Special Issue "Polysaccharides: From Extraction to Applications"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 October 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Gohar Khachatryan
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Food Quality Analysis and Evaluation, Faculty of Food Technology, University of Agriculture, Balicka Street 122, Kraków 30-149, Poland
Interests: organic synthesis; chromatography; materials; agriculture; material characterization; polymers; nanomaterials; polymeric materials; proteins; synthesis
Prof. Dr. Karen Khachatryan
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Food Technology, University of Agriculture in Krakow, Cracow 30149, Poland
Interests: organic synthesis; nanoparticle synthesis; synthesis; composites; materials chemistry; language; nanomaterials synthesis; nanoparticles; nanomaterials; material characterization
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Wojciech Ciesielski
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Chemistry, Jan Długosz University, Częstochowa 42-200, Poland
Interests: new ways of using starch and cereal in environmental engineering processes (collectors of heavy metal ions, soil stabilizers, drilling muds, biofuels); catalytic properties of ceramic materials containing Li ions and metal transition ions in the process of thermal decomposition of botanical origin systems

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The increasing cost of petroleum and the prospect of a shortage of its natural deposits imply the necessity of searching for alternative sources of energy and industrial raw materials. Polysaccharides are a commonly available, cheap, sustainable and renewable group of organic compounds. They are considered as attractive raw materials, providing access to several novel biodegradable materials that are attractive for chemical, food and pharmaceutical industries. There is more interest than ever when it comes to natural polysaccharides and spreading the fields of their potential applications.

Due to their chemical structure, polysaccharides can be readily modified via physical, physicochemical, chemical and enzymatic methods. Numerous studies have confirmed the bioactivity of polysaccharides, providing their applications in clinical practice, nutrition and dietetics. Depending on their origin, polysaccharides exhibit antioxidative, immunomodulating, anti-inflammatory, antiviral (among others, HIV), antimutagenic, cancerostatic and anticlotting properties.

Polysaccharides offer a wide range of key parameters essential for their practical use, for instance, low, medium and high molecular weights, variable polydispersity, forming linear and branched macrostructures, monofunctionality (compounds bearing solely hydroxyl groups) and polyfunctionality (compounds with hydroxyl, carboxylic and/or amino groups), high degrees of chirality, either low or high aqueous solubility, and low, if any, toxicity and immunogenicity. For these properties, polysaccharides found a wide application in nanotechnology.

Modified polysaccharides are manufactured to satisfy the demands of an industry of various branches; first of all, the food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, pulp, textile, metallurgical and drilling industries. Among commercially available natural polysaccharides, starch, cellulose and pectins are the most common, but there is a wide area of potential applications waiting for easy access to other polysaccharides, such as carrageenans, xanthan gum, alginates, hyaluronan, chitosan, furcellaran, and so on. Considerable attention is being paid to eliminating traditional processes of manufacturing and using natural polysaccharides, in favor of modern solutions satisfying ecology and consumer demands.

This Special Issue aims to promote novel polysaccharide-based materials, including their synthesis, characterization, and potential applications.

Prof. Dr. Gohar Khachatryan
Prof. Dr. Karen Khachatryan
Prof. Dr. Wojciech Ciesielski
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Polysaccharide
  • Nanocrystals
  • Nanocomposites
  • Polysaccharide modification
  • Bio-nanocomposites
  • Nano-encapsulation
  • Green chemistry

 

