Special Issue "Nano-systems for Antimicrobial Therapy"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Nanotechnology and Applied Nanosciences".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2018).

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Angelo Maria Taglietti

Dipartimento Chimica, Università di Pavia, 27100 Pavia, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: antibacterial nanomaterials and surfaces; anisotropic noble metal nanoparticles for functionalization and application to biomedical and sensing problems and use in Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS); theranostic devices; supramolecular chemistry; transition metal complexes
Guest Editor
Dr. Giacomo Dacarro

Dipartimento di Chimica, Università di Pavia, viale Taramelli, 12, 27100 Pavia, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: coordination chemistry; supramolecular chemistry; inorganic nanoparticles; surface functionalization; antibacterial inorganic materials; photothermal nanoparticles

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Antimicrobial nanoparticles and nanocomposite materials have caused increasing interest over the past 20 years. Several nano-systems have been shown to be able to contribute to fight bacterial proliferation, prevent infections, and limit the enormous problem of biofilm formation on surfaces like those used in the nosocomial environment, prostheses, internalized medical devices, and in all cases where microbial presence is a factor of risk for human health. The development of innovative approaches for the realization of microbicidal and antibacterial nano-systems is flourishing and increasing scientific, technological, and industrial interests are paving the way to new types of active materials.  On the other hand, recent news about the insurgence of antibiotic resistant superbugs have spread concern throughout the bio-medical scientific community, and also through the media and the population.

For all these reasons, the time is right for an overview of the considerable efforts that are being carried out, and which are still needed to obtain efficient nano-systems with the ability to limit the proliferation of micro-organisms, such as bacteria, viruses and fungi, or to achieve their complete eradication. This Special Issue will accept outstanding contributions focused on the design, synthesis, characterization, and antimicrobial applications of nano-structured materials, and will be of interest for a wide audience of scientists, working in areas ranging from chemistry to biology, from materials science to physics, and pharmacology and nano-medicine. We will accept papers (original research or reviews) in which the antimicrobial activities of nanomaterials are projected and demonstrated, with particular emphasis on application to therapeutic tasks.

Prof. Angelo Maria Taglietti
Dr. Giacomo  Dacarro
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Antimicrobial nanomaterials

  • Antibacterial nanoparticles

  • Antimicrobial mechanisms

  • Antibacterial activity

  • Nanocomposites

  • Microbicidal surfaces

  • Antibiofilm surfaces

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Special Issue on Nano-Systems for Antimicrobial Therapy
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(7), 1292; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9071292
Received: 21 March 2019 / Accepted: 26 March 2019 / Published: 28 March 2019
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Abstract
Antibacterial materials and surfaces designed and built using the toolbox of nanotechnology are becoming the object of an increasingly boosting interest, responding to the pan-drug resistant bacteria emergency [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano-systems for Antimicrobial Therapy)

