Special Issue "Plant Adaptation to Global Climate Change"

A special issue of Atmosphere (ISSN 2073-4433). This special issue belongs to the section "Biometeorology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (21 August 2020) | Viewed by 19508

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Special Issue Editor

Dr. Amit Kumar Mishra
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Texas A&M AgriLife Research and Extension Center, Texas A&M University, TX 78801, USA
Interests: air pollution; climate change; ozone; carbon dioxide; plant stress physiology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Plants vary in their response to the changing environment. This has a high impact on agriculture, especially because of the need to produce more food for the rapidly growing population, using suboptimal growth conditions because of lesser availability of resources like water on one hand, and global warming on the other hand. Crop production is susceptible to climate variability, and climate change related with high temperature, elevated CO2, varying patterns of rainfall, and other environmental factors are having an adverse impact on global crop production and food security. The influence of climate change on plants may be from cellular to the molecular level. Subsequently, the existing literature on the plant’s response to different environmental stresses is diverse. In view of the future impacts of climate change, understanding the response of plants becomes critical in developing strategies to cope with the threats to plant growth and development.

This Special Issue will focus in particular on the current research of effects of air pollutants, UV-B, salinity, heat/freeze, drought, and other environmental factors on plants. We encourage the submission of the manuscripts that include plant–environment interaction and particularly welcome those studies that aim to integrate morphological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular approaches of plant response to climate change.

Dr. Amit Kumar Mishra
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Air Pollution
  • Plant–environment interaction
  • Environmental stress
  • UV-B and plant response
  • Abiotic stress and plant response
  • Light sensing and mechanism

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Plant Adaptation to Global Climate Change
Atmosphere 2021, 12(4), 451; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12040451 - 31 Mar 2021
Viewed by 886
Abstract
The problem of climate change is unavoidably accompanied by climate variabilities, such as high temperature, varying patterns of rainfall, and other environmental factors (including biotic factors), and causes an adverse impact on plant development and global food security [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Adaptation to Global Climate Change)

Research

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Article
Assessing Suitable Areas of Common Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) for Current and Future Climate Situations: The CDS Toolbox SDM
Atmosphere 2020, 11(11), 1201; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11111201 - 06 Nov 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 918
Abstract
Climate Data Science (CDS) Toolbox Species Distribution Model (SDM) aims identifying the suitable areas for species, community of species and landscape units. This model is based on the use of 23 variables available over the Internet, for which any assumptions are formulated about [...] Read more.
Climate Data Science (CDS) Toolbox Species Distribution Model (SDM) aims identifying the suitable areas for species, community of species and landscape units. This model is based on the use of 23 variables available over the Internet, for which any assumptions are formulated about their relationships with the spatial distribution of species. The application of CDS Toolbox SDM on the assessment of the potential impact of two scenarios of climate change (Representative Concentration Pathways RCP4.5 and RCP6.0) on the suitability of grapevine crops in France shows a general decrease of the most suitable areas for grapevine crops between 41% and 83% towards 2070 according to the current location of the vineyard parcels. The results underline a potential shift of the suitable areas in northern part of the French territory. They also show a potential shift of the most suitable areas in altitude (60 m in average) for RCP6.0 scenario. Finally, the model shows that RCP4.5 scenario should be more drastic than RCP6.0 scenario by 2050 and 2070. In effect, the model underlines a significant potential decrease of cultivated crops in the areas of high probably of suitable areas, according to the baseline scenario. This decrease would be of 630,000 ha for 2070 RCP4.5 scenario and 330,000 ha for 2070 RCP6.0 scenario. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Adaptation to Global Climate Change)
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Article
Modelling Canopy Actual Transpiration in the Boreal Forest with Reduced Error Propagation
Atmosphere 2020, 11(11), 1158; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11111158 - 27 Oct 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 668
Abstract
The authors have developed a scaling approach to aggregate tree sap flux with reduced error propagation in modeled estimates of actual transpiration () of three boreal species. The approach covers three scales: tree point, single tree trunk, and plot scale. Throughout the development [...] Read more.