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Article
Comparison of Analytical Methods for Determining Methylesterification and Acetylation of Pectin
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(10), 4461; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11104461 - 14 May 2021
Viewed by 264
Abstract
The esterification of galacturonic acid with methanol and/or acetic acid is important for the structural analysis of pectin. Although several methods have been reported for determining the degree of methylesterification (DM) and acetylation (DAc), the present study compares and optimizes three methods (titration, [...] Read more.
The esterification of galacturonic acid with methanol and/or acetic acid is important for the structural analysis of pectin. Although several methods have been reported for determining the degree of methylesterification (DM) and acetylation (DAc), the present study compares and optimizes three methods (titration, FT-IR and HPLC) using commercial citrus pectin (CP). Our results showed that the DM of CP was 47.0%, 47.6% and 48.0% as determined by titration, FT-IR and HPLC, respectively, suggesting that DM determination is nearly identical using any of these methods. However, the titration approach requires more sample than the other two. HPLC showed that the DAc of CP was 1.6%, an approach that can be used to determine the DM and DAc of pectin simultaneously. Here, we simplified and optimized sample treatment for HPLC analysis and compared it with the reported literature. Our results provide useful information for choosing appropriate methods for determining the DM and DAc of pectin based on various sample properties and experimental conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polysaccharides: From Extraction to Applications)
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Article
Synthesis of Silver and Gold Nanoparticles in Sodium Alginate Matrix Enriched with Graphene Oxide and Investigation of Properties of the Obtained Thin Films
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(9), 3857; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11093857 - 24 Apr 2021
Viewed by 410
Abstract
Polymer nanocomposites containing nanometals became a subject of interest due to their bactericidal properties. Different polysaccharides have been used as matrices for nanosilver and nanogold synthesis. In this study, we present a novel, environmentally friendly method for the preparation of sodium alginate/nanosilver/graphene oxide [...] Read more.
Polymer nanocomposites containing nanometals became a subject of interest due to their bactericidal properties. Different polysaccharides have been used as matrices for nanosilver and nanogold synthesis. In this study, we present a novel, environmentally friendly method for the preparation of sodium alginate/nanosilver/graphene oxide (GOX) and sodium alginate/nanogold/graphene oxide GOX nanocomposites and their characteristics. The formation of approximately 10–20 nm ball-shaped Ag and Au nanoparticles was confirmed by UV–vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra. The incorporation of GOX sheets within the ALG matrix improved the thermal stability of the nanocomposites film, which was measured using the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). We also estimated the molecular weights of polysaccharide chains of the matrix with the size exclusion chromatography coupled with multiangle laser light scattering and refractometric detectors (HPSEC-MALLS-RI). The composites were more prone to enzymatic hydrolysis. The strongest bacteriostatic activity was observed for the sample containing nanosilver. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polysaccharides: From Extraction to Applications)
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Article
Structural Identification and Coagulation Effect of Flammulina velutipes Polysaccharides
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(4), 1736; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11041736 - 16 Feb 2021
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Abstract
Two polysaccharides were isolated successfully from Flammulina velutipes and identified as CHFVP-1 (24.44 kDa) and CHFVP-2 (1497 kDa). Based on the results of Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), gas chromatography (GC), gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy regarding the structure [...] Read more.
Two polysaccharides were isolated successfully from Flammulina velutipes and identified as CHFVP-1 (24.44 kDa) and CHFVP-2 (1497 kDa). Based on the results of Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), gas chromatography (GC), gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy regarding the structure of CHFVP-1 and CHFVP-2, CHFVP-1 was constructed with the backbone of→6)-α-D-Galp-(1→ and the branch of Galp by an →3,6)-α-D-Manp-(1→attached with T-β-D-Glcp or t-α-L-Fucp side chains. Meanwhile, the CHFVP-2 was a glucan with the construction of →6)-β-D-Glcp-(1→ and T-β-D-Glcp. Moreover, the coagulant activity in vitro of CHFVP-1 and CHFVP-2 was evaluated, and the results showed that CHFVP-1 exerts procoagulant activity by shortening the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and thrombin time (TT), while CHFVP-2 did not reveal a definite coagulant activity. The finding would benefit the further application of F. velutipes in the field of medicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polysaccharides: From Extraction to Applications)
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Article
Caulerpa lentillifera Polysaccharides-Rich Extract Reduces Oxidative Stress and Proinflammatory Cytokines Levels Associated with Male Reproductive Functions in Diabetic Mice
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(24), 8768; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10248768 - 08 Dec 2020
Viewed by 603
Abstract
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease that is positively correlated with reproductive dysfunction. Caulerpa lentillifera is an edible green alga with antioxidant and anti-diabetic properties. This study aims to evaluate the ameliorative effects of a polysaccharides-rich extract from C. lentillifera on the [...] Read more.
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease that is positively correlated with reproductive dysfunction. Caulerpa lentillifera is an edible green alga with antioxidant and anti-diabetic properties. This study aims to evaluate the ameliorative effects of a polysaccharides-rich extract from C. lentillifera on the reproductive dysfunctions of diabetic male BALB/c mice induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) supplemented with intraperitoneal injections of streptozotocin (STZ). C. lentillifera was obtained from hot water and converted into a powder form (C. lentillifera extract (CLE)) by freeze drying. Mice were fed an HFD for 4 weeks before supplementing with STZ (30 mg/kg). The diabetic mice were divided into five groups, including a control group, a diabetic (DM) group, a DM with administration of a low-dose CLE treatment (DM+CLE1, 600 mg/kg), a DM with administration of a high-dose of CLE (DM+CLE2, 1000 mg/kg) and a DM with metformin treatment as a positive control (DM+Met, 200 mg/kg) for 6 weeks. The results showed that the CLE administration improved hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. Proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α were found to decrease in the CLE-treated groups. Additionally, CLE was shown to improve sperm motility and testis morphology. Based on the results, it was confirmed that the polysaccharides-rich extract from C. lentillifera extract was able to prevent diabetes-induced male reproductive dysfunction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polysaccharides: From Extraction to Applications)
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Review

