Special Issue "Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation: Feasibility and Economics"

A special issue of Atmosphere (ISSN 2073-4433). This special issue belongs to the section "Climatology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Suren N. Kulshreshtha
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics (AREc), University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B5, Canada
Interests: economic impact analysis; environmental assessment (economic); sustainable agriculture; agriculture and resources; adoption of new technologies; irrigation and drainage economics
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Climate change has been accepted as a new normal for the coming generations all over the world. Although many decision-makers have now opted to undertake adaptation to these changes, mitigation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions cannot be totally lost sight of, as it is very relevant in the long run. With this in mind, this Special Issue is being planned to provide information to decision-makers on the feasibility and economics of mitigation of greenhouse gases from various sectors. GHG mitigation has two basic aspects: technical feasibility and social acceptability. The first aspect requires the provision of scientific evidence that shows that the adoption of certain measures would reduce GHG emissions from a given economic activity. Here, the adoption process and likely bio-physical direct and side effects need to be investigated. The second aspect is about adoption of recommended measures by decision-makers. The economics of adopting a mitigation measure is an important consideration for a decision-maker prior to adopting it. Related to this is the relative cost of mitigation if two or more measures are available for adoption. In these assessments, merely looking at the direct cost to the adopters is insufficient, since the side effects on the rest of society are equally, if not more, important. In addition, equally important is the evaluation of policy instruments that government might like to use to promote the adoption of GHG mitigation measures.

Prof. Dr. Suren Kulshreshtha
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation measures
  • Technology-related measures for mitigation
  • Direct effects of mitigation on the adopting sector
  • Effect of adoption of mitigation measures on society
  • Economic of mitigation of GHGs
  • Policy instruments
  • Efficacy of policy instruments for mitigation
  • Benefit–cost analysis
  • Factors affecting the adoption of a measure
  • Relative cost of mitigation

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

Article
Achieving Carbon Neutrality for A Future Large Greenhouse Gas Emitter in Quebec, Canada: A Case Study
Atmosphere 2020, 11(8), 810; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11080810 - 31 Jul 2020
Viewed by 1135
Abstract
To reach the Paris Agreement targets of holding the global temperature increase below 2 °C above the preindustrial levels, every human activity will need to be carbon neutral by 2050. Feasible means for industries to achieve carbon neutrality must be developed and assessed [...] Read more.
To reach the Paris Agreement targets of holding the global temperature increase below 2 °C above the preindustrial levels, every human activity will need to be carbon neutral by 2050. Feasible means for industries to achieve carbon neutrality must be developed and assessed economically. Herein we present a case study on available solutions to achieve net-zero carbon from the get-go for a planned liquefied natural gas (LNG) plant in Quebec, which would classify as a large Canadian greenhouse gas (GHG) emitter. From a literature review, available options were prioritized with the promoter. Each prioritized potential solution is discussed in light of its feasibility and the associated economic opportunities and challenges. Although net-zero carbon is feasible from the get-go, results show that the promoter should identify opportunities to reduce as much as possible emissions at source, cooperate with other industries for CO2 capture and utilization, replace natural gas from fossil sources by renewable sources and offset the remaining emissions by planting trees and/or buying offsets on the compliance and voluntary markets. As some of these solutions are still to be developed, to ensure timely net-zero pledge for the lifespan of the LNG plant, a portfolio and progressive approach to combine offsets and other options is preferable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation: Feasibility and Economics)
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Article
Energy Balances and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Agriculture in the Shihezi Oasis of China
Atmosphere 2020, 11(8), 781; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11080781 - 24 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 553
Abstract
The objective of this study was to evaluate the difference of crop and livestock products regarding energy balances, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, carbon economic efficiency, and water use efficiency using a life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology on farms in three sub-oases within the [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the difference of crop and livestock products regarding energy balances, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, carbon economic efficiency, and water use efficiency using a life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology on farms in three sub-oases within the Shihezi Oasis of China. The three sub-oases were selected within the Gobi Desert, at Shizongchang (SZC), Xiayedi (XYD), and Mosuowan (MSW), to represent the various local oasis types: i. Oasis; ii. overlapping oasis-desert; and iii. Gobi oasis. The results indicated that crop production in XYD Oasis had higher energy balances (221.47 GJ/ha), and a net energy ratio (5.39), than in the other two oases (p < 0.01). The production of 1 kg CW of sheep in XYD Oasis resulted in significantly higher energy balances (18.31 MJ/kg CW), and an energy ratio (2.21), than in the other two oases (p < 0.01). The water use efficiency of crop production in the SZC Oasis was lower than that of the XYD and MSW oases (p < 0.05). Alfalfa production generated the lowest CO2-eq emissions (8.09 Mg CO2-eq/ha. year) and had the highest water use efficiency (45.82 MJ/m3). Alfalfa (1.18 ¥/kg CO2-eq) and maize (1.14 ¥/kg CO2-eq) had a higher carbon economic efficiency than other crops (p < 0.01). The main sources of GHG emissions for crop production were fertilizer and irrigation. The structural equation modelling (SEM) of agricultural systems in the Shihezi Oasis showed that the livestock category significantly influenced the economic income, energy, and carbon balances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation: Feasibility and Economics)
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Article
The Relationship of Energy and CO2 Emissions with GDP per Capita in Colombia
Atmosphere 2020, 11(8), 778; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11080778 - 23 Jul 2020
Viewed by 821
Abstract
We analyze the relationship of CO2 emissions per capita and primary energy per capita with gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and other relevant variables in Colombia for the period 1971–2017. Two partial adjustment models are estimated through the seemingly unrelated regression [...] Read more.
