Special Issue "Bio-Inspired Biodegradable Scaffold Constructs for Bone Tissue Repair"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Applied Biosciences and Bioengineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 August 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Vittoria Perrotti
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Medical, Oral and Biotechnological Sciences, D'Annunzio University of Chieti–Pescara, Chieti, Italy
Prof. Dr. Giovanna Iezzi
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Medical, Oral, Biotechnological Sciences, D'Annunzio University of Chieti–Pescara, Chieti‎ and ‎Pescara‎, Italy
Interests: Bone; Biomaterials; Dental implant; Oral surgery

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The global scenario seeks support from the world of research to create new technologies, approaches, and methodologies that are able to address the future community’s needs. The progressive aging of the population is increasing the demand for new strategies to treat chronic diseases, and bone tissue will have a starring role as its physiological or pathological decline is accompained by psycological, behavioural, and social challenges.   

This Special Issue will focus on new advancements in the synthesis, characterization, and biological as well as clinical behaviour of bioinspired biodegradable bone constructs in translational studies embracing the fourth industrial revolution and aiming at identifying new trends and manufacturing smart technologies, personalized materials, and applications. 

The Issue invites papers that will cover original research and comprehensive review articles on materials derived from and structured on nature and their applications. It will expand into the design and development of functional devices integrating cyber-physical systems at different hierachical levels throughout the manufacturing process, and of computational models to create algorithms. Articles combining materials science, engineering, chemistry, biology, and technologies to enhance the translation to the clinic of promising approaches will have priority. 

Dr. Vittoria Perrotti
Prof. Dr. Giovanna Iezzi
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • bone
  • materials science
  • regenerative medicine