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Review
Selenium-Containing Polysaccharides—Structural Diversity, Biosynthesis, Chemical Modifications and Biological Activity
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(8), 3717; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11083717 - 20 Apr 2021
Viewed by 376
Abstract
Selenosugars are a group of sugar derivatives of great structural diversity (e.g., molar masses, selenium oxidation state, and selenium binding), obtained as a result of biosynthesis, chemical modification of natural compounds, or chemical synthesis. Seleno-monosaccharides and disaccharides are known to be non-toxic products [...] Read more.
Selenosugars are a group of sugar derivatives of great structural diversity (e.g., molar masses, selenium oxidation state, and selenium binding), obtained as a result of biosynthesis, chemical modification of natural compounds, or chemical synthesis. Seleno-monosaccharides and disaccharides are known to be non-toxic products of the natural metabolism of selenium compounds in mammals. In the case of the selenium-containing polysaccharides of natural origin, their formation is also postulated as a form of detoxification of excess selenium in microorganisms, mushroom, and plants. The valency of selenium in selenium-containing polysaccharides can be: 0 (encapsulated nano-selenium), IV (selenites of polysaccharides), or II (selenoglycosides or selenium built into the sugar ring to replace oxygen). The great interest in Se-polysaccharides results from the expected synergy between selenium and polysaccharides. Several plant- and mushroom-derived polysaccharides are potent macromolecules with antitumor, immunomodulatory, antioxidant, and other biological properties. Selenium, a trace element of fundamental importance to human health, has been shown to possess several analogous functions. The mechanism by which selenium exerts anticancer and immunomodulatory activity differs from that of polysaccharide fractions, but a similar pharmacological effect suggests a possible synergy of these two agents. Various functions of Se-polysaccharides have been explored, including antitumor, immune-enhancement, antioxidant, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, and neuroprotective activities. Due to being non-toxic or much less toxic than inorganic selenium compounds, Se-polysaccharides are potential dietary supplements that could be used, e.g., in chemoprevention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polysaccharides: From Extraction to Applications)
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Review
Biomedical Application of Cyclodextrin Polymers Cross-Linked via Dianhydrides of Carboxylic Acids
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(23), 8463; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10238463 - 27 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 500
Abstract
Cyclodextrin-based nanosponges (CD-NS) are a novel class of polymers cross-linked with a three-dimensional network and can be obtained from cyclodextrins (CD) and pyromellitic dianhydride. Their properties, such as their ability to form an inclusion complex with drugs, can be used in biomedical science, [...] Read more.
Cyclodextrin-based nanosponges (CD-NS) are a novel class of polymers cross-linked with a three-dimensional network and can be obtained from cyclodextrins (CD) and pyromellitic dianhydride. Their properties, such as their ability to form an inclusion complex with drugs, can be used in biomedical science, as nanosponges influence stability, toxicity, selectivity, and controlled release. Most pharmaceutical research use CD-NS for the delivery of drugs in cancer treatment. Application of molecular targeting techniques result in increased selectivity of CD-NS; for example, the addition of disulfide bridges to the polymer structure makes the nanosponge sensitive to the presence of glutathione, as it can reduce such disulfide bonds to thiol moieties. Other delivery applications include dermal transport of pain killers or photosensitizers and delivery of oxygen to heart cells. This gives rise to the opportunity to transition to medical scaffolds, but more, in modern times, to create an ultrasensitive biosensor, which employs the techniques of surface-modified nanoparticles and molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP). The following review focuses on the biomedical research of cyclodextrin polymers cross-linked via dianhydrides of carboxylic acids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polysaccharides: From Extraction to Applications)
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