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Preparation, Characterization and Modelling of Advanced Membranes

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials Science and Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2020) | Viewed by 21466

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Institute on Membrane Technology, CNR-ITM, Via P. Bucci 17/C, 87036 Rende, CS, Italy
Interests: polymeric and hybrid membranes for gas and vapour separation; membrane preparation by phase inversion techniques; principles of pure and mixed gas and vapour transport in membranes by sorption and permeation experiments; structural, mechanical and thermal properties of polymers, polymer blends and hybrid materials; physical aging; polymers of intrinsic microporosity; perfluoropolymer membranes; ionic liquid membraness; carbon dioxide capture
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute on Membrane Technology, ITM-CNR, Via P. Bucci, Cubo 17/C, 87036 Rende (CS), Italy
Interests: polymeric and mixed matrix membranes; gas separation membranes; computational methods for membrane science; transport phenomena
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute on Membrane Technology, ITM-CNR, Via P. Bucci, Cubo 17/C, 87036 Rende, CS, Italy
Interests: preparation and characterization of dense and composite membranes for gas separation; biogas purification using thin‐film composite membranes; synthesis and transport properties of novel mixed matrix membranes; hollow fiber membrane modules for CO2/CH4 separation; membrane based on polymer blends and polymer/ionic liquid gels; preparation of membranes based on polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIMs); CO2 sorption in ionic liquids
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Institute on Membrane Technology, ITM-CNR, Via P. Bucci, Cubo 17/C, 87036 Rende (CS), Italy
Interests: preparation and characterization of neat polymer membranes and mixed matrix membranes; pure and mixed gas permeation; facilitated transport membranes; mass spectrometric gas analysis; gas and vapor transport in polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIMs)

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Membrane separations are becoming increasingly important for a number of processes that were traditionally performed by normal or cryogenic distillation, pressure swing adsorption, crystallization, chromatographic, or other separation processes. Their popularity has resulted from their compact modular design, relatively low energy consumption, small footprint, low or lack of chemical use, and environmentally benign operation in general. Increasingly demanding separation processes require strong research efforts for the development of novel membranes, membrane materials, or membrane processes with maximum performance, good durability, low fouling, and good resistance under the operation conditions. In order to obtain successful practical solutions for separation processes, the development of novel materials, from synthesis to full characterization and modeling of their structure and properties, must go hand in hand with advanced membrane preparation methods, module production, and process design and construction.

In this light, this Special Issue of Applied Sciences aims to provide an overview of state-of-the-art research in the preparation, characterization, and modeling of advanced membranes. The envisaged applications range from gas and vapor separation, to pervaporation, nano-, ultra-, and micro-filtration, direct and reverse electrodialysis, forward and reverse osmosis, and all other fields where membranes play a central role. It is a collection of publications that focus on the membrane materials, their synthesis, properties and performance, both from the experimental viewpoint and through modeling approaches.

Dr. Johannes Carolus (John) Jansen
Dr. Alessio Fuoco
Dr. Elisa Esposito
Dr. Marcello Monteleone
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • polymeric membranes
  • mixed matrix membranes
  • inorganic membranes
  • gas separation
  • membrane filtration
  • fouling
  • membrane contactors
  • membrane preparation and characterization
  • sustainability