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Ridge Preservation Using a Novel Enzyme-Treated Xenograft. A Preliminary Retrospective Histomorphometric Investigation
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(12), 4256; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10124256 - 21 Jun 2020
Abstract
The use of xenografts to preserve the post-extraction alveolar ridge is an established and effective procedure. Recently, a novel freeze-dried, enzyme-deantigenic equine bone (EDEB) particulate combined with a hydrogel carrier (Exur®) containing ascorbic acid has been developed (EDEBEX). The aim of [...] Read more.
The use of xenografts to preserve the post-extraction alveolar ridge is an established and effective procedure. Recently, a novel freeze-dried, enzyme-deantigenic equine bone (EDEB) particulate combined with a hydrogel carrier (Exur®) containing ascorbic acid has been developed (EDEBEX). The aim of this study was to preliminarily investigate histomorphometric and early implant survival outcomes following the graft of EDEBEX in post-extractive sockets. Records of patients who underwent ridge preservation using EDEBEX followed by two-step implant placement were retrospectively collected and analyzed. Newly Formed Bone (NFB) and Residual Biomaterial (RB) at the implant placement site were measured through histomorphometric analysis, and early Marginal Bone Loss (MBL) for implants was calculated at the final follow-up. Records concerned 13 patients (nine women and four men, average age 54.1 ± 9.5 years). The 13 sockets were considered healed 4.5 ± 2.6 months (mean ± SD) after grafting, with NFB and RB values of 43.2 ± 22.1% and 8.8 ± 5.9%, respectively. 8.4 ± 5.8 months after implant placement, the median MBL was 0.20 [0.00–0.45] mm. No correlation was observed between MBL and NFB. EDEBEX grafted in post-extractive sockets for ridge preservation seems to allow for new bone formation with satisfactory implant outcomes. Future prospective studies are necessary to confirm these preliminary findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio-Inspired Biodegradable Scaffold Constructs for Bone Tissue Repair)
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Open AccessArticle
Bone Substitutes Scaffold in Human Bone: Comparative Evaluation by 3D Micro-CT Technique
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(10), 3451; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10103451 - 16 May 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The main purpose of the study is to assess a selection of commercially available bone biomaterials substitutes used as scaffolds for tissue engineering applications in dentistry, performing a clinical study on human subjects and using the microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) analysis to investigate the [...] Read more.
The main purpose of the study is to assess a selection of commercially available bone biomaterials substitutes used as scaffolds for tissue engineering applications in dentistry, performing a clinical study on human subjects and using the microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) analysis to investigate the main morphological and critical parameters of bone and biomaterials structures. Micro-CT was performed in both the phases, preclinical and clinical. In addition, it was combined with histology to analyze the extracted bone four months after implantation. Quantitative analysis of the main morphological parameters as the porosity, the bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and the trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) evidenced the main difference among the biomaterials properties and their influence on the bone tissue regeneration. Qualitative observations by the three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of the microstructure, contributed to the visualization of the mineralized areas. The analyses conducted on the bone substitutes before and after the implantation allowed quantifying the main biomaterials morphological parameters and the characterization of the human bone tissue regeneration. Thus, micro-CT and its combined application with histology demonstrated as a powerful approach for the microstructural investigation and for the final assessment of the efficacy and effectiveness of the various treatments and implants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio-Inspired Biodegradable Scaffold Constructs for Bone Tissue Repair)
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Open AccessArticle
Histomorphometric and Clinical Analysis of Ridge Preservation Procedures in Extraction Sockets with Buccal Bone Defects (>5mm) Using an In Situ Hardening Biphasic Calcium Phosphate (HA/β-TCP) Graft and a Bioresorbable Matrix: A Human Study at 6 Months
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(9), 3034; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10093034 - 27 Apr 2020
Abstract
Many biomaterials have been proposed for ridge preservation techniques to counteract fresh extraction socket resorption. The primary aim of this prospective single cohort study was to evaluate the histomorphometric outcomes of a synthetic biphasic calcium phosphate (60% HA/40% β-TCP) and a synthetic poly-lactic [...] Read more.
Many biomaterials have been proposed for ridge preservation techniques to counteract fresh extraction socket resorption. The primary aim of this prospective single cohort study was to evaluate the histomorphometric outcomes of a synthetic biphasic calcium phosphate (60% HA/40% β-TCP) and a synthetic poly-lactic acid membrane, used to graft fresh extraction socket sites with a full or partial (>5mm) resorption of the buccal bone plate. Patients recruited were treated at one esthetic site with a ridge preservation procedure to receive an implant-supported prosthesis. After 6 months of healing, a bone biopsy was harvested. Outcome evaluations were: biological complications, histomorphometrical analysis, and alveolar horizontal and vertical bone loss (ΔAHB, ΔAVB). Thirteen subjects were included in this study. Two cases of biological complication were recorded. All 13 patients received implant insertion. From histomorphometric analysis, a mean of 48.9 ± 11.9%, 29.0 ± 9.3%, and 22.0 ± 9.7% was recorded for soft tissues, new bone, and residual graft particles, respectively. From clinical analysis, a mean of 0.5 ± 1.0 mm (p-value < 0.05) and 0.9 ± 1.3 mm (p-value < 0.05) was recorded for alveolar horizontal and vertical bone loss, respectively. In conclusion, this prospective cohort study showed encouraging results in preserving alveolar ridge dimension. A moderate percentage of new bone and an acceptable alveolar ridge loss were achieved at a 6 month follow-up. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio-Inspired Biodegradable Scaffold Constructs for Bone Tissue Repair)
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Open AccessArticle
Autologous Tooth Graft after Endodontical Treated Used for Socket Preservation: A Multicenter Clinical Study
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(24), 5396; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9245396 - 10 Dec 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The aim of the study was to evaluate the tooth extracted use as autologous tooth graft after endodontic root canal therapies used for socket preservation. To this purpose, the Tooth Transformer shredding and decontamination machine has been used. The graft obtained in this [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to evaluate the tooth extracted use as autologous tooth graft after endodontic root canal therapies used for socket preservation. To this purpose, the Tooth Transformer shredding and decontamination machine has been used. The graft obtained in this way, was inserted at the time of the extraction or at a second surgery altogether with the chosen regenerative therapy. This clinical trial enrolled patients with post-estractive defects requiring the restoration bone dimension and shape in the maxillary and mandibular zone. In addition, 98 patients with 119 extraction sockets were enrolled across 10 standardized centers. An innovative preparation method, using the dedicated automated device Tooth Transformer, able to transform autologous teeth in suitable grafting material, has been used. The extracted tooth was cleaned and treated using a Tooth Transformer and made a socket preservation. Thirteen Biopsies were realized to analyze the histologic outcomes at the average time of four months to demonstrate that the autologous tooth graft made from root after endodontic therapy should be used in human bone regeneration as graft for dental implant placement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio-Inspired Biodegradable Scaffold Constructs for Bone Tissue Repair)
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Open AccessArticle
Physical and Mechanical Properties of Composite Scaffolds with or without Collagen Impregnation
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(20), 4296; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9204296 - 12 Oct 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
This in vitro study aimed at evaluating the physical and mechanical properties of newly developed scaffolds of poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and biphasic ceramic (Hydroxyapatite HA + beta-tricalciumphosphate β-TCP) with or without collagen impregnation to be used for bone regeneration in the oral [...] Read more.
This in vitro study aimed at evaluating the physical and mechanical properties of newly developed scaffolds of poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and biphasic ceramic (Hydroxyapatite HA + beta-tricalciumphosphate β-TCP) with or without collagen impregnation to be used for bone regeneration in the oral and maxillofacial district. Solvent casting and particle leaching techniques were used to produce the scaffolds, which were then divided into six groups according to PLGA/HA + β-TCP ratio and impregnation with collagen: G1 (50/50) + collagen; G2 (60/40) + collagen; G3 (40/60) + collagen; G4 (50/50); G5 (60/40); G6 (40/60). As control group, inorganic xenogenous bone was used. Structure and porosity were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, and a chemical analysis was performed through an energy-dispersive spectrometer. Moreover, to evaluate the hydrophilicity of the samples, a wettability test was conceived, and finally, mechanical properties were examined by a compression test. High porosity and interconnectivity, resulting in a large surface area and great fluid retention capacity, were presented by the PLGA/HA + β-TCP scaffolds. In the composite groups, collagen increased the wettability and the mechanical resistance, although the latter was not statistically affected by the percentage of HA + β-TCP added. Further in vitro and in vivo studies are needed for a deeper understanding of the influence of collagen on the biological behavior of the developed composite materials and their potential, namely biocompatibility and bioactivity, for bone tissue regeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio-Inspired Biodegradable Scaffold Constructs for Bone Tissue Repair)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Ten Years of Micro-CT in Dentistry and Maxillofacial Surgery: A Literature Overview
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(12), 4328; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10124328 - 24 Jun 2020
Abstract
Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) is a consolidated imaging technology allowing non-destructive three-dimensional (3D) qualitative and quantitative analysis by the observation of microstructures with high resolution. This paper aims at delivering a structured overview of literature about studies performed using micro-CT in dentistry and maxillofacial [...] Read more.
Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) is a consolidated imaging technology allowing non-destructive three-dimensional (3D) qualitative and quantitative analysis by the observation of microstructures with high resolution. This paper aims at delivering a structured overview of literature about studies performed using micro-CT in dentistry and maxillofacial surgery (MFS) by analyzing the entire set of articles to portray the state of the art of the last ten years of scientific publications on the topic. It draws the scenario focusing on biomaterials, in vitro and in/ex vivo applications, bone structure analysis, and tissue engineering. It confirms the relevance of the micro-CT analysis for traditional research applications and mainly in dentistry with respect to MFS. Possible developments are discussed in relation to the use of the micro-CT combined with other, traditional, and not, techniques and technologies, as the elaboration of 3D models based on micro-CT images and emerging numerical methods. Micro-CT results contribute effectively with whose ones obtained from other techniques in an integrated multimethod approach and for multidisciplinary studies, opening new possibilities and potential opportunities for the next decades of developments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio-Inspired Biodegradable Scaffold Constructs for Bone Tissue Repair)
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Other

