Special Issue "Optimization of Motion Planning and Control for Automatic Machines, Robots and Multibody Systems"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Mechanical Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 1 March 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dario Richiedei
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Department of Management and Engineering, University of Padova, 36100 Vicenza, Italy
Interests: motion planning and control; mechatronics systems; multibody systems; mechanical vibrations; state estimation
Dr. Paolo Boscariol
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Management and Engineering, University of Padova, 36100 Vicenza, Italy
Interests: motion design for industrial applications; robust trajectory planning for mechatronic systems; vibration dynamics and control

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The optimization of motion and trajectory planning is an effective and usually costless approach to improve the performance of dynamic systems such as robots, mechatronic systems, automatic machines and multibody systems. Indeed, wise planning allows increasing precision and machine productivity while reducing vibrations, motion time, actuation effort and energy consumption. On the other hand, the availability of optimized methods for motion planning allows for cheaper and lighter construction of the system.

The issue of motion planning is also tightly linked with the synthesis of high-performance feedback and feedforward control schemes, which can either enhance the effectiveness of motion planning or compensate for its gaps.

I would like to invite you to contribute a paper to this Special Issue, which aims at collecting the most recent and cutting-edge developments on these relevant issues. Papers providing original results on theoretical studies as well as numerical or experimental applications on these topics, and to closely-related topics, are welcomed.

Prof. Dario Richiedei
Dr. Paolo Boscariol
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Motion and trajectory planning
  • Energy efficient motion planning
  • Model-based planning
  • Vibration suppression
  • Smooth trajectories
  • Input shaping
  • Inverse dynamics
  • Motion and trajectory control
  • Feedback control
  • Feedforward control