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

15 pages, 3380 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Capillary Flow Porometry (CFP) and Liquid Extrusion Porometry (LEP) Techniques for the Characterization of Porous and Face Mask Membranes
by R. I. Peinador, José I. Calvo and Roger Ben Aim
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(16), 5703; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10165703 - 17 Aug 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3446
Abstract
This work aims to study the characterization of several membrane filters by using capillary flow porometry (CFP) and liquid extrusion porometry (LEP) to obtain their pore size distributions (PSD) and mean pore diameters (davg). Three polymeric membranes of different materials namely, [...] Read more.
This work aims to study the characterization of several membrane filters by using capillary flow porometry (CFP) and liquid extrusion porometry (LEP) to obtain their pore size distributions (PSD) and mean pore diameters (davg). Three polymeric membranes of different materials namely, polyethylene (PET), cellulose nitrate (CN), and FM (face mask), and one inorganic (namely, alumina Al2O3) from ultrafiltration (UF)/microfiltration (MF) and particle separation were analyzed using a pressure constant fluid/liquid extrusion porometer, developed at institute de la filtration et techniques séparatives (IFTS). Several porosimetric fluids have been used to wet and penetrate into the porous/fiber structure. The results show the accuracy of the setup on characterizing membranes in the UF/MF range by CFP, with reasonable agreement with nominal data of the filters. Additionally, LEP extension of the equipment obtained good agreement with nominal data and the CFP results, while filters presenting a microstructure of highly interconnected pores (face mask) resulted in clear differences in terms of resulting PSD and average sizes when CFP and LEP results are compared. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preparation, Characterization and Modelling of Advanced Membranes)
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19 pages, 2448 KiB  
Article
Water Vapour Promotes CO2 Transport in Poly(ionic liquid)/Ionic Liquid-Based Thin-Film Composite Membranes Containing Zinc Salt for Flue Gas Treatment
by Daria Nikolaeva, Sandrine Loïs, Paul Inge Dahl, Marius Sandru, Jolanta Jaschik, Marek Tanczyk, Alessio Fuoco, Johannes Carolus Jansen and Ivo F.J. Vankelecom
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(11), 3859; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10113859 - 1 Jun 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3165
Abstract
A poly(ionic-liquid) (PIL) matrix can be altered by incorporating additives that will disrupt the polymer chain packing, such as an ionic liquid (IL) and inorganic salts to boost their exploitation as materials for membrane production to be used in CO2 capture. Herein, [...] Read more.
A poly(ionic-liquid) (PIL) matrix can be altered by incorporating additives that will disrupt the polymer chain packing, such as an ionic liquid (IL) and inorganic salts to boost their exploitation as materials for membrane production to be used in CO2 capture. Herein, potential of PIL/IL/salt blends is investigated on the example of poly(diallyldimethyl ammonium) bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (P[DADMA][Tf2N]) with N-butyl-N-methyl pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([Pyrr14][Tf2N]) and zinc di-bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (Zn[Tf2N]2). Composite material with IL and a higher amount of Zn2+ showed an increase in the equilibrium CO2 sorption capacity to 2.77 cm3 (STP)cm −3 bar−1. Prepared blends were successfully processed into thick, dense membranes and thin-film composite membranes. Their CO2 separation efficiency was determined using ideal and mixed-gas feed (vol% CO2 = 50 , dry and with 90% relative humidity). The dominant role of solubility in the transport mechanism is confirmed by combining direct gravimetric sorption measurements and indirect estimations from time-lag experiments. The maximum incorporated amount of Zn2+ salts increased equilibrium solubility selectivity by at least 50% in comparison to the parent PIL. All materials showed increased CO2 permeance values by at least 30% in dry conditions, and 60% in humidified conditions when compared to the parent PIL; the performance of pure PIL remained unchanged upon addition of water vapor to the feed stream. Mixed-gas selectivities for all materials rose by 10% in humidified conditions when compared to dry feed experiments. Our results confirm that the addition of IL improves the performance of PIL-based composites due to lower stiffness of the membrane matrix. The addition of Zn2+-based salt had a marginal effect on CO2 separation efficiency, suggesting that the cation participates in the facilitated transport of CO2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preparation, Characterization and Modelling of Advanced Membranes)
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13 pages, 1730 KiB  
Article
Combination of the Experimental and Theoretical Approaches for the Estimation of the C1–C4 Alkane Permeability Parameters in Poly (4-Methyl-2-Pentyne) and Poly (4-Methyl-1-Pentene)
by Svetlana Markova, Vyacheslav Zhmakin, Thomas Gries and Vladimir Teplyakov
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(5), 1735; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10051735 - 3 Mar 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3137
Abstract
Poly (4-methyl-2-pentyne) (PMPentyne) and poly (4-methyl-1-pentene) (PMPentene) as membrane gas-separating media were studied with a combination of experimental and theoretical approaches. Experimental approaches included the permeability measurements for C1–C4 alkanes in linear heating mode (for PMPentyne) and under isothermal conditions [...] Read more.
