Special Issue "Polysaccharides: From Extraction to Applications"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials Science and Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 March 2022) | Viewed by 14462

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Gohar Khachatryan
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Food Quality Analysis and Evaluation, Faculty of Food Technology, University of Agriculture, Balicka Street 122, 30-149 Kraków, Poland
Interests: organic synthesis; chromatography; materials; agriculture; material characterization; polymers; nanomaterials; polymeric materials; proteins
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Karen Khachatryan
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Food Technology, University of Agriculture in Krakow, 30149 Cracow, Poland
Interests: organic synthesis; nanoparticle synthesis; synthesis; composites; materials chemistry; language; nanomaterials synthesis; nanoparticles; nanomaterials; material characterization
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Wojciech Ciesielski
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Chemistry, Jan Długosz University, 42-200 Częstochowa, Poland
Interests: new ways of using starch and cereal in environmental engineering processes (collectors of heavy metal ions, soil stabilizers, drilling muds, biofuels); catalytic properties of ceramic materials containing Li ions and metal transition ions in the process of thermal decomposition of botanical origin systems

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The increasing cost of petroleum and the prospect of a shortage of its natural deposits imply the necessity of searching for alternative sources of energy and industrial raw materials. Polysaccharides are a commonly available, cheap, sustainable and renewable group of organic compounds. They are considered as attractive raw materials, providing access to several novel biodegradable materials that are attractive for chemical, food and pharmaceutical industries. There is more interest than ever when it comes to natural polysaccharides and spreading the fields of their potential applications.

Due to their chemical structure, polysaccharides can be readily modified via physical, physicochemical, chemical and enzymatic methods. Numerous studies have confirmed the bioactivity of polysaccharides, providing their applications in clinical practice, nutrition and dietetics. Depending on their origin, polysaccharides exhibit antioxidative, immunomodulating, anti-inflammatory, antiviral (among others, HIV), antimutagenic, cancerostatic and anticlotting properties.

Polysaccharides offer a wide range of key parameters essential for their practical use, for instance, low, medium and high molecular weights, variable polydispersity, forming linear and branched macrostructures, monofunctionality (compounds bearing solely hydroxyl groups) and polyfunctionality (compounds with hydroxyl, carboxylic and/or amino groups), high degrees of chirality, either low or high aqueous solubility, and low, if any, toxicity and immunogenicity. For these properties, polysaccharides found a wide application in nanotechnology.

Modified polysaccharides are manufactured to satisfy the demands of an industry of various branches; first of all, the food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, pulp, textile, metallurgical and drilling industries. Among commercially available natural polysaccharides, starch, cellulose and pectins are the most common, but there is a wide area of potential applications waiting for easy access to other polysaccharides, such as carrageenans, xanthan gum, alginates, hyaluronan, chitosan, furcellaran, and so on. Considerable attention is being paid to eliminating traditional processes of manufacturing and using natural polysaccharides, in favor of modern solutions satisfying ecology and consumer demands.

This Special Issue aims to promote novel polysaccharide-based materials, including their synthesis, characterization, and potential applications.

Prof. Dr. Gohar Khachatryan
Prof. Dr. Karen Khachatryan
Prof. Dr. Wojciech Ciesielski
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Polysaccharide
  • Nanocrystals
  • Nanocomposites
  • Polysaccharide modification
  • Bio-nanocomposites
  • Nano-encapsulation
  • Green chemistry

 

Published Papers (16 papers)

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Research

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Article
The Improvement of Reserve Polysaccharide Glycogen Level and Other Quality Parameters of S. cerevisiae Brewing Dry Yeasts by Their Rehydration in Water, Treated with Low-Temperature, Low-Pressure Glow Plasma (LPGP)
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(6), 2909; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12062909 - 11 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 532
Abstract
The increasing popularity of active dry yeast arises from its properties, such as ease of storage, and simplicity of preparation and dosing. Herein, we elaborate on the effect of plasma-treated water (PTW) under air atmosphere (PTWAir) and nitrogen (PTWN) on the improvement of [...] Read more.
