Special Issue "Atmospheric Nutrients: Sources, Processes and Impact on Terrestrial and Marine Ecosystems"

A special issue of Atmosphere (ISSN 2073-4433). This special issue belongs to the section "Biosphere/Hydrosphere/Land - Atmosphere Interactions".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 May 2019

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Zongbo Shi

School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
Website | E-Mail
Interests: atmospheric biogeochemistry; air pollution; climate change
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Maria Kanakidou

Environmental Chemical Processes Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Crete, Heraklion, Greece
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +302810545033
Fax: + 30 2810 5451 66
Interests: atmospheric chemistry and climate changes due to human activities and gas/particle interactions; chemistry of the upper troposphere; human-driven changes in the oxidizing power of the atmosphere and the aerosol composition and their interactions with climate

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Every year, millions of tons of aerosol particles are transported to remote oceans and terrestrial ecosystems, such as the Southern Ocean and the Amazon forest. These particles, once deposited, provide the ecosystems with an external source of nutrients, such as iron, phosphorus, and nitrogen. This may stimulate primary production (a plant’s ability to produce complex organic compounds from water, carbon dioxide, and simple nutrients) and enhances carbon uptake and thus indirectly affects the climate.

Measurement and modelling studies in the past 30 years have clearly demonstrated the importance of atmospheric nutrients in global biogeochemical cycles and the Earth system. However, there are still major uncertainties in the flux of atmospheric nutrients to the ecosystems, particularly those from anthropogenic and biogenic sources. The impacts of atmospheric nutrients on ecosystems and the climate are also poorly understood.

In this Special Issue, we welcome manuscripts on laboratory, field and modelling studies of atmospheric nutrients on the following themes:

  • Sources and emissions of total and bioavailable atmospheric nutrients from both natural and anthropogenic sources.
  • Physical and chemical processes in the source emissions and the atmosphere that affect the production (e.g., solubilization of nutrients), transport and deposition of atmospheric nutrients.
  • Deposition of total and bioavailable atmospheric nutrients to the ecosystems, in particular those that are sensitive to external nutrient inputs.
  • Impacts of atmospheric nutrients on the ocean, terrestrial ecosystems and the climate.

Dr. Zongbo Shi
Prof. Dr. Maria Kanakidou
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Atmosphere is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • iron
  • phosphorus
  • nitrate
  • aerosol
  • productivity
  • earth system
  • oceans
  • terrestrial ecosystems