Research

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Open AccessArticle
Lactobacillus acidophilus Derived Biosurfactant as a Biofilm Inhibitor: A Promising Investigation Using Microfluidic Approach
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(9), 1555; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8091555
Received: 31 July 2018 / Revised: 18 August 2018 / Accepted: 29 August 2018 / Published: 4 September 2018
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (3356 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: Biomedical devices and implants are adversely affected by biofilm-associated infections that pose serious public health issues. Biosurfactants (BSs) can combat pathogenic biofilms through their antimicrobial, antibiofilm and antiadhesive capabilities. The objective of our research was to produce biosurfactant (BS) from Lactobacillus acidophilus [...] Read more.
Background: Biomedical devices and implants are adversely affected by biofilm-associated infections that pose serious public health issues. Biosurfactants (BSs) can combat pathogenic biofilms through their antimicrobial, antibiofilm and antiadhesive capabilities. The objective of our research was to produce biosurfactant (BS) from Lactobacillus acidophilus NCIM 2903 and investigate its antibiofilm, antiadhesive potential using microfluidics strategies by mimicking the micro-environment of biofilm. Methods: Antibiofilm and antiadhesive potential was effectively evaluated using different methods like microfluidics assay, catheter assay, polydimethlysiloxane (PDMS) disc assay. Along with this chemical and physical characteristics of BS were also evaluated. Results: Cell free biosurfactant (CFBS) obtained was found to be effective against biofilm which was validated through the microfluidic (MF) or Lab on Chip (LOC) approach. The potency of CFBS was also evaluated on catheter tubing and PDMS surfaces (representative bioimplants). The efficacy of CFBS was also demonstrated through the reduction in surface tension, interfacial tension, contact angle and low critical micelle concentration. Conclusion: CFBS was found to be a potent antimicrobial and antibiofilm agent. We believe that perhaps this is the first report on demonstrating the inhibiting effect of Lactobacillus spp. derived CFBS against selected bacteria via LOC approach. These findings can be explored to design various BSs based formulations exhibiting antimicrobial, antibiofilm and antiadhesive potential for biomedical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano-systems for Antimicrobial Therapy)
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Open AccessArticle
Cobalt (II) Complexes with Schiff Base Ligands Derived from Terephthalaldehyde and ortho-Substituted Anilines: Synthesis, Characterization and Antibacterial Activity
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(3), 385; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8030385
Received: 21 January 2018 / Revised: 26 February 2018 / Accepted: 4 March 2018 / Published: 6 March 2018
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1238 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In this study, N-propyl-benzoguanamine-SO3H magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were used as a catalyst for the synthesis of new Schiff base ligands from condensation reaction of terephthalaldehyde and ortho-aniline derivatives. The bioactive ligands and their cobalt (II) complexes were characterized with [...] Read more.
In this study, N-propyl-benzoguanamine-SO3H magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were used as a catalyst for the synthesis of new Schiff base ligands from condensation reaction of terephthalaldehyde and ortho-aniline derivatives. The bioactive ligands and their cobalt (II) complexes were characterized with nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), ultraviolet-visible (UV-Visible), mass spectroscopy studies and molar conductance. The antibacterial activity of ligands and their metal complexes were screened using disc diffusion and broth dilution methods against Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (gram negative bacteria), Bacillus Subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus (gram positive bacteria). The ligands with hydroxyl group showed better biological activity when compared to other ligands. The results showed that the metal complexes have much higher antibacterial activity compare to the parent ligands. It was found that the CoL3 complex was more effective than other metal complexes used against all types of bacteria tested and it was more effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa with diameter inhibition zone of 17 mm and minimal inhibitory concentration value of 0.15 mg/mL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano-systems for Antimicrobial Therapy)
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Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Silver Nanoparticles-Loaded Exfoliated Graphite and Its Anti-Bacterial Performance
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(8), 852; https://doi.org/10.3390/app7080852
Received: 11 July 2017 / Revised: 13 August 2017 / Accepted: 15 August 2017 / Published: 18 August 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3286 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
One antibacterial material was prepared from exfoliated graphite (EG) decorated with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The EG was prepared by the graphite intercalated compound process, AgNPs were prepared by chemical reduction of AgNO3 in the presence of NaBH4. The AgNPs-loaded EG [...] Read more.
One antibacterial material was prepared from exfoliated graphite (EG) decorated with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The EG was prepared by the graphite intercalated compound process, AgNPs were prepared by chemical reduction of AgNO3 in the presence of NaBH4. The AgNPs-loaded EG (Ag-EG) composite was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), nitrogen adsorption, mercury intrusion porosimetry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The antibacterial effect of the Ag-EG was evaluated by using the zone of inhibition method. The loaded AgNPs were highly dispersed on EG sheets and most of them have a size less than 10 nm. The Ag loading slightly increased the surface area of EG. It is shown that the Ag-EG had antibacterial activity and anti-adhesion properties against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. It suggests that Ag-EG composites could be used in a variety of industrial applications that require an antibacterial effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano-systems for Antimicrobial Therapy)
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Review