The authors have developed a scaling approach to aggregate tree sap flux with reduced error propagation in modeled estimates of actual transpiration () of three boreal species. The approach covers three scales: tree point, single tree trunk, and plot scale. Throughout the development of this approach the error propagated from one scale to the next was reduced by analyzing the main sources of error and exploring how some field and lab techniques, and mathematical modeling can potentially reduce the error on measured or estimated parameters. Field measurements of tree sap flux at the tree point scale are used to obtain canopy transpiration estimates at the plot scale in combination with allometric correlations of sapwood depth (measured microscopically and scaled to plots), sapwood area, and leaf area index. We compared the final estimates to actual evapotranspiration and actual transpiration calculated with the Penman–Monteith equation, and the modified Penman–Monteith equation, respectively, at the plot scale. The scaled canopy transpiration represented a significant fraction of the forest evapotranspiration, which was always greater than 70%. To understand climate change impacts in forested areas, more accurate actual transpiration estimates are necessary. We suggest our model as a suitable approach to obtain reliable estimates in forested areas with low tree diversity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Adaptation to Global Climate Change)
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Article
Predicting Suitable Habitats of the African Cherry (Prunus africana) under Climate Change in Tanzania
Atmosphere 2020, 11(9), 988; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11090988 - 15 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1266
Abstract
Prunus africana is a fast-growing, evergreen canopy tree with several medicinal, household, and agroforestry uses, as well as ecological value for over 22 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. This species is under immense pressure from human activity, compounding its vulnerability to the effects of [...] Read more.
Prunus africana is a fast-growing, evergreen canopy tree with several medicinal, household, and agroforestry uses, as well as ecological value for over 22 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. This species is under immense pressure from human activity, compounding its vulnerability to the effects of climate change. Predicting suitable habitats for P. africana under changing climate is essential for conservation monitoring and planning. This study intends to predict the impact of climate change on the suitable habitats for the vulnerable P. africana in Tanzania. We used maximum entropy modeling to predict future habitat distribution based on the representative concentration pathways scenario 4.5 and 8.5 for the mid-century 2050 and late-century 2070. Species occurrence records and environmental variables were used as a dependent variable and predictor variables respectively. The model performance was excellent with the area under curve (AUC) and true skill statistics (TSS) values of 0.96 and 0.85 respectively. The mean annual temperature (51.7%) and terrain ruggedness. index (31.6%) are the most important variables in predicting the current and future habitat distribution for P. africana. Our results show a decrease in suitable habitats for P. africana under all future representative concentration pathways scenario when compared with current distributions. These results have policy implications for over 22 countries of sub-Saharan Africa that are facing problems associated with the sustainability of this species. Institutional, policy, and conservation management approaches are proposed to support sustainable practices in favor of P. africana. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Adaptation to Global Climate Change)
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Article
Climate and the Global Spread and Impact of Bananas’ Black Leaf Sigatoka Disease
Atmosphere 2020, 11(9), 947; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11090947 - 05 Sep 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1621
Abstract
While Black Sigatoka Leaf Disease (Mycosphaerella fijiensis) has arguably been the most important pathogen affecting the banana industry over the past 50 years, there are no quantitative estimates of what risk factors determine its spread across the globe, nor how its [...] Read more.
While Black Sigatoka Leaf Disease (Mycosphaerella fijiensis) has arguably been the most important pathogen affecting the banana industry over the past 50 years, there are no quantitative estimates of what risk factors determine its spread across the globe, nor how its spread has affected banana producing countries. This study empirically models the disease spread across and its impact within countries using historical spread timelines, biophysical models, local climate data, and country level agricultural data. To model the global spread a empirical hazard model is employed. The results show that the most important factor affecting first time infection of a country is the extent of their agricultural imports, having increased first time disease incidence by 69% points. In contrast, long distance dispersal due to climatic factors only raised this probability by 0.8% points. The impact of disease diffusion within countries once they are infected is modelled using a panel regression estimator. Findings indicate that under the right climate conditions the impact of Black Sigatoka Leaf Disease can be substantial, currently resulting in an average 3% reduction in global annual production, i.e., a loss of yearly revenue of about USD 1.6 billion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Adaptation to Global Climate Change)
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Article
Changes in the Seasonality of Ethiopian Highlands Climate and Implications for Crop Growth
Atmosphere 2020, 11(9), 892; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11090892 - 24 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1023
Abstract
Rain-fed agriculture in North-West (NW) Ethiopia is seasonally modulated, and our objective is to isolate past and future trends that influence crop growth. Statistical methods are applied to gauge-interpolated, reanalysis, and satellite data to evaluate changes in the annual cycle and long-term trends. [...] Read more.