The increasing popularity of active dry yeast arises from its properties, such as ease of storage, and simplicity of preparation and dosing. Herein, we elaborate on the effect of plasma-treated water (PTW) under air atmosphere (PTWAir) and nitrogen (PTWN) on the improvement of the reserve polysaccharide glycogen level and other quality parameters of S. cerevisiae brewing dry yeast in comparison with the non plasma-treated water (CW). For this purpose, strains of top-fermenting (S. cerevisiae T58 (poor quality), S33 (poor quality)) and bottom-fermenting (S. pastorianus W30/70 (poor quality)) yeast stored one year after opening and S. cerevisiae US-05 (fresh strain) were selected to examine the influence of PTWs toward the quality parameters of yeast biomass after the rehydration and fermentation process. The obtained results showed that in the case of poor quality yeast strains, PTWAir increased glycogen content after the rehydration and fermentation process, which was a favorable trend. A similar increase was observed for the trehalose content. Results showed that PTWN significantly reduced the number of yeast cells in ale strains and the viability of all analyzed samples. The lowest viability was observed in Sc S33 strain for PTWAir (41.99%), PTWN (18.6%) and CW (22.86%). PTWAir did not contribute to reducing the analyzed parameter; in particular, the results of Sc T58 yeast strain’s viability are shown: PTWAir (58.83%), PTWN (32.28%) and CW (43.56%). The obtained results suggest that rehydration by PTWN of dry yeast with a weakened condition is not recommended for both qualitative and cost-related reasons, while PTWAir significantly contributed to the improvement of some yeast parameters after rehydration and fermentation (higher glycogen and trehalose content). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polysaccharides: From Extraction to Applications)
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Article
The Effect of Electrolytes and Urea on the Ethyl Lauroyl Arginate and Cellulose Nanocrystals Foam Stability
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(6), 2797; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12062797 - 09 Mar 2022
Viewed by 482
Abstract
Carboxylated cellulose nanocrystals (cCNC) are highly dispersible particles useful in many industries. In particular, they can be applied to form Pickering emulsions and foams for “green” applications in the cosmetics, pharmaceutical industry or food processing. We demonstrated that carboxylated cellulose nanocrystals enhance foamability [...] Read more.
Carboxylated cellulose nanocrystals (cCNC) are highly dispersible particles useful in many industries. In particular, they can be applied to form Pickering emulsions and foams for “green” applications in the cosmetics, pharmaceutical industry or food processing. We demonstrated that carboxylated cellulose nanocrystals enhance foamability and foam stability when mixed with cationic surfactant ethyl lauroyl arginate (LAE), having superior properties over sulfated cellulose nanocrystals (sCNC) concerning surfactant concentration range and foam volume. Mixtures of LAE and cCNC were characterized for their hydrodynamic diameter, zeta potential, surface tension and surface rheological properties. The influence of electrolytes, namely, sodium chloride, guanidine hydrochloride and sodium salicylate, and the addition of concentrated urea to LAE-cCNC mixtures on foamability and foam stability were investigated. Electrolytes in the concentration of 5 mM showed a moderate effect on foam stability. In contrast, spectacular foam collapse was detected after adding concentrated urea. The preliminary rheological data from the pendant drop oscillations revealed low elastic modulus upon urea addition and the loss modulus that increased with the frequency, which suggested a viscous interfacial layer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polysaccharides: From Extraction to Applications)
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Article
Biodegradable Silver Nanoparticles Gel and Its Impact on Tomato Seed Germination Rate in In Vitro Cultures
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(5), 2722; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12052722 - 06 Mar 2022
Viewed by 546
Abstract
Nanotechnology plays an important role in many fields of science and the economy. A special example of nanostructures is silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) created following the principles of green chemistry, i.e., without the use of toxic reducing compounds. The common tomato (Solanum lycopersicum [...] Read more.