Published Papers (4 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-4
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Open AccessArticle Nitrogen Deposition on Danish Nature
Atmosphere 2018, 9(11), 447; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9110447
Received: 15 August 2018 / Revised: 25 October 2018 / Accepted: 9 November 2018 / Published: 14 November 2018
PDF Full-text (3624 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Eutrophication events are frequent in Inner Danish waters and critical loads are exceeded for much of the Danish sensitive terrestrial ecosystems. The Danish air quality monitoring program combines measurements and model calculations to benefit from the complementarities in data from these two sources.
[...] Read more.
Eutrophication events are frequent in Inner Danish waters and critical loads are exceeded for much of the Danish sensitive terrestrial ecosystems. The Danish air quality monitoring program combines measurements and model calculations to benefit from the complementarities in data from these two sources. Measurements describe actual status, seasonal variation, and temporal trends. Model calculations extrapolate the results to the entire country and determine depositions to specific ecosystems. Measurements in 2016 show annual depositions between 7.5 and 11 kg N/ha to terrestrial ecosystems, and a load to marine waters of 5.3 kg N/ha. The deposition on Danish marine waters in 2016 was calculated to be 73,000 tons N with an average deposition of 6.9 kg N/ha. For terrestrial areas, the deposition was calculated to be 57,000 tons N with an average deposition of 13 kg N/ha. This is above critical loads for sensitive ecosystems. Long-term trends show a 35% decrease since 1990 in measured annual nitrogen deposition. At two out of four stations in nature areas, measured ammonia levels exceeded critical levels for lichens and mosses. Conclusions: Nitrogen loads and levels to Danish nature is decreasing, but critical loads and levels are still exceeded for sensitive ecosystems. Combining measurements and model calculations is a strong tool in monitoring. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Effects of Atmospheric Dry Deposition on External Nitrogen Supply and New Production in the Northern South China Sea
Atmosphere 2018, 9(10), 386; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9100386
Received: 27 August 2018 / Revised: 24 September 2018 / Accepted: 1 October 2018 / Published: 3 October 2018
PDF Full-text (5850 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The South China Sea (SCS) is one of the world’s largest oligotrophic marginal seas. Increases in biomass and primary production in the surface layer of the northern SCS are affected by anthropogenic aerosol use among north Asian peoples. The seasonal variation of dry
[...] Read more.
The South China Sea (SCS) is one of the world’s largest oligotrophic marginal seas. Increases in biomass and primary production in the surface layer of the northern SCS are affected by anthropogenic aerosol use among north Asian peoples. The seasonal variation of dry deposition and its contribution to new production in the ocean are vital to determining the effect that such dry deposition has on the biogeochemical cycle of the SCS. This study collected 240 samples of total suspended particles at Dongsha Island in the northern SCS from April 2007 to March 2009; the major ions and water-soluble nitrogen species in the samples were analyzed. The analysis results indicated that the concentration distributions of major water-soluble ions and nitrogen species in total suspended particles exhibited significant seasonal (source) variation. The north-east monsoon seasons (autumn to spring) brought relatively high concentrations because most air masses during this period arrived from the northern continental region. We found that the concentration of nitrogen species shows a latitude distribution, gradually decreasing from north to south. In addition, this study also discovered that the ratio of organic nitrogen to total dissolved or water-soluble nitrogen also varies in a similar manner, resulting in a concentration of <20% for locations north of 30° N and >30% for those south of 30° N. Aerosols at Dongsha Island mainly comprised sea salt; however, significant chloride depletion was observed during the north-east monsoon season. The molar ratio of NH4+ to non–sea salt (NSS) sulfate (nss-SO42−) was 0.8, indicating that the amount of artificially produced NH4+ in the region was insufficient for reaction with nss-SO42−. Therefore, NH4+ was mainly present in the form of NH4HSO4. The fluxes of water-soluble inorganic nitrogen (WSIN) and water-soluble organic nitrogen (WSON) within the region were 23 ± 13 and 27 ± 15 mmol m−2 y−1, respectively. The new production converted from atmospheric water-soluble nitrogen species in the northern SCS was estimated to be 0.52–0.81 mmol C m−2 d−1. This flux made about 5.6–8.7% (the global average was about 3.5%) contribution to the primary production (9.24 mmol C m−2 d−1) of the SCS surface water. This result indicates that the ocean’s external nitrogen supply, provided by anthropogenic aerosols, is vital for the biogeochemical cycle in Asian marginal seas, particularly the northern SCS. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Phytoplankton and Bacterial Response to Desert Dust Deposition in the Coastal Waters of the Southeastern Mediterranean Sea: A Four-Year In Situ Survey
Atmosphere 2018, 9(8), 305; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9080305
Received: 6 June 2018 / Revised: 1 August 2018 / Accepted: 1 August 2018 / Published: 3 August 2018
PDF Full-text (2285 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Atmospheric dust/aerosol deposition is an important source of external nutrients for the surface of the ocean. This study shows high-resolution observational data gathered in situ over a period of four years on bacterial and phytoplankton abundance and activity during typical background atmospheric conditions
[...] Read more.
Atmospheric dust/aerosol deposition is an important source of external nutrients for the surface of the ocean. This study shows high-resolution observational data gathered in situ over a period of four years on bacterial and phytoplankton abundance and activity during typical background atmospheric conditions and during intense dust storm events in the low-nutrient, low-chlorophyll (LNLC) coastal waters of the southeastern Mediterranean Sea (SEMS). Chlorophyll a (an estimate for phytoplankton biomass) and bacterial abundance show moderate changes in response to dust deposition/events (−10% and +20%, respectively), while primary production, bacterial production, and N2 fixation rates were all significantly and positively affected by deposition (+25 to +40%; p < 0.05). The rapid changes in bacterial and/or phytoplankton rate parameters suggest that the released micro-/macronutrients from atmospheric deposition are tunneled directly in metabolic processes and, to a lesser extent, for biomass accumulation. The predicted expansion of LNLC areas in oceans in the future, and the projected increase in dust emission due to desertification, may affect the production of marine microbial communities in the surface of the ocean, yet only moderately affect their biomass or standing stock. Such alterations may impact carbon sequestration to the deep ocean. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Enhanced Iron Solubility at Low pH in Global Aerosols
Atmosphere 2018, 9(5), 201; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9050201
Received: 19 April 2018 / Revised: 16 May 2018 / Accepted: 20 May 2018 / Published: 22 May 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (6140 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The composition and oxidation state of aerosol iron were examined using synchrotron-based iron near-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy. By combining synchrotron-based techniques with water leachate analysis, impacts of oxidation state and mineralogy on aerosol iron solubility were assessed for samples taken from multiple locations
[...] Read more.
The composition and oxidation state of aerosol iron were examined using synchrotron-based iron near-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy. By combining synchrotron-based techniques with water leachate analysis, impacts of oxidation state and mineralogy on aerosol iron solubility were assessed for samples taken from multiple locations in the Southern and the Atlantic Oceans; and also from Noida (India), Bermuda, and the Eastern Mediterranean (Crete). These sampling locations capture iron-containing aerosols from different source regions with varying marine, mineral dust, and anthropogenic influences. Across all locations, pH had the dominating influence on aerosol iron solubility. When aerosol samples were approximately neutral pH, iron solubility was on average 3.4%; when samples were below pH 4, the iron solubility increased to 35%. This observed aerosol iron solubility profile is consistent with thermodynamic predictions for the solubility of Fe(III) oxides, the major iron containing phase in the aerosol samples. Source regions and transport paths were also important factors affecting iron solubility, as samples originating from or passing over populated regions tended to contain more soluble iron. Although the acidity appears to affect aerosol iron solubility globally, a direct relationship for all samples is confounded by factors such as anthropogenic influence, aerosol buffer capacity, mineralogy and physical processes. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Tentative Title: Estimations of ocean primary productivity associated with spring Asian dust events in the western North Pacific and potential export production: A case study of spring 2016-2017
Authors: Joo-Eun Yoon and Il-Nam Kim*
Affiliation: Department of Marine Science, Incheon National University, Incheon, South Korea
Preliminary Abstract: Generally, the input of aeolian dust is expected to temporarily enhance ocean primary productivity by relieving the iron stress that acts as a limiting factor on growth of the phytoplanktons. Especially, as the western North Pacific Ocean (WNPO) is located downwind from the source regions (i.e., Taklimakan and Gobi Deserts) of Asian dust, the second largest dust source globally, the WNPO is an ideal place to accurately find out the response of open waters to these events. Recent study in the WNPO suggested that strong spring dust events can increase ocean productivity by more than 70% as compared to the weak/non-dust conditions. Here we report on two strong spring dust events in the WNPO that occurred in 2016-2017 year. Two strong events were observed using satellite aerosol index to specify occurrences and transports of dust events. Our results indicate that the distribution of dust events was in agreement with spatial patterns of massive phytoplankton blooms with a lag of ~10 days and these blooms resulted in enhancement of potential ocean export production. These results improve understanding of the linkage between atmospheric deposition derived fertilization effects and biological pump in the WNPO.

