Special Issue "Electroporation Systems and Applications"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Applied Biosciences and Bioengineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Vitalij Novickij
Website
Guest Editor
Institute of High Magnetic Fields, Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, LT-10223 Vilnius, Lithuania
Interests: bioelectromagnetics; bioelectronics; high-power electronics; electromagnetic field effects; electroporation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Electroporation is a phenomenon of biological cell membrane permeabilization triggered by a pulsed electric field, and is accompanied by the electro-transfer of target molecules inside or outside the cell. It is widely used in biomedicine, food processing, biotechnology, and other applied sciences. Depending on the electric field parameters, a variety of electroporation-mediated biological effects can be triggered requiring state-of-the-art technological platforms for pulse generation, metrology, and application. As a result, the development of electroporation systems is constantly performed, and the array of applications is systemically expanded. This Special Issue is dedicated to all aspects of applied electroporation research and the development of pulsed power devices.

Dr. Vitalij Novickij
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

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Keywords

  • Electroporation
  • Electropermeabilization
  • cell membrane permeability
  • electric field effects
  • bioelectromagnetics
  • drug delivery
  • electrochemotherapy
  • microbial inactivation
  • food processing and preservation
  • pulsed power devices
  • high-voltage generators
  • electroporators
  • irreversible electroporation
  • tissue ablation
  • lipid pores
  • electrotransformation
  • nanosecond and microsecond pulses
  • electric field processing
  • extraction of molecules
  • pulsed treatment
  • biomass processing
  • non-thermal processing

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Electronic Emulator of Biological Tissue as an Electrical Load during Electroporation
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(9), 3103; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10093103 - 29 Apr 2020
Abstract
Electroporation is an emerging technology, with great potential in many different medical and biotechnological applications, food engineering and biomass processing. Large variations of biological load characteristics, however, represent a great challenge in electroporator design, which results in different solutions. Because a clinical electroporator [...] Read more.
Electroporation is an emerging technology, with great potential in many different medical and biotechnological applications, food engineering and biomass processing. Large variations of biological load characteristics, however, represent a great challenge in electroporator design, which results in different solutions. Because a clinical electroporator is a medical device, it must comply with medical device regulative and standards. However, none of the existing standards directly address the operation or electroporator’s performance requirements. In order to evaluate clinical, laboratory and prototype electroporation devices during the development process, or to evaluate their final performance considering at least from the perspective of output pulse parameters, we present a case study on the design of an electronic emulator of biological tissue as an electrical load during electroporation. The proposed electronic load emulator is a proof of concept, which enables constant and sustainable testing and unbiased comparison of different electroporators’ operations. We developed an analog electrical circuit that has equivalent impedance to the beef liver tissue in combination with needle electrodes, during high voltage pulse delivery and/or electroporation. Current and voltage measurements during electroporation of beef liver tissue ex vivo, were analyzed and parametrized to define the analog circuit equation. An equivalent circuit was simulated, built and validated. The proposed concept of an electronic load emulator can be used for “classical” electroporator (i.e., not nanosecond) performance evaluation and comparison of their operation. Additionally, it facilitates standard implementation regarding the testing protocol and enables quality assurance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electroporation Systems and Applications)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Doxorubicin Assisted by Microsecond Electroporation Promotes Irreparable Morphological Alternations in Sensitive and Resistant Human Breast Adenocarcinoma Cells
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 2765; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10082765 - 16 Apr 2020
Abstract
Electroporation increases the transmembrane transport of molecules. The combination of electric pulses with cytostatic compounds is beneficial for cancer treatment. Doxorubicin (DOX) is a commonly used chemotherapeutic anticancer drug. Its fluorescence properties enable the investigation of drug distribution and metabolism. In this study, [...] Read more.
Electroporation increases the transmembrane transport of molecules. The combination of electric pulses with cytostatic compounds is beneficial for cancer treatment. Doxorubicin (DOX) is a commonly used chemotherapeutic anticancer drug. Its fluorescence properties enable the investigation of drug distribution and metabolism. In this study, doxorubicin was enhanced by electroporation to eliminate cancer cells more effectively. The influence of electroporation on the drug uptake was evaluated in two cell lines: MCF-7/WT and MCF-7/DOX. The intracellular localization of doxorubicin and its impact on the intracellular structure organization were examined under a confocal microscope. Cellular effects were examined with the 3(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) test that estimates the rate of metabolism in viable cells. The ultrastructure (TEM) of tumor cells subjected to the electric field was analyzed. An enhanced doxorubicin efficacy was observed in MCF-7/DOX cells after combination with electroporation. The response of the resistant cell line was revealed to be more sensitive to electric pulses. Electroporation-based methods may be attractive for cancer treatment in human breast adenocarcinoma, especially with acquired resistance. Electroporation enables a reduction of the effective dose of the drugs and the exposure time in this type of cancer, diminishing side effects of the systemic therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electroporation Systems and Applications)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Concepts and Capabilities of In-House Built Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Field (nsPEF) Generators for Electroporation: State of Art
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(12), 4244; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10124244 - 20 Jun 2020
Abstract
Electroporation is a pulsed electric field triggered phenomenon of cell permeabilization, which is extensively used in biomedical and biotechnological context. There is a growing scientific demand for high-voltage and/or high-frequency pulse generators for electropermeabilization of cells (electroporators). In the scope of this article [...] Read more.
Electroporation is a pulsed electric field triggered phenomenon of cell permeabilization, which is extensively used in biomedical and biotechnological context. There is a growing scientific demand for high-voltage and/or high-frequency pulse generators for electropermeabilization of cells (electroporators). In the scope of this article we have reviewed the basic topologies of nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) generators for electroporation and the parametric capabilities of various in-house built devices, which were introduced in the last two decades. Classification of more than 60 various nsPEF generators was performed and pulse forming characteristics (pulse shape, voltage, duration and repetition frequency) were listed and compared. Lastly, the trends in the development of the electroporation technology were discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electroporation Systems and Applications)
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Other