Nanotechnology plays an important role in many fields of science and the economy. A special example of nanostructures is silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) created following the principles of green chemistry, i.e., without the use of toxic reducing compounds. The common tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is a popular vegetable whose germination and growth process are studied by using, e.g., in vitro cultures. The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of the biodegradable gels containing silver nanoparticles on the development of microbial infection and to evaluate their influence on the germination degree of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) seeds in in vitro plant cultures. Based on macroscopic and microscopic observations, all experimental samples showed the presence of Gram-positive bacilli as well as mould fungi of the genus Rhizopus, Alternaria and Aspergillus. The study showed that the biocomponents containing silver nanoparticles obtained by using xylose as a reducing agent limit the development of microbial infection and stimulate the germination rate of tomato seeds. They could find their application as biodegradable raw materials in the production of modern disinfecting preparations for research in in vitro cultures. This study allowed to identify new research directions, especially to evaluate the metabolic regulation of seedlings treated with biodegradable silver nanoparticles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polysaccharides: From Extraction to Applications)
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Article
Comparison of the Physicochemical Properties of Chitin Extracted from Cicada orni Sloughs Harvested in Three Different Years and Characterization of the Resulting Chitosan
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(23), 11278; https://doi.org/10.3390/app112311278 - 29 Nov 2021
Viewed by 630
Abstract
Chitin and its derivative chitosan are among the most used polysaccharides for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. Most of the commercially available chitin is obtained from seafood wastes. However, the interest in alternative renewable sources of chitin and chitosan, such as insects, is growing. [...] Read more.
Chitin and its derivative chitosan are among the most used polysaccharides for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. Most of the commercially available chitin is obtained from seafood wastes. However, the interest in alternative renewable sources of chitin and chitosan, such as insects, is growing. When new sources are identified, their stability over time has to be evaluated to allow for their commercialization. The aim of this study is to compare the physicochemical properties of chitin extracted from Cicada orni sloughs harvested in three different years (2017, 2019 and 2020) in order to assess the stability of the source and the repeatability of the extraction process. Chitin and its derivative chitosan were characterized by simple techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Results suggest that the physicochemical properties of the extracted chitin varied from year to year, and that these differences are not due to the extraction process, but rather to intrinsic differences within the source. We showed that these differences could already be detected by analyzing the raw material (i.e., cicada sloughs) using the above-mentioned simple methods. The chitosan obtained from deacetylation of chitin had a low degree of deacetylation (66.2±1.6%). This low degree of deacetylation can be attributed to the deacetylation process, which is probably not appropriate for this source of chitin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polysaccharides: From Extraction to Applications)
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Article
Characterization of an Immune-Enhancing Polysaccharide Fraction Isolated from Heat-Processed Ginseng Derived from Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(22), 10835; https://doi.org/10.3390/app112210835 - 16 Nov 2021
Viewed by 544
Abstract
Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (ginseng) has shown immune-enhancing activity in many studies. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the chemical properties of a polysaccharide fraction (SGP) purified from heat- processed ginseng and to evaluate its immune-enhancing activity using RAW264.7 macrophages. [...] Read more.
Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (ginseng) has shown immune-enhancing activity in many studies. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the chemical properties of a polysaccharide fraction (SGP) purified from heat- processed ginseng and to evaluate its immune-enhancing activity using RAW264.7 macrophages. The results showed that SGP increased inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and nitric oxide production in RAW264.7 macrophages. In addition, SGP increased mRNA expression and secretion of interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha. Immunoblotting results showed that SGP increased the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and NF-κB subunit p65 at 500 μg/mL and 1000 μg/mL. Taken together, SGP can activate macrophages through the MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways, and it may help maintain homeostasis during viral and bacterial infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polysaccharides: From Extraction to Applications)
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Article
Extraction of ADP-Heptose and Kdo2-Lipid A from E. coli Deficient in the Heptosyltransferase I Gene
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(18), 8314; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11188314 - 08 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 666
Abstract
The enzymes involved in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) biosynthesis, including Heptosyltransferase I (HepI), are critical for maintaining the integrity of the bacterial cell wall, and therefore these LPS biosynthetic enzymes are validated targets for drug discovery to treat Gram-negative bacterial infections. Enzymes involved in the [...] Read more.
