Special Issue "Biodegradable and Biocompatible Nanoparticles"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Nanotechnology and Applied Nanosciences".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 November 2016).

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Jordi Puiggalí Website E-Mail
Universitat Politécnica de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain
Interests: structure of synthetic polymers; development of biodegradable polymers; study of nanocomposites; polymer physics; polymer crystallization

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Currently, nanotechnology plays a key role in the development of pharmaceutical and biomedical applications. It is well-known, for example, for the high impact of nanomedicine on the therapeutics and diagnoses of cancer, Alzheimer’s, and cardiovascular diseases. In fact, a large number of nanoparticle-based therapeutics have been approved for clinical use, are under clinical trial, or are in preclinical phases of development. The interaction of nanotechnology and molecular biology provide the necessary tools to perform a non-invasive screening of different diseases and make feasible an early diagnosis to reduce patient risk and the progression of diseases. In addition, specific administration of therapeutics at the lesion site can easily be achieved to reduce adverse side effects.

Polymer-based colloid nanoparticles have great advantages, derived from the ability of organic synthesis to modify nature, molecular architecture, and composition, together with the possibility of being functionalized with specific ligands for active targeted drug delivery. Obviously, all selected materials must meet certain requirements: to be biodegradable, safe, biocompatible, and to adequately perform their function in the complex environment of an in vivo setting. In this way, a limited number of polymers have been considered up to now, corresponding the main families to polyesters (e.g., polylactide, polycaprolactone and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)), polysaccharides (e.g., chitosan and cyclodextrin), poly(alkyl cyanoacrylate)s and peptides/proteins. Covalent and non-covalent functionalization of nanoparticulate systems are facilitated by their large surface area, being probably lipid-based nanocarriers (e.g. liposomes), solid-lipid nanoparticles, polymeric micelles, and polymersomes, those mostly studied for drug delivery applications. Obviously, research efforts are also focused on optimizing the performance of such systems and to tune features, such as size, surface charge, drug loading, and release mechanism.

The development of adequate strategies to produce targeted nanocarriers for drug delivery requires also attention. These methods are functions of the selected polymeric material, and basically comprise self-assembling, emulsion-evaporation, and nanoprecipitation techniques. Different aspects, such as the knowledge of the effect of repeated nanocarrier administration, the polymeric biodistribution inside the cell and the body, and the excretion mechanism, also need to be carefully and deeply investigated.

This Special Issue of Applied Sciences will focus on the different systems, preparation methods, and biomedical uses of nanoparticulate systems. Therefore, this Special Issue aims to discuss, collect, and offer recent highlights and advances on the development of biodegradable and biocompatible nanoparticles suitable for therapeutics and diagnoses applications.

Prof. Dr. Jordi Puiggalí
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

 

Keywords

  • Nanoparticles
  • Liposomes
  • Polymersomes
  • Micelles
  • Nanoprecipitation
  • Self assembling
  • Surface functionalization
  • Drug delivery
  • Therapeutic applications
  • Diagnostic applications
  • Cancer treatment
  • Polyesters
  • Peptides

