Recent Trends on the Mechanical Properties of Additive Manufacturing

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Additive Manufacturing Technologies".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 January 2023) | Viewed by 13783

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Mechanical and Mining Engineering, University of Jaén, EPS de Jaén, Campus Las Lagunillas, 23071 Jaén, Spain
Interests: additive manufacturing; single-point incremental forming; FEM; machining

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Guest Editor
Department of Mechanical and Mining Engineering, University of Jaén, EPS de Jaén, Campus Las Lagunillas, 23071 Jaén, Spain
Interests: polymers; manufacturing; 3D printing; incremental forming

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Guest Editor
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Campus of Rabanales, University of Córdoba, 14014 Córdoba, Spain
Interests: SPIF; non-stick coatings; pre-painted metal sheet; 3D print; FDM; data mining

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Guest Editor
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Opole University of Technology, Opole, Poland
Interests: sustainability; green manufacturing; life cycle assessment; metal cutting; additive manufacturing metal casting; optimization; artificial intelligence; cooling–lubrication in machining; tribology; heat treatment; effect of tool wear and cutting parameters on tool life; cutting forces; roughness of machined surfaces; physical and mechanical processes in cutting materials; application of additive manufacturing in different area; wear behavior; artificial intelligence; optimization of process parameters
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Current additive manufacturing (AM) processes provide pieces of similar mechanical characteristics to those obtained by so-called conventional manufacturing processes. These processes, which encompass vat photopolymerization, material jetting, material extrusion, binder jetting, powder-bed fusion, sheet lamination, and directed energy deposition, can generate metal, polymer, ceramic or multi-material parts. However, while some technologies obtain excellent results when mechanical properties are evaluated, others have a considerable margin for improvement.

This Special Issue of Applied Sciences aims to gather together papers investigating AM's improvements in the mechanical properties, focusing on metals, ceramics, and polymers using fused fabrication filament (FFF) and vat photopolymerization. In addition, we welcome other numerical, analytical, and experimental works about process parameters influencing 3D-printing issues, dimensional errors, roughness surface, energy efficiency, and sustainability.

Prof. Dr. Alberto José García Collado
Prof. Dr. Rubén Dorado Vicente
Prof. Dr. Pablo Romero Carrillo
Dr. Munish Kumar Gupta
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • additive manufacturing
  • material extrusion
  • ceramics
  • metals
  • polymers
  • photopolymerization
  • mechanical properties

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Editorial

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2 pages, 188 KiB  
Editorial
Recent Trends on the Mechanical Properties of Additive Manufacturing
by A. García-Collado, R. Dorado-Vicente, Pablo E. Romero and Munish Kumar Gupta
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(12), 7067; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13127067 - 13 Jun 2023
Viewed by 917
Abstract
Additive Manufacturing (AM), also known as “three-dimensional printing”, has experienced significant advancements in recent years, including improvements in the mechanical properties of printed objects [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Trends on the Mechanical Properties of Additive Manufacturing)