The enzymes involved in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) biosynthesis, including Heptosyltransferase I (HepI), are critical for maintaining the integrity of the bacterial cell wall, and therefore these LPS biosynthetic enzymes are validated targets for drug discovery to treat Gram-negative bacterial infections. Enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) utilize substrates that are synthetically complex, with numerous stereocenters and site-specific glycosylation patterns. Due to the relatively complex substrate structures, characterization of these enzymes has necessitated strategies to generate bacterial cells with gene disruptions to enable the extraction of these substrates from large scale bacterial growths. Like many LPS biosynthetic enzymes, Heptosyltransferase I binds two substrates: the sugar acceptor substrate, Kdo2-Lipid A, and the sugar donor substrate, ADP-l-glycero-d-manno-heptose (ADPH). HepI characterization experiments require copious amounts of Kdo2-Lipid A and ADPH, and unsuccessful extractions of these two substrates can lead to serious delays in collection of data. While there are papers and theses with protocols for extraction of these substrates, they are often missing small details essential to the success of the extraction. Herein detailed protocols are given for extraction of ADPH and Kdo2-Lipid A (KLA) from E. coli, which have had proven success in the Taylor lab. Key steps in the extraction of ADPH are clearing the extract through ultracentrifugation and keeping all water that touches anything in the extraction, including filters, at a pH of 8.0. Key steps in the extraction of KLA are properly lysing the dried down cells before starting the extraction, maximizing yield by allowing precipitate to form overnight, appropriately washing the pellet with phenol and dissolving the KLA in 1% TEA using visual cues, rather than a specific volume. These protocols led to increased yield and a higher success rate of extractions thereby enabling the characterization of HepI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polysaccharides: From Extraction to Applications)
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Article
Production of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis Enriched in β-Glucans through Phosphorus Limitation
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(17), 8121; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11178121 - 01 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 781
Abstract
(1) Background: Arthrospira (commonly known as Spirulina) is an edible cyanobacterium that is produced worldwide as a food supplement owing to its high nutritional value. Arthrospira displays strong potential as an important ingredient in the development of novel functional foods. Polysaccharides from Arthrospira [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Arthrospira (commonly known as Spirulina) is an edible cyanobacterium that is produced worldwide as a food supplement owing to its high nutritional value. Arthrospira displays strong potential as an important ingredient in the development of novel functional foods. Polysaccharides from Arthrospira are biologically active compounds and hence there is interest in producing biomass rich in carbohydrates. (2) Methods: A. platensis was cultivated under different degrees of phosphorus limitation in order to trigger the accumulation of carbohydrates. The biomass was then characterized in terms of its content of α- and β-glucans, total dietary fiber and monosaccharide profile. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used for the rapid analysis of the main biomass components. (3) Results: Phosphorus limitation resulted in an increase in carbohydrates (from 23% up to 65% dry biomass) of which 4–12% (in relation to the dry biomass) was α-glucans and 20–34% was 1.3:1.6 β-glucans, while 1.4:1.6 β-glucans were not detected. Total dietary fibers ranged from 20–32% (of dry biomass), whereas among the carbohydrates, the predominant monosaccharide was glucose (>95%). FTIR performed well when applied as a prediction tool for the main biomass components. (4) Conclusions: Since β-glucans are of particular interest as biologically active compounds, this study demonstrates that phosphorus-limited A. platensis could be a potential ingredient for the development of novel functional foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polysaccharides: From Extraction to Applications)
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Article
Signaling Pathways Associated with Macrophage-Activating Polysaccharide Isolated from Korea Red Ginseng
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(15), 7111; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11157111 - 31 Jul 2021
Viewed by 541
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Korean red ginseng (KRG) is known as an immune-enhancing health food and has been approved by the Korea Food and Drug Administration. We analyzed the immune-enhancing activity of KRG and its polysaccharide (KRG-P) using RAW264.7 murine macrophage cells. Materials and [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Korean red ginseng (KRG) is known as an immune-enhancing health food and has been approved by the Korea Food and Drug Administration. We analyzed the immune-enhancing activity of KRG and its polysaccharide (KRG-P) using RAW264.7 murine macrophage cells. Materials and Methods: The protein and mRNA expression levels of IL-6 and TNF-α were measured using ELISA and qRT-PCR, respectively. Nitric oxide levels were measured using the Griess reagent. The phosphorylation and total protein levels of ERK, p38, JNK, p65, and GAPDH were determined by immunoblot assay. Results: The polysaccharide (KRG-P), but not KRG, produced nitric oxide, interleukin 6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in RAW264.7 cells. KRG-P increased nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2), IL-6, and TNF-α expression in RAW264.7 cells. KRG-P also increased phosphorylation of MAPKs (mitogen-activate protein kinases) including ERK, p38, JNK, and NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) in a concentration-dependent manner in RAW264.7 cells. Conclusions: The polysaccharide KRG-P is the active component responsible for the immune-enhancing activity of Korean red ginseng and may modulate the systemic immune system in vivo. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polysaccharides: From Extraction to Applications)
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Article
Comparison of Analytical Methods for Determining Methylesterification and Acetylation of Pectin
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(10), 4461; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11104461 - 14 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 747
Abstract
The esterification of galacturonic acid with methanol and/or acetic acid is important for the structural analysis of pectin. Although several methods have been reported for determining the degree of methylesterification (DM) and acetylation (DAc), the present study compares and optimizes three methods (titration, [...] Read more.