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
A Gesture-Based Teleoperation System for Compliant Robot Motion
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(24), 5290; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9245290 - 04 Dec 2019
Abstract
Currently, the gesture-based teleoperation system cannot generate precise and compliant robot motions because human motions have the characteristics of uncertainty and low-resolution. In this paper, a novel, gesture-based teleoperation system for compliant robot motion is proposed. By using the left hand as the [...] Read more.
Currently, the gesture-based teleoperation system cannot generate precise and compliant robot motions because human motions have the characteristics of uncertainty and low-resolution. In this paper, a novel, gesture-based teleoperation system for compliant robot motion is proposed. By using the left hand as the commander and the right hand as a positioner, different operation modes and scaling ratios can be tuned on-the-fly to meet the accuracy and efficiency requirements. Moreover, a vibration-based force feedback system was developed to provide the operator with a telepresence capability. The pick-and-place and peg-in-hole tasks were used to test the effectiveness of the teleoperation system we developed. The experiment results prove that the gesture-based teleoperation system is effective at handling compliant robot motions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Whole-Body Motion Planning for a Six-Legged Robot Walking on Rugged Terrain
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(24), 5284; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9245284 - 04 Dec 2019
Abstract
Whole-body motion planning is a key ability for legged robots, which allows for the generation of terrain adaptive behaviors and thereby improved mobility in complex environment. To this end, this paper addresses the issue of terrain geometry based whole-body motion planning for a [...] Read more.
Whole-body motion planning is a key ability for legged robots, which allows for the generation of terrain adaptive behaviors and thereby improved mobility in complex environment. To this end, this paper addresses the issue of terrain geometry based whole-body motion planning for a six-legged robot over a rugged terrain. The whole-body planning is decomposed into two sub-tasks: leg support and swing. For leg support planning, the target pose of the robot torso in a walking step is first found by maximizing the stability margin at the moment of support-swing transition and matching the orientation of the support polygon formed by target footholds. Then, the torso and thereby the leg support trajectories are generated using cubic spline interpolation and transferred into joint space through inverse kinematics. In terms of leg swing planning, the trajectories in a walking step are generated by solving an optimal problem that satisfies three constraints and a bioinspired objective function. The proposed whole-body motion planning strategies are implemented with a simulation and a real-world six-legged robot, and the results show that stable and collision-free motions can be produced for the robot over rugged terrains. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Flexible-Link Multibody System Eigenvalue Analysis Parameterized with Respect to Rigid-Body Motion
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(23), 5156; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9235156 - 28 Nov 2019
Abstract
The dynamics of flexible multibody systems (FMBSs) is governed by ordinary differential equations or differential-algebraic equations, depending on the modeling approach chosen. In both the cases, the resulting models are highly nonlinear. Thus, they are not directly suitable for the application of the [...] Read more.
The dynamics of flexible multibody systems (FMBSs) is governed by ordinary differential equations or differential-algebraic equations, depending on the modeling approach chosen. In both the cases, the resulting models are highly nonlinear. Thus, they are not directly suitable for the application of the modal analysis and the development of modal models, which are very useful for several advanced engineering techniques (e.g., motion planning, control, and stability analysis of flexible multibody systems). To define and solve an eigenvalue problem for FMBSs, the system dynamics has to be linearized about a selected configuration. However, as modal parameters vary nonlinearly with the system configuration, they should be recomputed for each change of the operating point. This procedure is computationally demanding. Additionally, it does not provide any numerical or analytical correlation between the eigenpairs computed in the different operating points. This paper discusses a parametric modal analysis approach for FMBSs, which allows to derive an analytical polynomial expression for the eigenpairs as function of the system configuration, by solving a single eigenvalue problem and using only matrix operations. The availability of a similar modal model, which explicitly depends on the system configuration, can be very helpful for, e.g., model-based motion planning and control strategies towards to zero residual vibration employing the system modal characteristics. Moreover, it allows for an easy sensitivity analysis of modal characteristics to parameter uncertainties. After the theoretical development, the method is applied and validated on a flexible multibody system, specifically using the Equivalent Rigid Link System dynamic formulation. Finally, numerical results are presented and discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Saturation Based Nonlinear FOPD Motion Control Algorithm Design for Autonomous Underwater Vehicle
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(22), 4958; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9224958 - 18 Nov 2019
Abstract
The application of Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) is expanding rapidly, which drives the urgent need of its autonomy improvement. Motion control system is one of the keys to improve the control and decision-making ability of AUVs. In this paper, a saturation based nonlinear [...] Read more.
The application of Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) is expanding rapidly, which drives the urgent need of its autonomy improvement. Motion control system is one of the keys to improve the control and decision-making ability of AUVs. In this paper, a saturation based nonlinear fractional-order PD (FOPD) controller is proposed for AUV motion control. The proposed controller is can achieve better dynamic performance as well as robustness compared with traditional PID type controller. It also has the advantages of simple structure, easy adjustment and easy implementation. The stability of the AUV motion control system with the proposed controller is analyzed through Lyapunov method. Moreover, the controlled performance can also be adjusted to satisfy different control requirements. The outperformed dynamic control performance of AUV yaw and depth systems with the proposed controller is shown by the set-point regulation and trajectory tracking simulation examples. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A SAKF-Based Composed Control Method for Improving Low-Speed Performance and Stability Accuracy of Opto-Electric Servomechanism
