Special Issue "Disentangling Atmosphere-Ocean Interactions, from Weather to Climate"

A special issue of Atmosphere (ISSN 2073-4433). This special issue belongs to the section "Biosphere/Hydrosphere/Land–Atmosphere Interactions".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 December 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Davide Bonaldo
Website
Guest Editor
National Research Council, Institute of Marine Sciences (CNR-ISMAR), Venice, Italy
Interests: Coastal Oceanography; Atmosphere-Ocean interactions; Continental margin dynamics; Sediment transport
Prof. Dr. Chunyan Li
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Oceanography and Coastal Sciences, Coastal Studies Institute, College of the Coast and Environment, Louisiana State University, LA 70803, USA
Interests: coastal-estuarine dynamics; extreme weather; storm surges; meteorological tides; met-ocean observing systems

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The scientific community has a growing awareness of the importance of atmosphere–ocean interactions for geophysical processes at various scales. The increasing availability of observational as well as reanalysis data and the recent advancements in numerical modelling are opening new frontiers of study for the coupled atmosphere–ocean system. By allowing two-way feedback between atmosphere and ocean, it is possible to disentangle the drivers and teleconnections from the scale of the single, local event up to the climate dynamics. Achievements in these fields provide an improvement in our understanding of multidisciplinary processes and eventual management and operational services, including weather forecast and early warning systems, e.g., for river floods and storm surge in coastal regions.

With this development, we believe it is timely to assemble some of the most recent research findings in the form of a Special Issue titled “Disentangling Atmosphere-Ocean Interactions, from Weather to Climate” in MDPI Atmosphere. We cordially invite our colleagues to submit manuscripts in this field with original research results or review papers on the state-of-the-art techniques, innovative approaches, multidisciplinary applications, and upcoming challenges in atmosphere–ocean interactions at different scales. Example topics for papers in this Special Issue include but not limited to the following:

  • Air–sea interaction parameterizations and coupled atmosphere–ocean numerical modelling approaches;
  • Coupled atmosphere–ocean applications for coastal and offshore engineering;
  • Analysis of extreme met-oceanic events and their impacts on anthropic infrastructures;
  • Operational met-ocean modelling and monitoring;
  • Role of air–sea interactions in heat transport and storage;
  • Weather and/or climate impact on the ocean and feedback from the ocean to the atmosphere.

Dr. Davide Bonaldo
Prof. Chunyan Li
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Atmosphere is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Atmosphere-ocean interactions
  • Atmosphere-waves-ocean model coupling
  • Extreme weather impact
  • Climate projections
  • Operational services
  • Ocean

 