Tentative Title: Spatial and Seasonal Variability in Labile Iron Deposition and Contribution to Sea-surface Soluble Iron Distributions
Authors: Yan Feng1, Beth Drewniak1 and Akinori Ito2
Affiliation: 1Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL, USA; 2Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Kanagawa, Japan
Preliminary Abstract: Comparison of the iron (Fe) distributions from global ocean biogeochemistry models reveals substantial inter-model variability in the input fluxes of soluble iron (sFe). It leads to a wide range of the Fe residence times across the models, and has important implications for predicting response of ecosystems and global carbon cycling to perturbations of Fe supply. In the present study, we examine the spatial and seasonal variability in predicted sFe deposition from 6 CMIP5 models, all including dust sources with a fixed Fe solubility, compared with chemical transport model simulations. Three CMIP5 models (CESM1, HadGEM2 and GFDL-ESM2M) predict the largest Fe deposition in the subtropical NE Atlantic and the Arabian Sea, while more Fe is predicted by the other three models (MPI-ESM, CNRM-CM5 and IPSL-CSM5A) to deposit to the mid latitude North Pacific and the Mediterranean Sea. Sensitivity studies with a chemical transport model suggest that inclusion of dust Fe dissolution schemes and combustion sFe sources modifies the predicted sFe deposition in both magnitude and spatial distribution, and the uncertainty is comparable to the inter-model variability due to the dust sources alone. Furthermore, we show that the model differences in sFe deposition are not reflected consistently on the predicted sea-surface dissolved Fe (dFe). In addition to better agreement in the global mean dFe suggested in the previous studies, the spatial and seasonal variability in the dFe distributions across the models is shown to be decreased. Locations with high concentrations of dFe are generally not co-located with large deposition of sFe. But the extent of the dFe distribution deviated from the sFe deposition vary significantly from one model to another. This implies that response of sea-surface dFe distributions to anthropogenic influences (through dust Fe dissolution or combustion sources) depend on the model representation of Fe cycle in the ocean.

Back to Top