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(21), 4498; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9214498 - 23 Oct 2019
Abstract
The opto-electric servomechanism (OES) plays an important role in obtaining clear and stable images from airborne infrared detectors. However, the inherent torque disturbance and the noisy speed signal cause a significant decline in the inertial stability accuracy and low-speed performances of OESs. Traditional [...] Read more.
The opto-electric servomechanism (OES) plays an important role in obtaining clear and stable images from airborne infrared detectors. However, the inherent torque disturbance and the noisy speed signal cause a significant decline in the inertial stability accuracy and low-speed performances of OESs. Traditional linear control schemes cannot deal with the nonlinear torque disturbance well, and the speed obtained by the finite difference (FD) method cannot effectively balance the tradeoff between the noise filtering and phase delay. Therefore, this paper proposes a strap-down stability control scheme, in the combination of a proportional-integral(PI) controller and a state-augmented Kalman filter (SAKF), where the PI is used to regulate the linear part of the servomechanism, and with the SAKF performing torque disturbance observation and speed estimation simultaneously. The principle and the implementation of the controller are introduced, and the tuning guidelines for the controller parameters are presented as well. Finally, the experimental verifications based on OESs with three transmission types (i.e., the direct-driving, the harmonic-driving, and the rotate vector-driving(RV-driving) OESs) are carried out respectively. The experimental results show that the proposed control scheme can perform better speed observation and torque disturbance compensation for various types of OESs, thus effectively improving the low-speed performance and stability accuracy of the mechanism. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Command-Filtered Backstepping Integral Sliding Mode Control with Prescribed Performance for Ship Roll Stabilization
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(20), 4288; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9204288 - 12 Oct 2019
Abstract
In this paper, a novel, robust fin controller based on the backstepping control strategy and sliding mode control is proposed to handle the problem of ship roll stabilization. First, the mathematical model of the fin control system is established, including the modeling errors [...] Read more.
In this paper, a novel, robust fin controller based on the backstepping control strategy and sliding mode control is proposed to handle the problem of ship roll stabilization. First, the mathematical model of the fin control system is established, including the modeling errors and the external disturbances generated by sea waves. In order to address the side effects caused by differential expansion, a command-filter is implemented within the backstepping controller design. By introducing a new performance function and a corresponding error transformation, the compensated tracking error can be bounded to achieve the desired prescribed dynamic and steady-state responses. The sliding mode disturbance rejection control with prescribed performance is realized by combining the disturbance observer. Simulations are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Complex Dynamic Locomotive Control and Experimental Research of a Quadruped-Robot Based on the Robot Trunk
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(18), 3911; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9183911 - 18 Sep 2019
Abstract
The research of quadruped robots is fundamentally motivated by their excellent performance in complex terrain. Maintaining the trunk moving smoothly is the basis of assuring the stable locomotion of the robot. In this paper we propose a planning and control strategy for the [...] Read more.
The research of quadruped robots is fundamentally motivated by their excellent performance in complex terrain. Maintaining the trunk moving smoothly is the basis of assuring the stable locomotion of the robot. In this paper we propose a planning and control strategy for the pacing gait of hydraulic quadruped robots based on the centroid. Initially, the kinematic model between the single leg and the robot trunk was established. The coupling of trunk motion and leg motion was elaborated on in detail. Then, the real-time attitude feedback information of the trunk was considered, the motion trajectory of the trunk centroid was planned, and the foot trajectory of the robot was carried out. Further, the joint torques were calculated that fulfillment minimization of the contact forces. The position and attitude of the robot trunk were adjusted by the presented controller. Finally, the performance of the proposed control framework was tested in simulations and on a robot platform. By comparing the attitude of the robot trunk, the experimental results show that the trunk moved smoothly with small-magnitude by the proposed controller. The stable dynamic motion of the hydraulic quadruped robot was accomplished, which verified the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed control strategy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Anti-Slip Gait Planning for a Humanoid Robot in Fast Walking
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(13), 2657; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9132657 - 29 Jun 2019
Abstract
Humanoid robots are expected to have broad applications due to their biped mobility and human-like shape. To increase the walking speed, it is necessary to increase the power for driving the joints of legs. However, the resulting mass increasing of the legs leads [...] Read more.
Humanoid robots are expected to have broad applications due to their biped mobility and human-like shape. To increase the walking speed, it is necessary to increase the power for driving the joints of legs. However, the resulting mass increasing of the legs leads to a rotational slip when a robot is walking fast. In this paper, a 3D three-mass model is proposed, in which both the trunk and thighs are regarded as an inverted pendulum, and the shanks and feet are considered as mass-points under no constraints with the trunk. Then based on the model, a friction constraint method is proposed to plan the trajectory of the swing leg in order to achieve the fastest walking speed without any rotational slip. Furthermore, the compensation for zero-moment point (ZMP) is calculated based on the 3D three-mass model, and the hip trajectory is obtained based on the compensated ZMP trajectory by using the preview control method, thus improving the robot’s overall ZMP follow-up effect. This planning method involves simple calculations but reliable results. Finally, simulations confirm that the rotational slip is avoided while stable and fast walking is realized, with free joints of the waist and arms, which then could be planned for other tasks. Full article
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