Research

Jump to: Editorial

13 pages, 4896 KiB  
Article
Differences in Properties between Hybrid Wire Arc Additive-Milling Subtractive Manufactured Aluminum and Magnesium Alloys
by Shuai Zhang, Mengcheng Gong, Ling Cen, Yang Lu and Ming Gao
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(4), 2720; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13042720 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1051
Abstract
Hybrid wire arc additive-milling subtractive manufacturing (HWMM) is an effective way to improve the quality of complex metal components, but the difference in the properties of the aluminum alloy and magnesium alloy fabricated by HWMM has been not addressed. In the paper, the [...] Read more.
Hybrid wire arc additive-milling subtractive manufacturing (HWMM) is an effective way to improve the quality of complex metal components, but the difference in the properties of the aluminum alloy and magnesium alloy fabricated by HWMM has been not addressed. In the paper, the differences in deposition accuracy and tensile anisotropy between the Al5Si Al and AZ31B Mg alloys were studied by using the HWMM method. Under the optimal parameters, the minimum surface roughness of the AZ31B sample was 146.1 μm, which was 90% higher than for the Al5Si sample. The differences in the tensile strength and elongation of the AZ31B sample were 32% and 56%, respectively, being 6 and 3.3 times higher than those of the Al5Si samples. According to the fracture behavior of the samples, the tensile anisotropy of both alloys was mainly attributed to defects such as incomplete fusion and porosity in the fusion line. However, there was obvious structural inhomogeneity in AZ31B samples, where the grain size difference between adjacent areas reached 40%. This led to the easier fracture of AZ31B samples. These results contribute to our understanding of the HWMM of light alloys. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Trends on the Mechanical Properties of Additive Manufacturing)
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15 pages, 5107 KiB  
Article
Effect of Printing Parameters on Mechanical Performance of Material-Extrusion 3D-Printed PEEK Specimens at the Point-of-Care
by Paridokht Zarean, Patrick Malgaroli, Parichehr Zarean, Daniel Seiler, Michael de Wild, Florian M. Thieringer and Neha Sharma
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(3), 1230; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13031230 - 17 Jan 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1744
Abstract
Additive manufacturing (AM) of polyetheretherketone (PEEK) biomaterials using the material-extrusion (MEX) method has been studied for years. Because of the challenging manufacturing process, precisely controlling printing parameters is crucial. This study aimed to investigate the effects of printing parameters such as orientation and [...] Read more.
Additive manufacturing (AM) of polyetheretherketone (PEEK) biomaterials using the material-extrusion (MEX) method has been studied for years. Because of the challenging manufacturing process, precisely controlling printing parameters is crucial. This study aimed to investigate the effects of printing parameters such as orientation and position of printing on mechanical properties. Thus, 34 samples were printed using PEEK filament and the MEX process. Samples were divided into two main groups (A,B) according to their printing orientations (A: groups 1–3) and positions on the build plate (B: groups 4–8). Mechanical tensile tests were performed to evaluate the effects of different printing orientations and positions on mechanical properties. The means of the tensile modulus in samples 3D-printed in XY (group 1), XZ (group 2), and ZX (group 3) orientations were not significantly different (p-value = 0.063). Groups 1 and 2 had smaller distributions than group 3 in the means of tensile strength. The t-test showed that the overall means of the measurements in groups 4–8 did not differ significantly (p-value = 0.315). The tensile tests indicated that printing in vertical and horizontal orientations had no significant influence on mechanical properties. There were no significant differences in mechanical strength between top/bottom printed samples in five different lateral positions. Reliability of printing with good mechanical properties could be a step forward to manufacturing patient-specific implants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Trends on the Mechanical Properties of Additive Manufacturing)
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20 pages, 24811 KiB  
Article
Parameter Optimisation in Selective Laser Melting on C300 Steel
by I. I. Cuesta, A. Díaz, M. A. Rojo, L. B. Peral, J. Martínez and J. M. Alegre
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(19), 9786; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12199786 - 28 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1229
Abstract
Additive manufacturing (AM) of metallic materials is increasingly being adopted in numerous sectors, such as biomedicine, aerospace or automotive industries, due to its versatility in the creation of complex geometries and the minimisation of material waste when compared to traditional subtractive methods. In [...] Read more.
Additive manufacturing (AM) of metallic materials is increasingly being adopted in numerous sectors, such as biomedicine, aerospace or automotive industries, due to its versatility in the creation of complex geometries and the minimisation of material waste when compared to traditional subtractive methods. In order to ensure a reliable operation of these parts, however, an in-depth study of the effect of additive manufacturing on mechanical properties, including tensile, fatigue and fracture resistance, is necessary. Among the vast number of methods and materials, this project is focused in one of the most promising techniques for the industry: Selective Laser Melting (SLM) for the production of a tools steel, in particular C300 steel components for the automotive sector. The main objective of this paper is to optimise some of the key parameters in the printing process, such as laser power, laser speed and hatch spacing. These variables are essential to obtain parts with good resistance. To that purpose, tensile tests were performed in 3D printed specimens, and then elastoplastic properties were extracted, organised and analysed through a design of experiments for the subsequent output fitting using the response surface methodology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Trends on the Mechanical Properties of Additive Manufacturing)
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21 pages, 16400 KiB  
Article
Fused Deposition Modeling with Induced Vibrations: A Study on the Mechanical Characteristics of Printed Parts
by Joseph Dei Rossi, Ozgur Keles and Vimal Viswanathan
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(18), 9327; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12189327 - 17 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1341
Abstract
The recent development of RepRap style 3D printers has made additive manufacturing technology available to the public at a low cost. While these 3D printers are being used for a variety of purposes, one of the main applications is prototyping in design projects. [...] Read more.