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Enhanced Mid-Latitude Meridional Heat Imbalance Induced by the Ocean
Atmosphere 2019, 10(12), 746; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10120746 - 27 Nov 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The heat imbalance is the fundamental driver for the atmospheric circulation. Therefore, it is crucially important to understand how it responds to global warming. In this study, the role of the ocean in reshaping the atmospheric meridional heat imbalance is explored based on [...] Read more.
The heat imbalance is the fundamental driver for the atmospheric circulation. Therefore, it is crucially important to understand how it responds to global warming. In this study, the role of the ocean in reshaping the atmospheric meridional heat imbalance is explored based on observations and climate simulations. We found that ocean tends to strengthen the meridional heat imbalance over the mid-latitudes. This is primarily because of the uneven ocean heat uptake between the subtropical and subpolar oceans. Under global warming, the subtropical ocean absorbs relatively less heat as the water there is well stratified. In contrast, the subpolar ocean is the primary region where the ocean heat uptake takes place, because the subpolar ocean is dominated by upwelling, strong mixing, and overturning circulation. We propose that the enhanced meridional heat imbalance may potentially contribute to strengthening the water cycle, westerlies, jet stream, and mid-latitude storms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Disentangling Atmosphere-Ocean Interactions, from Weather to Climate)
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Open AccessArticle
Observing and Modeling the Response of Placentia Bay to an Extratropical Cyclone
Atmosphere 2019, 10(11), 724; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10110724 - 19 Nov 2019
Abstract
An extratropical cyclone reported to have the largest wind speed in Newfoundland in more
than a decade landed on the island of Newfoundland on 11 March 2017. The oceanic responses in
Placentia Bay on the southeast coast of Newfoundland to the winter storm [...] Read more.
An extratropical cyclone reported to have the largest wind speed in Newfoundland in more
than a decade landed on the island of Newfoundland on 11 March 2017. The oceanic responses in
Placentia Bay on the southeast coast of Newfoundland to the winter storm were examined using
observed data and the Finite-Volume Community Ocean Model (FVCOM). The peak non-tidal water
level increase, i.e., storm surge, reached 0.85mat St. Lawrence and 0.77mat Argentia on Placentia Bay.
Sea surface temperature slightly decreased after the storm passage according to buoy and satellite
measurements. Root mean square dierences (RMSD) of the magnitude of storm surge between model
results and observations are 0.15 m. The model sea surface temperature showed a small decrease,
consistent with observations, with RMSDs from 0.19 to 0.64 C at buoy stations. The simulated
surface current changes agree with buoy observations, with model-observation velocity dierence
ratios (VDR) of 0.75–0.88. It was found that, at Argentia (St. Lawrence), the peak storm surge in
Placentia Bay was dominantly (moderately) associated with the inverse barometric eect, and the
subsequent negative surge was mainly due to the wind eect at both stations. The sea surface cooling
was associated with oceanic heat loss. In the momentum balance, the Coriolis, pressure gradient,
and advection terms were all important during the storm, while the first two terms were predominant
before and after the storm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Disentangling Atmosphere-Ocean Interactions, from Weather to Climate)
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Open AccessArticle
Area-Averaged Surface Moisture Flux over Fragmented Sea Ice: Floe Size Distribution Effects and the Associated Convection Structure within the Atmospheric Boundary Layer
Atmosphere 2019, 10(11), 654; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10110654 - 28 Oct 2019
Abstract
Sea ice fragmentation results in the transformation of the surface from relatively homogeneous to highly heterogeneous. Atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) rapidly responds to those changes through a range of processes which are poorly understood and not parametrized in numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. [...] Read more.
Sea ice fragmentation results in the transformation of the surface from relatively homogeneous to highly heterogeneous. Atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) rapidly responds to those changes through a range of processes which are poorly understood and not parametrized in numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. The aim of this work is to increase our understanding and develop parametrization of the ABL response to different floe size distributions (FSD). The analysis is based on the results of simulations with the Weather Research and Forecasting model. Results show that FSD determines the distribution and intensity of convection within the ABL through its influence on the atmospheric circulation. Substantial differences between various FSDs are found in the analysis of spatial arrangement and strength of ABL convection. To incorporate those sub-grid effects in the NWP models, a correction factor for the calculation of surface moisture heat flux is developed. It is expressed as a function of floe size, sea ice concentration and wind speed, and enables a correction of the flux computed from area-averaged quantities, as is typically done in NWP models. In general, the presented study sheds some more light on the sea ice–atmosphere interactions and provides the first attempt to parametrize the influence of FSD on the ABL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Disentangling Atmosphere-Ocean Interactions, from Weather to Climate)
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Open AccessArticle
Anatomy of a Cyclonic Eddy in the Kuroshio Extension Based on High-Resolution Observations
Atmosphere 2019, 10(9), 553; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10090553 - 16 Sep 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Mesoscale eddies are common in the ocean and their surface characteristics have been well revealed based on altimetric observations. Comparatively, the knowledge of the three-dimensional (3D) structure of mesoscale eddies is scarce, especially in the open ocean. In the present study, high-resolution field [...] Read more.
Mesoscale eddies are common in the ocean and their surface characteristics have been well revealed based on altimetric observations. Comparatively, the knowledge of the three-dimensional (3D) structure of mesoscale eddies is scarce, especially in the open ocean. In the present study, high-resolution field observations of a cyclonic eddy in the Kuroshio Extension have been carried out and the anatomy of the observed eddy is conducted. The temperature anomaly exhibits a vertical monopole cone structure with a maximum of −7.3 °C located in the main thermocline. The salinity anomaly shows a vertical dipole structure with a fresh anomaly in the main thermocline and a saline anomaly in the North Pacific Intermediate Water (NPIW). The cyclonic flow displays an equivalent barotropic structure. The mixed layer is deep in the center of the eddy and thin in the periphery. The seasonal thermocline is intensified and the permanent thermocline is upward domed by 350 m. The subtropical mode water (STMW) straddled between the seasonal and permanent thermoclines weakens and dissipates in the eddy center. The salinity of NPIW distributed along the isopycnals shows no significant difference inside and outside the eddy. The geostrophic relation is approximately set up in the eddy. The nonlinearity—defined as the ratio between the rotational speed to the translational speed—is 12.5 and decreases with depth. The eddy-wind interaction is examined by high resolution satellite observations. The results show that the cold eddy induces wind stress aloft with positive divergence and negative curl. The wind induced upwelling process is responsible for the formation of the horizontal monopole pattern of salinity, while the horizontal transport results in the horizontal dipole structure of temperature in the mixed layer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Disentangling Atmosphere-Ocean Interactions, from Weather to Climate)
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Open AccessArticle
Correlation of Near-Inertial Wind Stress in Typhoon and Typhoon-Induced Oceanic Near-Inertial Kinetic Energy in the Upper South China Sea
Atmosphere 2019, 10(7), 388; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10070388 - 11 Jul 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The correlation of near-inertial wind stress (NIWS) in typhoon and typhoon-induced oceanic near-inertial kinetic energy (NIKE) in the upper South China Sea (SCS) is investigated through reanalysis data and an idealized typhoon model. It is found that the typhoon-induced oceanic near-inertial currents are [...] Read more.
The correlation of near-inertial wind stress (NIWS) in typhoon and typhoon-induced oceanic near-inertial kinetic energy (NIKE) in the upper South China Sea (SCS) is investigated through reanalysis data and an idealized typhoon model. It is found that the typhoon-induced oceanic near-inertial currents are primarily induced by the NIWS, which may contribute to about 80% of the total NIKE induced by typhoon. The intensities and distributions of NIWS in most typhoons are consistent with the magnitudes and features of NIKE. The NIWS and the NIKE along the typhoon track have positive correlations with the maximum wind speed of a typhoon, but there is an optimal translation speed for NIWS, at which the wind energy of the near-inertial band reaches its maximum. In the idealized typhoon model, a cluster of high-value centers of NIWS appear along the typhoon track, but there is only one high-value center for the near-inertial currents. The maximum NIWS arrives about 15 hours prior to the maximum near-inertial current. The distribution of NIWS is apparently asymmetric along the typhoon track, which may be due to the smaller eastward component of wind energy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Disentangling Atmosphere-Ocean Interactions, from Weather to Climate)
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