We analyze the relationship of CO2 emissions per capita and primary energy per capita with gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and other relevant variables in Colombia for the period 1971–2017. Two partial adjustment models are estimated through the seemingly unrelated regression equations method. There is a decrease in these environmental pressures during some years of the period. However, the results reject the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis and indicate that economic growth is still linked to an increase in these environmental pressures in Colombia. Moreover, a linear relationship between both indicators and GDP per capita is not rejected. Several factors explain the changes in energy consumption and emissions over time, the policies applied being crucial. Some determinants that helped to control these environmental pressures are the change in primary energy source composition, which entailed primary energy savings and a reduction in CO2 emissions, as well as the regulations aimed at controlling CO2 emissions from the transport and industrial sectors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation: Feasibility and Economics)
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Article
Effectivity and Cost Efficiency of a Tax on Nitrogen Fertilizer to Reduce GHG Emissions from Agriculture
Atmosphere 2020, 11(6), 607; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11060607 - 09 Jun 2020
Viewed by 969
Abstract
The use of nitrogen (N) fertilizer substantially contributes to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions due to N2O emissions from agricultural soils and energy-intensive fertilizer manufacturing. Thus, a reduction of mineral N fertilizer use can contribute to reduced GHG emissions. Fertilizer tax is [...] Read more.
The use of nitrogen (N) fertilizer substantially contributes to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions due to N2O emissions from agricultural soils and energy-intensive fertilizer manufacturing. Thus, a reduction of mineral N fertilizer use can contribute to reduced GHG emissions. Fertilizer tax is a potential instrument to provide incentives to apply less fertilizer and contribute to the mitigation of GHG emissions. This study provides model results based on a production function analysis from field experiments in Brandenburg and Schleswig-Holstein, with respect to risk aversion by calculating certainty equivalents for different levels of risk aversion. The model results were used to identify effective and cost-efficient options considering farmers’ risk aversion to reduce N fertilizer, and to compare the potential and cost of GHG mitigation with different N fertilizer tax schemes. The results show that moderate N tax levels are effective in reducing N fertilizer levels, and thus, in curbing GHG emissions at costs below 100 €/t CO2eq for rye, barley and canola. However, in wheat production, N tax has limited effects on economically optimal N use due to the effects of N fertilizer on crop quality, which affect the sale prices of wheat. The findings indicate that the level of risk aversion does not have a consistent impact on the reduction of N fertilizer with a tax, even though the level of N fertilizer use is generally lower for risk-averse agents. The differences in N fertilizer response might have an impact on the relative advantage of different crops, which should be taken into account for an effective implementation of a tax on N fertilizer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation: Feasibility and Economics)
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Article
Embodied CO2 Emission Changes in Manufacturing Trade: Structural Decomposition Analysis of China, Japan, and Korea
Atmosphere 2020, 11(6), 597; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11060597 - 04 Jun 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 847
Abstract
This study investigated the driving factors of embodied carbon emission changes in manufacturing trades through structural decomposition analysis. For empirical analysis, we developed an environmental multiregional input–output model for Korea, Japan, and China for 1995–2009. The three countries, which are economically and environmentally [...] Read more.