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Open AccessTechnical Note
Xeno-Hybrid Composite Scaffold Manufactured with CAD/CAM Technology for Horizontal Bone-Augmentation in Edentulous Atrophic Maxilla: A Short Communication
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 2659; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10082659 - 12 Apr 2020
Abstract
The present short communication described a new procedure for the reconstruction of the horizontal severely resorbed edentulous maxilla with custom-made deproteinized bovine bone block, fabricated using three-dimensional imaging of the patient and computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology. The protocol consisted of three phases. [...] Read more.
The present short communication described a new procedure for the reconstruction of the horizontal severely resorbed edentulous maxilla with custom-made deproteinized bovine bone block, fabricated using three-dimensional imaging of the patient and computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology. The protocol consisted of three phases. In the diagnosis and treatment planning, cone-beam computed tomographic scans of the patient were saved in DICOM (digital imaging and communication in medicine) format, anatomic and prosthetic data were imported into a dedicated diagnostic and medical imaging software, the prosthetic-driven position of the implants, and the graft blocks perfectly adapted to the residual bone structure were virtually planned. In the manufacturing of customized graft blocks, the CAD-CAM technology and the bovine-derived xenohybrid composite bone (SmartBone® on Demand - IBI SA - Industrie Biomediche Insubri SA Switzerland) were used to fabricate the grafts in the exact shape of the 3D planning virtual model. In the surgical and prosthetic procedure, the maxillary ridge augmentation with custom-made blocks and implant-supported full-arch screw-retained rehabilitation were performed. The described protocol offered some advantages when compared to conventional augmentation techniques. The use of deproteinized bovine bone did not require additional surgery for bone harvesting, avoided the risk of donor site morbidity, and provided unlimited biomaterial availability. The customization of the graft blocks reduced the surgical invasiveness, shorting operating times because the manual shaping of the blocks and its adaptation at recipient sites are not necessary and less dependent on the clinician’s skill and experience. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio-Inspired Biodegradable Scaffold Constructs for Bone Tissue Repair)
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