria with daily station datasets from 1975 to 2013. Using the rainfall extreme indices recommended by the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection Monitoring Indices (ETCCDMI), it is found that regionally averaged summer total wet-day rainfall amount (PRCPTOT), maximum consecutive 5-day rainfall amount (RX5day), and wet-day rainfall intensity (SDII) have increased in the three climatic regions of Nigeria namely Guinea coast, Sub-Sahel, and the Sahel regions. Meanwhile, heavy rainfall days (R20mm) increased significantly over the Guinea coast and sub-Sahel regions, while the wet-day frequency (RR1) only increased slightly. The increase in PRCPTOT over the two regions is mainly resulting from the increasing intensity and frequency of rainfall extremes. However, the Nigerian Sahel is characterized by a decreasing wet-day frequency, which demonstrates that a large proportion of the increasing PRCPTOT in the region is more associated with intense rainfall than its frequency. These characteristic increasing trends of rainfall extremes may explain the frequent flood events over Nigeria and as such this study may give guidance to stakeholders on how best to cope with it in the future.
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