Rain-fed agriculture in North-West (NW) Ethiopia is seasonally modulated, and our objective is to isolate past and future trends that influence crop growth. Statistical methods are applied to gauge-interpolated, reanalysis, and satellite data to evaluate changes in the annual cycle and long-term trends. The June to September wet season has lengthened due to the earlier arrival and later departure of rains. Meteorological composites relate this spreading to local southerly winds and a dry-south/wet-north humidity dipole. At the regional scale, an axis of convection over the Rift Valley (35E) is formed by westerly waves on 15S and an anticyclone over Asia 30N. Coupled Model Intercomparsion Project (CMIP5) Hadley2 data assimilated by the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparision Project (ISIMIP) hydrological models are used to evaluate projected soil moisture and potential evaporation over the 21st century. May and October soil moisture is predicted to increase in the future, but trends are weak. In contrast, the potential evaporation is rising and may put stress on the land and water resources. A lengthening of the growing season could benefit crop yields across the NW Ethiopian highlands. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Adaptation to Global Climate Change)
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Article
Arable Weed Patterns According to Temperature and Latitude Gradient in Central and Southern Spain
Atmosphere 2020, 11(8), 853; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11080853 - 13 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1329
Abstract
(1) Background: In agro-ecosystems, the success of the crops has a strong connection to biodiversity in the landscape. In the face of climate change, it is important to understand the response to environmental variation of weed species by means of their distribution. In [...] Read more.
(1) Background: In agro-ecosystems, the success of the crops has a strong connection to biodiversity in the landscape. In the face of climate change, it is important to understand the response to environmental variation of weed species by means of their distribution. In the last century, biodiversity has been impacted due to a variety of stresses related to climate change. Although the composition of vegetation tends to change at a slower rate than climate change, we hypothesize species present in weed communities are distributed in diverse patterns as a response to the climate. Therefore, the general aim of this paper is to investigate the effect of temperature, using latitude as an indicator, on the composition and distribution of weed communities in agro-ecosystems. (2) Methods: Weeds were monitored in georeferenced cereal fields which spanned south and central Spanish regions. The graphic representation according to latitude allowed us to identify groups of weeds and associate them to a temperature range. We classified weeds as generalist, regional, or local according to the range of distribution. (3) Results: The monitoring of species led to the classification of weeds as generalist, regional or local species according to latitude and associated temperature ranges. Three weed species that were present in all latitude/temperature regions, were classified as generalist (Linaria micrantha (Cav) Hoffmanns & Link, Sonchus oleraceous L., and Sysimbrium irium L.). The species were classified as regional or local when their presence was limited to restricted latitude/temperature ranges. One weed, Stellaria media (L.) Vill., was considered a local species and its distribution dynamics can be considered an indicator of temperature. (4) Conclusions: The novel methodology used in this study to assign weed distribution as an indicator of climatic conditions could be applied to evaluate climate gradients around the world. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Adaptation to Global Climate Change)
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Article
Ground Level Isoprenoid Exchanges Associated with Pinus pinea Trees in A Mediterranean Turf
Atmosphere 2020, 11(8), 809; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11080809 - 31 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1005
Abstract
The emissions of isoprenoids, a kind of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs), from soils is not well characterized. We quantified the exchange of isoprenoids between soil with litter and atmosphere along a horizontal gradient from the trunks of the trees, in a Mediterranean [...] Read more.
The emissions of isoprenoids, a kind of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs), from soils is not well characterized. We quantified the exchange of isoprenoids between soil with litter and atmosphere along a horizontal gradient from the trunks of the trees, in a Mediterranean Pinus pinea plantation with dry and green needle litter to open herbaceous turf during mornings at mid-summer. Further, potential associated drivers were identified. Isoprenoid emissions were greatest and most diverse, and also can be roughly estimated by litter dry weight near the trunk, where the needle litter was denser. The composition of emitted isoprenoid by needle litter was different than the composition previously described for green needles. Low exchange rates of isoprenoids were recorded in open turf. Isoprenoid exchange rates were correlated positively with soil temperature and negatively with soil moisture. Given the variations in ground emissions with soil, vegetation, microorganisms, and associated interactions, we recommend widespread extensive spatio-temporal analysis of ground level BVOC exchanges in the different ecosystem types. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Adaptation to Global Climate Change)
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Article
Tree Surface Temperature in a Primary Tropical Rain Forest
Atmosphere 2020, 11(8), 798; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11080798 - 29 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1286
Abstract
As one of the important factors affecting plant productivity and plant distribution, temperature also affects the physiological and ecological characteristics of plants to a large extent. We report canopy leaf temperature distribution over a 36 m tall primary tropical rain forest and samplings [...] Read more.