This study investigated the driving factors of embodied carbon emission changes in manufacturing trades through structural decomposition analysis. For empirical analysis, we developed an environmental multiregional input–output model for Korea, Japan, and China for 1995–2009. The three countries, which are economically and environmentally significant in Asia, are not only tightly linked economically through global value chains, but also close geographically, sharing various environmental issues. The results show that China is a net exporter of embodied carbon emissions to Japan and Korea, despite a substantial trade deficit. Its exports are more carbon-intensive than its imports from Japan and Korea. China’s embodied emissions were mainly affected by a change in carbon-intensive production and trade structure, and Japan’s and Korea’s were affected by China’s final demand. At the sectoral level, “Electrical and Optical Equipment”, “Basic Metals and Fabricated Metal”, and “Textiles and Textile Products” mainly affected the embodied carbon emission changes in these three countries. As a result, a considerable share of carbon-intensive production has shifted to China and increased consumption of China’s final products and services in the manufacturing industries, resulting in a significant increase in embodied carbon emissions. Additionally, our findings at the sectoral level could provide important evidence regarding the effective environmental policies that enable sustainable industries. With the increasing interest in the embodied carbon emissions, future research would pay more attention to the bilateral trades of major carbon-emitting countries and multilateral trades. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation: Feasibility and Economics)
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Article
Projected Direct Carbon Dioxide Emission Reductions as a Result of the Adoption of Electric Vehicles in Gauteng Province of South Africa
Atmosphere 2020, 11(6), 591; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11060591 - 04 Jun 2020
Viewed by 694
Abstract
There are genuine worldwide concerns regarding the contribution of internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Passenger electric vehicles (EVs) are considered as a viable solution to the rapidly increasing global GHG emissions from ICE vehicles. This study investigated the [...] Read more.
There are genuine worldwide concerns regarding the contribution of internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Passenger electric vehicles (EVs) are considered as a viable solution to the rapidly increasing global GHG emissions from ICE vehicles. This study investigated the future impact of perceived adoption of electric vehicles in Gauteng Province of South Africa on carbon emissions. Estimations of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions were made with data from 2000 to 2018 to provide a reference period for the analysis. Projections of CO2 emissions from 2020 to 2030 were undertaken using three future cases, namely: mitigation, business as usual, and high economic growth based on the projected 20% population of electric vehicles, and four scenarios representing varying proportions of different types of EVs. The results showed an increasingly significant trend in CO2 emissions during the reference period. CO2 emissions estimated using the mitigation case showed an overall reduction in emissions of between 30% and 35%, depending on the scenario. The business as usual case showed an increase in emissions of 1–5% by 2030. The high economic growth case showed a high increase in CO2 emissions of 35–41% by 2030. The study indicates a need to accelerate the adoption of EVs with a 20% projection of the vehicle population still not enough to make a meaningful contribution towards decreasing CO2 emissions from passenger vehicles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation: Feasibility and Economics)
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Article
Quantifying the Economic Cost of Reducing GHG Emissions through Changes in Household Demand: A Linear Multi-Sectoral Approach for European Countries
Atmosphere 2020, 11(5), 545; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11050545 - 24 May 2020
Viewed by 786
Abstract
The mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions can be approached in various ways: from the supply side, by using improvements in technologies and input uses; and from the changes in the demand for products, by influencing consumer behavior to achieve a more sustainable consumption [...] Read more.
The mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions can be approached in various ways: from the supply side, by using improvements in technologies and input uses; and from the changes in the demand for products, by influencing consumer behavior to achieve a more sustainable consumption pattern. Either way it can be approached using multi-sectoral data based on an input–output or on a Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) framework, although a suitable database and the proposal of appropriate indicators are needed. A suitable database is developed through the estimation of new SAMs for the latest possible period, that of year 2015. This paper focuses on the demand approach: that of changes in the demand for products. It analyzes the different impacts among activities and commodities of a change in domestic household consumption patterns, compares the potential reductions in Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions obtained through the reduction of specific demands, and considers the consequent reduction in output and employment. For this purpose, a linear multi-sectoral analysis is employed that focuses on the main EU member states. Despite major differences between countries, the results show that a decrease in emissions through demand-reduction policies exerts greater negative effects on those less polluting sectors with a higher intensity in the labor force, and offers a more suitable option for those highly polluting sectors with a lower concentration of the work factor. Richer countries that are based on service sectors therefore suffer a sharper drop in employment using this kind of policy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation: Feasibility and Economics)
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Article
A Portfolio Policy Package to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions
Atmosphere 2020, 11(4), 337; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11040337 - 30 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 789
Abstract
Arguments for a portfolio of price, regulation and subsidy policy interventions to reduce the production and consumption of greenhouse gas emissions are presented. The operation and effects of each intervention are described and compared. A combination of different sets of market failures across [...] Read more.
Arguments for a portfolio of price, regulation and subsidy policy interventions to reduce the production and consumption of greenhouse gas emissions are presented. The operation and effects of each intervention are described and compared. A combination of different sets of market failures across the many potential decision changes available to producers and consumers to reduce emissions and different properties of the mitigation instruments support a portfolio approach to reduce emissions at a low cost. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation: Feasibility and Economics)
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