The esterification of galacturonic acid with methanol and/or acetic acid is important for the structural analysis of pectin. Although several methods have been reported for determining the degree of methylesterification (DM) and acetylation (DAc), the present study compares and optimizes three methods (titration, FT-IR and HPLC) using commercial citrus pectin (CP). Our results showed that the DM of CP was 47.0%, 47.6% and 48.0% as determined by titration, FT-IR and HPLC, respectively, suggesting that DM determination is nearly identical using any of these methods. However, the titration approach requires more sample than the other two. HPLC showed that the DAc of CP was 1.6%, an approach that can be used to determine the DM and DAc of pectin simultaneously. Here, we simplified and optimized sample treatment for HPLC analysis and compared it with the reported literature. Our results provide useful information for choosing appropriate methods for determining the DM and DAc of pectin based on various sample properties and experimental conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polysaccharides: From Extraction to Applications)
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Article
Synthesis of Silver and Gold Nanoparticles in Sodium Alginate Matrix Enriched with Graphene Oxide and Investigation of Properties of the Obtained Thin Films
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(9), 3857; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11093857 - 24 Apr 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1102
Abstract
Polymer nanocomposites containing nanometals became a subject of interest due to their bactericidal properties. Different polysaccharides have been used as matrices for nanosilver and nanogold synthesis. In this study, we present a novel, environmentally friendly method for the preparation of sodium alginate/nanosilver/graphene oxide [...] Read more.
Polymer nanocomposites containing nanometals became a subject of interest due to their bactericidal properties. Different polysaccharides have been used as matrices for nanosilver and nanogold synthesis. In this study, we present a novel, environmentally friendly method for the preparation of sodium alginate/nanosilver/graphene oxide (GOX) and sodium alginate/nanogold/graphene oxide GOX nanocomposites and their characteristics. The formation of approximately 10–20 nm ball-shaped Ag and Au nanoparticles was confirmed by UV–vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra. The incorporation of GOX sheets within the ALG matrix improved the thermal stability of the nanocomposites film, which was measured using the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). We also estimated the molecular weights of polysaccharide chains of the matrix with the size exclusion chromatography coupled with multiangle laser light scattering and refractometric detectors (HPSEC-MALLS-RI). The composites were more prone to enzymatic hydrolysis. The strongest bacteriostatic activity was observed for the sample containing nanosilver. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polysaccharides: From Extraction to Applications)
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Article
Structural Identification and Coagulation Effect of Flammulina velutipes Polysaccharides
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(4), 1736; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11041736 - 16 Feb 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 980
Abstract
Two polysaccharides were isolated successfully from Flammulina velutipes and identified as CHFVP-1 (24.44 kDa) and CHFVP-2 (1497 kDa). Based on the results of Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), gas chromatography (GC), gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy regarding the structure [...] Read more.