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
FTIR and Raman Characterization of TiO2 Nanoparticles Coated with Polyethylene Glycol as Carrier for 2-Methoxyestradiol
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(1), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/app7010049 - 04 Jan 2017
Cited by 58
Abstract
The aim of this study was to prepare a novel targeting drug delivery system for 2-Methoxyestradiol (2ME) in order to improve the clinical application of this antitumor drug. It is based in nanoparticles (NPs) of titanium dioxide (TiO2) coated with polyethylene [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to prepare a novel targeting drug delivery system for 2-Methoxyestradiol (2ME) in order to improve the clinical application of this antitumor drug. It is based in nanoparticles (NPs) of titanium dioxide (TiO2) coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and loaded with 2ME. A complete IR and Raman characterization have been made to confirm the formation of TiO2–PEG–2ME composite. Vibrational modes have been assigned for TiO2, PEG, and 2ME and functionalized TiO2–PEG and TiO2–PEG–2ME. The observed variation in peak position of FTIR and Raman of each for these composites has been elucidated in terms of intermolecular interactions between PEG–2ME and TiO2, obtaining step-by-step the modification processes that were attributed to the conjugation of PEG and 2ME to TiO2 NPs. Modifying TiO2 NPs with PEG loaded with the 2ME drug revealed that the titanium dioxide nanocarrier possesses an effective adsorption capability, and we discuss their potential application as a system of drug delivery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodegradable and Biocompatible Nanoparticles)
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Open AccessArticle
Size Control of Carbon Encapsulated Iron Nanoparticles by Arc Discharge Plasma Method
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/app7010026 - 26 Dec 2016
Cited by 6
Abstract
Size control of [email protected] nanostructures is still a challenge. Carbon encapsulated iron nanoparticles (CEINPs) were synthesized by arc discharge plasma method in this study. CEINPs size can be controlled by varying gas composition, due to change in plasma properties. The morphology and structural [...] Read more.
Size control of [email protected] nanostructures is still a challenge. Carbon encapsulated iron nanoparticles (CEINPs) were synthesized by arc discharge plasma method in this study. CEINPs size can be controlled by varying gas composition, due to change in plasma properties. The morphology and structural features were investigated using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution TEM. Magnetic properties were studied to confirm the changes in CEINPs size by using superconducting quantum interference device. In order to evaluate the carbon shell protection and ensure the absence of iron oxide, selected area electron diffraction technique, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy were employed. Moreover, the degree of carbon order–disorder was studied by Raman Spectroscopy. It was concluded that arc discharge method is a suitable technique for precise size control of CEINPs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodegradable and Biocompatible Nanoparticles)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Biodegradable Nanoparticles Made of Amino-Acid-Based Ester Polymers: Preparation, Characterization, and In Vitro Biocompatibility Study
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(12), 444; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6120444 - 17 Dec 2016
Cited by 2
Abstract
A systematic study of fabricating nanoparticles (NPs) by cost-effective polymer deposition/solvent displacement (nanoprecipitation) method has been carried out. Five amino acid based biodegradable (AABB) ester polymers (four neutral and one cationic), four organic solvents miscible with water, and eight surfactants were tested for [...] Read more.
A systematic study of fabricating nanoparticles (NPs) by cost-effective polymer deposition/solvent displacement (nanoprecipitation) method has been carried out. Five amino acid based biodegradable (AABB) ester polymers (four neutral and one cationic), four organic solvents miscible with water, and eight surfactants were tested for the fabrication of the goal NPs. Depending on the nature of the AABB polymers, organic solvents and surfactants, as well as on the fabrication conditions, the size (Mean Particle Diameter) of the NPs could be tuned within 42 ÷ 398 nm, the zeta-potential within 12.5 ÷ +28 mV. The stability (resuspendability) of the NPs upon storage (at room temperature and refrigerated) was tested as well. In Vitro biocompatibility study of the NPs was performed with four different stable cell lines: A549, HeLa (human); RAW264.7, Hepa 1-6 (murine). Comparing the NPs parameters, their stability upon storage, and the data of biological examinations the best were found: As the AABB polymer, a poly(ester amide) composed of l-leucine, 1,6-hexanediol and sebacic acid–8L6, as a solvent (organic phase—DMSO), and as a surfactant, Tween 20. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodegradable and Biocompatible Nanoparticles)