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Open AccessBrief Report
The First Study of Irreversible Electroporation with Calcium Ions and Chemotherapy in Patients with Locally Advanced Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(15), 5163; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10155163 - 27 Jul 2020
Abstract
(1) Background: In the last two decades, anticancer treatment has been extensively developed based on various physical methods, including electroporation (EP). On the basis of many in vitro and in vivo studies, electroporation and further electrochemotherapy (ECT) have been established as a treatment [...] Read more.
(1) Background: In the last two decades, anticancer treatment has been extensively developed based on various physical methods, including electroporation (EP). On the basis of many in vitro and in vivo studies, electroporation and further electrochemotherapy (ECT) have been established as a treatment method for cutaneous and subcutaneous lesions. In this procedure, after placing electrodes in the tumor mass and the generation of electrical pulses, a reversible or irreversible rearrangement of the cell membrane occurs. Calcium electroporation has already been applied to treat skin tumors and subcutaneous tissue tumors. Here, we demonstrate the first application of irreversible electroporation (IRE) in combination with calcium ions and chemotherapy for patients with cancer. (2) Methods: This study aimed to present and compare the findings and outcomes of patients with locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma who were qualified for the procedure. Two patients were treated with IRE with calcium ions after chemotherapy (paclitaxel + Gemcitabine (GCB) or FOLOX) or only FOLFOX (folinic acid calcium folinate, fluorouracil, and oxaliplatin). The clinicopathological data, overall survival, and the safety of the procedure were analyzed. (3) Results: Two patients were treated with calcium electroporation. One of the patients developed pancreatitis and the second developed pancreatic fistula, but both of them continued standard systemic treatment. Overall survival was 9 months in the first case and 21 months in the second case (and the patient is still alive). Calcium electroporation had a good impact on QOL (Quality of Life). (4) Conclusions: IRE accompanied chemotherapy, and intratumoral calcium ions administration might represent an additional therapy to surgery and chemotherapy in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC), particularly in unresectable cases. However, further studies of randomized trials should be undertaken to elucidate the role of chemotherapy in IRE protocols. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electroporation Systems and Applications)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

1. Damijan Miklavčič

Title: Electronic emulator of biological load during electroporation

 

2. Jolanta Saczko

Title: Doxorubicin assisted by microsecond electroporation promotes irreparable morphological alternations in sensitive and resistant human breast adenocarcinoma cells

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