Two polysaccharides were isolated successfully from Flammulina velutipes and identified as CHFVP-1 (24.44 kDa) and CHFVP-2 (1497 kDa). Based on the results of Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), gas chromatography (GC), gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy regarding the structure of CHFVP-1 and CHFVP-2, CHFVP-1 was constructed with the backbone of→6)-α-D-Galp-(1→ and the branch of Galp by an →3,6)-α-D-Manp-(1→attached with T-β-D-Glcp or t-α-L-Fucp side chains. Meanwhile, the CHFVP-2 was a glucan with the construction of →6)-β-D-Glcp-(1→ and T-β-D-Glcp. Moreover, the coagulant activity in vitro of CHFVP-1 and CHFVP-2 was evaluated, and the results showed that CHFVP-1 exerts procoagulant activity by shortening the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and thrombin time (TT), while CHFVP-2 did not reveal a definite coagulant activity. The finding would benefit the further application of F. velutipes in the field of medicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polysaccharides: From Extraction to Applications)
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Article
Caulerpa lentillifera Polysaccharides-Rich Extract Reduces Oxidative Stress and Proinflammatory Cytokines Levels Associated with Male Reproductive Functions in Diabetic Mice
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(24), 8768; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10248768 - 08 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1147
Abstract
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease that is positively correlated with reproductive dysfunction. Caulerpa lentillifera is an edible green alga with antioxidant and anti-diabetic properties. This study aims to evaluate the ameliorative effects of a polysaccharides-rich extract from C. lentillifera on the [...] Read more.
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease that is positively correlated with reproductive dysfunction. Caulerpa lentillifera is an edible green alga with antioxidant and anti-diabetic properties. This study aims to evaluate the ameliorative effects of a polysaccharides-rich extract from C. lentillifera on the reproductive dysfunctions of diabetic male BALB/c mice induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) supplemented with intraperitoneal injections of streptozotocin (STZ). C. lentillifera was obtained from hot water and converted into a powder form (C. lentillifera extract (CLE)) by freeze drying. Mice were fed an HFD for 4 weeks before supplementing with STZ (30 mg/kg). The diabetic mice were divided into five groups, including a control group, a diabetic (DM) group, a DM with administration of a low-dose CLE treatment (DM+CLE1, 600 mg/kg), a DM with administration of a high-dose of CLE (DM+CLE2, 1000 mg/kg) and a DM with metformin treatment as a positive control (DM+Met, 200 mg/kg) for 6 weeks. The results showed that the CLE administration improved hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. Proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α were found to decrease in the CLE-treated groups. Additionally, CLE was shown to improve sperm motility and testis morphology. Based on the results, it was confirmed that the polysaccharides-rich extract from C. lentillifera extract was able to prevent diabetes-induced male reproductive dysfunction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polysaccharides: From Extraction to Applications)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Review
Novel Chitosan Derivatives and Their Multifaceted Biological Applications
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(7), 3267; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12073267 - 23 Mar 2022
Viewed by 531
Abstract
Chitosan is a rather attractive material, especially because of its bio-origins as well as generation from exoskeletal waste. As the mantle has been effectively transferred from chitin to chitosan, so has it been extrapolated to in-house synthesized novel chitosan derivatives. This review comprehensively [...] Read more.
Chitosan is a rather attractive material, especially because of its bio-origins as well as generation from exoskeletal waste. As the mantle has been effectively transferred from chitin to chitosan, so has it been extrapolated to in-house synthesized novel chitosan derivatives. This review comprehensively lists the available novel chitosan derivatives (ChDs) and summarizes their biological applications. The fact that chitosan derivatives do comprise multifaceted biological applications is attested by the voluminous reports on their varied contributions. However, this review points out to the fact that there has been selective focus on bio functions such as antifungal, antioxidant, antibacterial, whereas other biomedical applications and antiviral applications remain relatively less explored. With their current functionality record, there is definitely no doubt that the plethora of synthesized ChDs will have a profound impact on the unexplored biological aspects. This review points out this lacuna as room for future exploration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polysaccharides: From Extraction to Applications)
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Review
Extraction, Characterization, and Applications of Pectins from Plant By-Products
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(14), 6596; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11146596 - 18 Jul 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1568
Abstract
Currently, pectins are widely used in the cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and food industries, mainly as texturizing, emulsifying, stabilizing, and gelling agents. Pectins are polysaccharides composed of a large linear segment of α-(1,4) linked d-galactopyranosyluronic acids interrupted by β-(1,2)-linked l-rhamnoses and ramified by [...] Read more.