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Electrospun Nanomaterials Implementing Antibacterial Inorganic Nanophases
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(9), 1643; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8091643
Received: 2 August 2018 / Revised: 3 September 2018 / Accepted: 7 September 2018 / Published: 13 September 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3258 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Electrospinning is a versatile, simple, and low cost process for the controlled production of fibers. In recent years, its application to the development of multifunctional materials has encountered increasing success. In this paper, we briefly overview the general aspects of electrospinning and then [...] Read more.
Electrospinning is a versatile, simple, and low cost process for the controlled production of fibers. In recent years, its application to the development of multifunctional materials has encountered increasing success. In this paper, we briefly overview the general aspects of electrospinning and then we focus on the implementation of inorganic nanoantimicrobials, e.g., nanosized antimicrobial agents in electrospun fibers. The most relevant characteristics sought in nanoantimicrobials supported on (or dispersed into) polymeric materials are concisely discussed as well. The interesting literature issued in the last decade in the field of antimicrobial electrospun nanomaterials is critically described. A classification of the most relevant studies as a function of the different approaches chosen for incorporating nanoantimicrobials in the final material is also provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano-systems for Antimicrobial Therapy)
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Open AccessReview
Treatment of Biofilm Communities: An Update on New Tools from the Nanosized World
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(6), 845; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8060845
Received: 12 April 2018 / Revised: 11 May 2018 / Accepted: 22 May 2018 / Published: 23 May 2018
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1861 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Traditionally regarded as single cell organisms, bacteria naturally and preferentially build multicellular communities that enable them to react efficiently to external stimuli in a coordinated fashion and with extremely effective outcomes. These communities are bacterial biofilms, where single cells or microcolonies are embedded [...] Read more.
Traditionally regarded as single cell organisms, bacteria naturally and preferentially build multicellular communities that enable them to react efficiently to external stimuli in a coordinated fashion and with extremely effective outcomes. These communities are bacterial biofilms, where single cells or microcolonies are embedded in self-built Extracellular Polymeric Substance (EPS), composed of different macromolecules, e.g., polysaccharides, proteins, lipids, and extracellular DNA (eDNA). Despite being the most common form in nature and having many biotechnologically useful applications, biofilm is often regarded as a life-threatening form of bacterial infection. Since this form of bacterial life is intrinsically more resistant to antibiotic treatment and antimicrobial resistance is reaching alarming levels, we will focus our attention on how nanotechnology made new tools available to the medical community for the prevention and treatment of these infections. After a brief excursus on biofilm formation and its main characteristics, different types of nanomaterials developed to prevent or counteract these multicellular forms of bacterial infection will be described. A comparison of different classifications adopted for nanodrugs and a final discussion of challenges and future perspectives are also presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano-systems for Antimicrobial Therapy)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Silver Nanowires: Synthesis, Antibacterial Activity and Biomedical Applications
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(5), 673; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8050673
Received: 15 March 2018 / Revised: 18 April 2018 / Accepted: 20 April 2018 / Published: 26 April 2018
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1026 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Silver is well known for its antibacterial properties and low toxicity, and it is currently widely used both in the form of ions and of nanoparticles in many diverse products. One-dimensional silver nanowires (AgNWs) have the potential to further enhance the properties of [...] Read more.
Silver is well known for its antibacterial properties and low toxicity, and it is currently widely used both in the form of ions and of nanoparticles in many diverse products. One-dimensional silver nanowires (AgNWs) have the potential to further enhance the properties of nanosilver-containing products, since they appear to have higher antimicrobial efficacy and lower cytotoxicity. While they are widely used in optics and electronics, more studies are required in order to better understand their behavior in the biological environment and to be able to advance their application in uses such as wound healing, surface coating and drug delivery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano-systems for Antimicrobial Therapy)
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