As one of the important factors affecting plant productivity and plant distribution, temperature also affects the physiological and ecological characteristics of plants to a large extent. We report canopy leaf temperature distribution over a 36 m tall primary tropical rain forest and samplings of 28 tree species in SW China by means of two high resolution thermal cameras (P25, Flir systems, Wilsonville, OR, USA). The leaf temperature of dominant tree Species Pometia tomentosa was the highest (31.8 °C), 10.2 °C higher than that of tree species Mezzettipsis creaghii (21.6 °C). The mean leaf to air temperature difference (Tc–Ta) of Pometia tomentosa was the highest (6.4 K), the second highest was Barringtonia pendula (6.1 K), and Mezzettipsis creaghii had the lowest (Tc–Ta) (1.9K). (Tc–Ta) of tree species with smaller leaves and larger stomatal conductance was lowly sensitive to climate factors. Leaf size and stomatal conductance together decided the effect of climate change to (Tc–Ta) of the different tree species. We have shown that the composition of tree species in tropical rain forest areas is important to the climate through our research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Adaptation to Global Climate Change)
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Article
Climate Change and the Future Heat Stress Challenges among Smallholder Farmers in East Africa
Atmosphere 2020, 11(7), 753; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11070753 - 16 Jul 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1638
Abstract
Agricultural production in sub-Saharan Africa remains dependent on high inputs of human labor, a situation associated with direct exposure to daylight heat during critical periods of the agricultural calendar. We ask the question: how is the Wet-Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) going to be [...] Read more.
Agricultural production in sub-Saharan Africa remains dependent on high inputs of human labor, a situation associated with direct exposure to daylight heat during critical periods of the agricultural calendar. We ask the question: how is the Wet-Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) going to be distributed in the future, and how will this affect the ability of smallholder farmers to perform agricultural activities? Data from general circulation models are used to estimate the distribution of WBGT in 2000, 2050 and 2100, and for high activity periods in the agricultural calendar. The distribution of WBGT is divided into recommended maximum WBGT exposure levels (°C) at different work intensities, and rest/work ratios for an average acclimatized worker wearing light clothing (ISO, 18). High WBGTs are observed during the two periods of the East African. In February to March, eastern and coastal regions of Kenya and Tanzania witness high WBGT values—some necessitating up to 75% rest/hour work intensities in 2050 and 2100. In August to September, eastern and northern Kenya and north and central Uganda are vulnerable to high WBGT values. Designing policies to address this key challenge is a critical element in adaptation methods to address the impact of climate change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Adaptation to Global Climate Change)
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Article
Historical Radial Growth of Chinese Torreya Trees and Adaptation to Climate Change
Atmosphere 2020, 11(7), 691; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11070691 - 30 Jun 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 847
Abstract
Chinese Torreya is a vital crop tree with an average life span of a thousand years in subtropical China. Plantations of this tree are broadly under construction, to benefit the local economy. Information on the growth and adaptation to climate change for this [...] Read more.
Chinese Torreya is a vital crop tree with an average life span of a thousand years in subtropical China. Plantations of this tree are broadly under construction, to benefit the local economy. Information on the growth and adaptation to climate change for this species is limited, but tree rings might show responses to historical climate dynamics. In this study, six stem sections from Chinese Torreya trees between 60 and 90 years old were acquired and analyzed with local climate data. The results indicated that the accumulated radial growth increased linearly with time, even at the age of 90 years, and the average radial increment of each tree ranged from 1.9 to 5.1 mm/year. The variances of basal area increment (BAI) increased with time, and correlated with the variances of precipitation in the growing seasons. Taylor’s power law was present in the radial growth, with the scaling exponents concentrated within 1.9–2.1. A “Triangle”-shaped relationship was found between the precipitation in the growing seasons and annual radial increments. Similar patterns also appeared for the standard precipitation index, maximum monthly air temperature and minimum monthly air temperature. The annual increases were highly correlated with the local climate. Slow growth, resilience to drought and multiple stems in one tree might help the tree species adapt to different climate conditions, with the implications for plantation management discussed in this paper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Adaptation to Global Climate Change)
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Article
Simulation of Climate Change Impacts on Phenology and Production of Winter Wheat in Northwestern China Using CERES-Wheat Model
Atmosphere 2020, 11(7), 681; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11070681 - 28 Jun 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1233
Abstract
Wheat plays a very important role in China’s agriculture. The wheat grain yields are affected by the growing period that is determined by temperature, precipitation, and field management, such as planting date and cultivar species. Here, we used the CSM-CERES-Wheat model along with [...] Read more.