Currently, pectins are widely used in the cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and food industries, mainly as texturizing, emulsifying, stabilizing, and gelling agents. Pectins are polysaccharides composed of a large linear segment of α-(1,4) linked d-galactopyranosyluronic acids interrupted by β-(1,2)-linked l-rhamnoses and ramified by short chains composed of neutral hexoses and pentoses. The characteristics and applications of pectins are strongly influenced by their structures depending on plant species and tissues but also extraction methods. The aim of this review is therefore to highlight the structures of pectins and the various methods used to extract them, including conventional ones but also microwave heating, ultrasonic treatment, and dielectric barrier discharge techniques, assessing physico-chemical parameters which have significant effects on pectin characteristics and applications as techno-functional and bioactive agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polysaccharides: From Extraction to Applications)
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Review
Selenium-Containing Polysaccharides—Structural Diversity, Biosynthesis, Chemical Modifications and Biological Activity
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(8), 3717; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11083717 - 20 Apr 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1126
Abstract
Selenosugars are a group of sugar derivatives of great structural diversity (e.g., molar masses, selenium oxidation state, and selenium binding), obtained as a result of biosynthesis, chemical modification of natural compounds, or chemical synthesis. Seleno-monosaccharides and disaccharides are known to be non-toxic products [...] Read more.
Selenosugars are a group of sugar derivatives of great structural diversity (e.g., molar masses, selenium oxidation state, and selenium binding), obtained as a result of biosynthesis, chemical modification of natural compounds, or chemical synthesis. Seleno-monosaccharides and disaccharides are known to be non-toxic products of the natural metabolism of selenium compounds in mammals. In the case of the selenium-containing polysaccharides of natural origin, their formation is also postulated as a form of detoxification of excess selenium in microorganisms, mushroom, and plants. The valency of selenium in selenium-containing polysaccharides can be: 0 (encapsulated nano-selenium), IV (selenites of polysaccharides), or II (selenoglycosides or selenium built into the sugar ring to replace oxygen). The great interest in Se-polysaccharides results from the expected synergy between selenium and polysaccharides. Several plant- and mushroom-derived polysaccharides are potent macromolecules with antitumor, immunomodulatory, antioxidant, and other biological properties. Selenium, a trace element of fundamental importance to human health, has been shown to possess several analogous functions. The mechanism by which selenium exerts anticancer and immunomodulatory activity differs from that of polysaccharide fractions, but a similar pharmacological effect suggests a possible synergy of these two agents. Various functions of Se-polysaccharides have been explored, including antitumor, immune-enhancement, antioxidant, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, and neuroprotective activities. Due to being non-toxic or much less toxic than inorganic selenium compounds, Se-polysaccharides are potential dietary supplements that could be used, e.g., in chemoprevention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polysaccharides: From Extraction to Applications)
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Review
Biomedical Application of Cyclodextrin Polymers Cross-Linked via Dianhydrides of Carboxylic Acids
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(23), 8463; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10238463 - 27 Nov 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 995
Abstract
Cyclodextrin-based nanosponges (CD-NS) are a novel class of polymers cross-linked with a three-dimensional network and can be obtained from cyclodextrins (CD) and pyromellitic dianhydride. Their properties, such as their ability to form an inclusion complex with drugs, can be used in biomedical science, [...] Read more.
Cyclodextrin-based nanosponges (CD-NS) are a novel class of polymers cross-linked with a three-dimensional network and can be obtained from cyclodextrins (CD) and pyromellitic dianhydride. Their properties, such as their ability to form an inclusion complex with drugs, can be used in biomedical science, as nanosponges influence stability, toxicity, selectivity, and controlled release. Most pharmaceutical research use CD-NS for the delivery of drugs in cancer treatment. Application of molecular targeting techniques result in increased selectivity of CD-NS; for example, the addition of disulfide bridges to the polymer structure makes the nanosponge sensitive to the presence of glutathione, as it can reduce such disulfide bonds to thiol moieties. Other delivery applications include dermal transport of pain killers or photosensitizers and delivery of oxygen to heart cells. This gives rise to the opportunity to transition to medical scaffolds, but more, in modern times, to create an ultrasensitive biosensor, which employs the techniques of surface-modified nanoparticles and molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP). The following review focuses on the biomedical research of cyclodextrin polymers cross-linked via dianhydrides of carboxylic acids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polysaccharides: From Extraction to Applications)
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