The recent development of RepRap style 3D printers has made additive manufacturing technology available to the public at a low cost. While these 3D printers are being used for a variety of purposes, one of the main applications is prototyping in design projects. The quality of the 3D-printed parts has been a concern in such cases. Many variables within these printers’ operation can be varied to obtain optimum print quality. This study explores a setup that uses externally induced mechanical vibrations to the nozzle tip as a potential method to improve the quality of 3D-printed parts. Induced vibration is expected to decrease the porosity of printed parts and enhance the cohesion between print beads, ultimately improving their mechanical properties. The objective is to understand the prints’ positional accuracy, porosity, and mechanical properties with the added vibration and then to determine the optimum vibration level to achieve the best quality prints. While previous studies have explored the role of induced vibration on the mechanical properties of printed parts, the novelty of this work lies in the determination of the positional accuracy of those parts and the determination of optimum vibration levels to achieve desired properties. For positional accuracy, the extruder filament is replaced with a pointed-tip pen that can mark the exact location where the printer delivers the material. A comparison between the locations marked by the pen with and without vibrations shows that the errors induced by the added vibration are not significantly different from those caused by the uncertainties of the printer itself. Based on the tensile tests of the printed specimens, it is concluded that the parts printed with induced vibrations have improved mechanical properties. The printed parts’ porosity is reduced significantly due to the induced vibrations. Further, this study also explores the optimum motor speeds to achieve a uniform distribution of material. It determines medium motor speeds that provide a maximum vibration amplitude, which is more desirable for a consistent infill. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Trends on the Mechanical Properties of Additive Manufacturing)
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13 pages, 3896 KiB  
Article
Process Parameter Optimization for 3D Printed Investment Casting Wax Pattern and Its Post-Processing Technique
by Muslim Mukhtarkhanov, Essam Shehab and Md. Hazrat Ali
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(14), 6847; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12146847 - 06 Jul 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1612
Abstract
This research paper aims to improve the quality of 3D printed parts made of the wax filament by implementing the Taguchi orthogonal array process optimization method. The manufactured parts can be used as cost-effective investment casting patterns. With the Taguchi method, it was [...] Read more.
This research paper aims to improve the quality of 3D printed parts made of the wax filament by implementing the Taguchi orthogonal array process optimization method. The manufactured parts can be used as cost-effective investment casting patterns. With the Taguchi method, it was concluded that the nozzle temperature has the most effect on the dimensional accuracy of printed parts. In addition, thermal, mechanical, and rheological characterization were performed on the wax filament, revealing several important findings. For instance, the rheological studies identified the low viscosity of melted wax at printing temperatures. This resulted in the rough surface of the printed parts. To improve the surface roughness, a post-processing procedure was implemented using a white spirit as a surface smoothing agent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Trends on the Mechanical Properties of Additive Manufacturing)
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16 pages, 9716 KiB  
Article
A Set of Novel Procedures for Carbon Fiber Reinforcement on Complex Curved Surfaces Using Multi Axis Additive Manufacturing
by Johann Kipping, Zsolt Kállai and Thorsten Schüppstuhl
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(12), 5819; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12125819 - 08 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2426
Abstract
There has been considerable research in recent years on the additive manufacturing (AM) of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) parts based on the process of fused deposition modeling (FDM). The currently-applied steps within the manufacturing pipeline, such as slicing and path planning, consider [...] Read more.
There has been considerable research in recent years on the additive manufacturing (AM) of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) parts based on the process of fused deposition modeling (FDM). The currently-applied steps within the manufacturing pipeline, such as slicing and path planning, consider only the planar case of filament deposition and mostly make no use of the possibility to place single pre-impregnated (prepreg) filaments. Classical methods such as tape-laying and laminating struggle with highly curved and complex geometries and require the costly production of molds, whereas when using AM, these geometries can be realized more easily and molds can be created using the same process. In this paper, a set of algorithms is presented that aims to resolve these problems. Criteria are formulated which enable the goal oriented development and evaluation of the presented methods and represent metrics for future methods. The developed algorithms enable the use of both continuous and discontinuous fiber patches in a much wider range of applications in designing and manufacturing of CFRPs. This opens up new possibilities in this promising field. The developed metrics and infrastructure further constitute progress in the field of multi-axis non-planar path planning for slicing algorithms in general and the conducted evaluation proves the formal applicability of the developed algorithms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Trends on the Mechanical Properties of Additive Manufacturing)
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17 pages, 3548 KiB  
Article
Experimental Quantification of the Variability of Mechanical Properties in 3D Printed Continuous Fiber Composites
by Clarissa Becker, Hannes Oberlercher, Rosmarie Brigitte Heim, Günter Wuzella, Lisa-Marie Faller, Franz Oswald Riemelmoser, Pascal Nicolay and Frédéric Druesne
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(23), 11315; https://doi.org/10.3390/app112311315 - 29 Nov 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2073
Abstract
The material properties of 3D printed continuous fiber composites have been studied many times in the last years. However, only a minimal number of samples were used to determine the properties in each of the reported studies. Moreover, reported results can hardly be [...] Read more.
The material properties of 3D printed continuous fiber composites have been studied many times in the last years. However, only a minimal number of samples were used to determine the properties in each of the reported studies. Moreover, reported results can hardly be compared due to different sample geometries. Consequently, the variability of the mechanical properties (from one sample to the other) is a crucial parameter that has not been well quantified yet. In the present work, the flexural properties of 3D printed continuous carbon fiber/nylon composite specimens were experimentally quantified, using batches of 15 test specimens. In order to account for the possible influence of the quality of the prepreg filaments on the observed variability, three different filament rolls were used to manufacture the different batches. Also, two configurations were tested, with a fiber direction parallel (longitudinal) or perpendicular (transverse) to the main axis of the specimens. The results show moderate to high variabilities of the flexural modulus, flexural strength and maximum strain. The coefficient of variation was more than twice as high in the transverse case as in the longitudinal case. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Trends on the Mechanical Properties of Additive Manufacturing)
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