Wheat plays a very important role in China’s agriculture. The wheat grain yields are affected by the growing period that is determined by temperature, precipitation, and field management, such as planting date and cultivar species. Here, we used the CSM-CERES-Wheat model along with different Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) and two global circulation models (GCMs) to simulate different impacts on the winter wheat that caused by changing climate for 2025 and 2050 projections for Guanzhong Plain in Northwest China. Our results showed that it is obvious that there is a warming trend in Guanzhong Plain; the mean temperature for the different scenarios increased up to 3.8 °C. Furthermore, the precipitation varied in the year; in general, the rainfall in February and August was increased, while it decreased in April, October and November. However, the solar radiation was found to be greatly reduced in the Guanzhong Plain. Compared to the reference year, the results showed that the number of days to maturity was shortened 3–24 days, and the main reason was the increased temperature during the winter wheat growing period. Moreover, five planting dates (from October 7 to 27 with five days per step) were applied to simulate the final yield and to select an appropriate planting date for the study area. The yield changed smallest based on Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL)-CM3 (−6.5, −5.3, −4.2 based on RCP 4.5, RCP 6.0, and RCP 8.5) for 2025 when planting on October 27. Farmers might have to plant the crop before 27 October. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Adaptation to Global Climate Change)
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Article
Transcriptomics of Mature Rice (Oryza Sativa L. Koshihikari) Seed under Hot Conditions by DNA Microarray Analyses
Atmosphere 2020, 11(5), 528; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11050528 - 20 May 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1578
Abstract
Higher temperature conditions during the final stages of rice seed development (seed filling and maturation) are known to cause damage to both rice yield and rice kernel quality. The western and central parts of Japan especially have seen record high temperatures during the [...] Read more.
Higher temperature conditions during the final stages of rice seed development (seed filling and maturation) are known to cause damage to both rice yield and rice kernel quality. The western and central parts of Japan especially have seen record high temperatures during the past decade, resulting in the decrease of rice kernel quality. In this study, we looked at the rice harvested from a town in the central Kanto-plains (Japan) in 2010. The daytime temperatures were above the critical limits ranging from 34 to 38 °C at the final stages of seed development and maturity allowing us to investigate high-temperature effects in the actual field condition. Three sets of dry mature rice seeds (commercial), each with specific quality standards, were obtained from Japan Agriculture (JA Zen-Noh) branch in Ami-town of Ibaraki Prefecture in September 2010: grade 1 (top quality, labeled as Y1), grade 2 (medium quality, labeled as Y2), and grade 3 (out-of-grade or low quality, labeled as Y3). The research objective was to examine particular alterations in genome-wide gene expression in grade 2 (Y2) and grade 3 (Y3) seeds compared to grade 1 (Y1). We followed the high-temperature spike using a high-throughput omics-approach DNA microarray (Agilent 4 × 44 K rice oligo DNA chip) in conjunction with MapMan bioinformatics analysis. As expected, rice seed quality analysis revealed low quality in Y3 > Y2 over Y1 in taste, amylose, protein, and fatty acid degree, but not in water content. Differentially expressed gene (DEG) analysis from the transcriptomic profiling data revealed that there are more than one hundred upregulated (124 and 373) and downregulated (106 and 129) genes in Y2 (grade 2 rice seed) and Y3 (grade 3 rice seed), respectively. Bioinformatic analysis of DEGs selected as highly regulated differentially expressed (HRDE) genes revealed changes in function of genes related to metabolism, defense/stress response, fatty acid biosynthesis, and hormones. This research provides, for the first time, the seed transcriptome profile for the classified low grades (grade 2, and out-of-grade; i.e., grade 3) of rice under high-temperature stress condition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Adaptation to Global Climate Change)
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Article
Climate Change Impacts on Sugarcane Production in Thailand
Atmosphere 2020, 11(4), 408; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11040408 - 19 Apr 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3223
Abstract
This study investigated the impact of climate change on yield, harvested area, and production of sugarcane in Thailand using spatial regression together with an instrumental variable approach to address the possible selection bias. The data were comprised of new fine-scale weather outcomes merged [...] Read more.
This study investigated the impact of climate change on yield, harvested area, and production of sugarcane in Thailand using spatial regression together with an instrumental variable approach to address the possible selection bias. The data were comprised of new fine-scale weather outcomes merged together with a provincial-level panel of crops that spanned all provinces in Thailand from 1989–2016. We found that in general climate variables, both mean and variability, statistically determined the yield and harvested area of sugarcane. Increased population density reduced the harvested area for non-agricultural use. Considering simultaneous changes in climate and demand of land for non-agricultural development, we reveal that the future sugarcane yield, harvested area, and production are projected to decrease by 23.95–33.26%, 1.29–2.49%, and 24.94–34.93% during 2046–2055 from the baseline, respectively. Sugarcane production is projected to have the largest drop in the eastern and lower section of the central regions. Given the role of Thailand as a global exporter of sugar and the importance of sugarcane production in Thai agriculture, the projected declines in the production could adversely affect the well-being of one million sugarcane growers and the stability of sugar price in the world market. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Adaptation to Global Climate Change)
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