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Open AccessArticle
Folate Functionalized PLGA Nanoparticles Loaded with Plasmid pVAX1-NH36: Mathematical Analysis of Release
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(12), 364; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6120364 - 25 Nov 2016
Cited by 5
Abstract
Plasmid DNA (pVAX1-NH36) was encapsulated in nanoparticles of poly-dl-lactic-co-glycolic (PLGA) functionalized with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and folic acid (PLGA-PEG-FA) without losing integrity. PLGA-PEG-FA nanoparticles loaded with pVAX1-NH36 (pDNA-NPs) were prepared by using a double emulsification-solvent evaporation technique. PLGA-PEG-FA synthesis [...] Read more.
Plasmid DNA (pVAX1-NH36) was encapsulated in nanoparticles of poly-dl-lactic-co-glycolic (PLGA) functionalized with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and folic acid (PLGA-PEG-FA) without losing integrity. PLGA-PEG-FA nanoparticles loaded with pVAX1-NH36 (pDNA-NPs) were prepared by using a double emulsification-solvent evaporation technique. PLGA-PEG-FA synthesis was verified by FT-IR and spectrophotometry methods. pVAX1-NH36 was replicated in Escherichia coli (E. coli) cell cultures. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis confirmed pDNA-NPs size with an average diameter of 177–229 nm, depending on pVAX1-NH36 loading and zeta potentials were below −24 mV for all preparations. In vitro release studies confirmed a multiphase release profile for the duration of more than 30-days. Plasmid release kinetics were analyzed with a release model that considered simultaneous contributions of initial burst and degradation-relaxation of nanoparticles. Fitting of release model against experimental data presented excellent correlation. This mathematical analysis presents a novel approach to describe and predict the release of plasmid DNA from biodegradable nanoparticles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodegradable and Biocompatible Nanoparticles)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Biodegradable and Biocompatible Systems Based on Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(1), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/app7010060 - 06 Jan 2017
Cited by 20
Abstract
Composites of hydroxyapatite (HAp) are widely employed in biomedical applications due to their biocompatibility, bioactivity and osteoconductivity properties. In fact, the development of industrially scalable hybrids at low cost and high efficiency has a great impact, for example, on bone tissue engineering applications [...] Read more.
Composites of hydroxyapatite (HAp) are widely employed in biomedical applications due to their biocompatibility, bioactivity and osteoconductivity properties. In fact, the development of industrially scalable hybrids at low cost and high efficiency has a great impact, for example, on bone tissue engineering applications and even as drug delivery systems. New nanocomposites constituted by HAp nanoparticles and synthetic or natural polymers with biodegradable and biocompatible characteristics have constantly been developed and extensive works have been published concerning their applications. The present review is mainly focused on both the capability of HAp nanoparticles to encapsulate diverse compounds as well as the preparation methods of scaffolds incorporating HAp. Attention has also been paid to the recent developments on antimicrobial scaffolds, bioactive membranes, magnetic scaffolds, in vivo imaging systems, hydrogels and coatings that made use of HAp nanoparticles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodegradable and Biocompatible Nanoparticles)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Poly(α-hydroxy Acids)-Based Cell Microcarriers
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(12), 436; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6120436 - 16 Dec 2016
Cited by 3
Abstract
Biodegradable poly(α-hydroxyacids) have gained increasing interest in the biomedical field for their use as cell microcarriers thanks to their biodegradability, biocompatibility, tunable mechanical properties/degradation rates and processability. The synthesis of these poly(α-hydroxyacids) can be finely controlled to yield (co)polymers of desired mechanical properties [...] Read more.
Biodegradable poly(α-hydroxyacids) have gained increasing interest in the biomedical field for their use as cell microcarriers thanks to their biodegradability, biocompatibility, tunable mechanical properties/degradation rates and processability. The synthesis of these poly(α-hydroxyacids) can be finely controlled to yield (co)polymers of desired mechanical properties and degradation rates. On the other hand, by simple emulsion-solvent evaporation techniques, microspheres of controlled size and size distribution can be fabricated. The resulting microspheres can be further surface-modified to enhance cell adhesion and proliferation. As a result of this process, biodegradable microcarriers with advanced functionalities and surface properties that can be directly employed as injectable cell microcarriers are obtained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodegradable and Biocompatible Nanoparticles)
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