Poly (4-methyl-2-pentyne) (PMPentyne) and poly (4-methyl-1-pentene) (PMPentene) as membrane gas-separating media were studied with a combination of experimental and theoretical approaches. Experimental approaches included the permeability measurements for C1–C4 alkanes in linear heating mode (for PMPentyne) and under isothermal conditions (for PMPentene), and diffusivity evaluation by a differential method for PMPentene. Theoretical approaches included the ‘hard-spheres’ theory for calculation of gas solubility in PMPentyne and gas transport theory for two-phase systems for the estimation of the amorphous and crystalline phases contribution in PMPentene. Correlation analysis was used for any type of gas transfer parameter calculation where experimental data were lacking. These combinations of methods allowed obtaining the whole set of parameters for any gas–polymer pairing and explained the butane-selective properties revealed in PMPentyne (C1 < C2 < C3 < C4) and methane-selective properties of PMPentene (C1 > C2 > C3 > C4). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preparation, Characterization and Modelling of Advanced Membranes)
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20 pages, 6252 KiB  
Article
Glassy PEEK-WC vs. Rubbery Pebax®1657 Polymers: Effect on the Gas Transport in CuNi-MOF Based Mixed Matrix Membranes
by Elisa Esposito, Rosaria Bruno, Marcello Monteleone, Alessio Fuoco, Jesús Ferrando Soria, Emilio Pardo, Donatella Armentano and Johannes Carolus Jansen
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(4), 1310; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10041310 - 14 Feb 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3802
Abstract
Mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) are seen as promising candidates to overcome the fundamental limit of polymeric membranes, known as the so-called Robeson upper bound, which defines the best compromise between permeability and selectivity of neat polymeric membranes. To overcome this limit, the permeability [...] Read more.
Mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) are seen as promising candidates to overcome the fundamental limit of polymeric membranes, known as the so-called Robeson upper bound, which defines the best compromise between permeability and selectivity of neat polymeric membranes. To overcome this limit, the permeability of the filler particles in the MMM must be carefully matched with that of the polymer matrix. The present work shows that it is not sufficient to match only the permeability of the polymer and the dispersed phase, but that one should consider also the individual contributions of the diffusivity and the solubility of the gas in both components. Here we compare the gas transport performance of two different MMMs, containing the metal–organic framework CuNi-MOF in the rubbery Pebax®1657 and in the glassy poly(ether-ether-ketone) with cardo moiety, PEEK-WC. The chemical and structural properties of MMMs were investigated by means of FT-IR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and EDX analysis. The influence of MOF on the mechanical and thermal properties of both polymers was investigated by tensile tests and differential scanning calorimetry, respectively. The MOF loading in Pebax®1657 increased the ideal H2/N2 selectivity from 6 to 8 thanks to an increased H2 permeability. In general, the MOF had little effect on the Pebax®165 membranes because an increase in gas solubility was neutralized by an equivalent decrease in effective diffusivity. Instead, the addition of MOF to PEEK-WC increases the ideal CO2/CH4 selectivity from 30 to ~48 thanks to an increased CO2 permeability (from 6 to 48 Barrer). The increase in CO2 permeability and CO2/CH4 selectivity is maintained under mixed gas conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preparation, Characterization and Modelling of Advanced Membranes)
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12 pages, 636 KiB  
Article
Mass Transfer Through Graphene-Based Membranes
by Valerij Levdansky, Olina Šolcová, Karel Friess and Pavel Izák
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(2), 455; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10020455 - 8 Jan 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2143
Abstract
The problems related to the transport of gases through nanoporous graphene (NG) and graphene oxide (GO) membranes are considered. The influence of surface processes on the transport of gas molecules through the aforementioned membranes is studied theoretically. The obtained regularities allow finding the [...] Read more.
The problems related to the transport of gases through nanoporous graphene (NG) and graphene oxide (GO) membranes are considered. The influence of surface processes on the transport of gas molecules through the aforementioned membranes is studied theoretically. The obtained regularities allow finding the dependence of the flux of the gas molecules passing through the membrane on the kinetic parameters which describe the interaction of the gas molecules with the graphene sheets. This allows to take into account the influence of external fields (e.g., resonance radiation), affecting the aforementioned kinetic parameters, on the transport of gas molecules through the membranes. The proposed approach makes it possible to explain some experimental results related to mass transfer in the GO membranes. The possibility of the management of mass transfer through the NG and GO membranes using resonance radiation is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preparation, Characterization and Modelling of Advanced Membranes)
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21 pages, 6489 KiB  
Article
Crosslinked Facilitated Transport Membranes Based on Carboxymethylated NFC and Amine-Based Fixed Carriers for Carbon Capture, Utilization, and Storage Applications
by Benjamin Dhuiège, Elsa Lasseuguette, Marie-Christine Brochier-Salon, Maria-Chiara Ferrari and Karim Missoum
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 414; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10010414 - 6 Jan 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3714
Abstract
Herein, we report the performances of crosslinked facilitated transport membranes based on carboxymethylated nanofibrils of cellulose (cmNFC) and polyvinylamine (PVAm) with the use of 3-(2-Aminoethylamino) propyltrimethoxysilane (AEAPTMS) as second fixed carrier for CO2 selectivity and permeability. The grafting of AEAPTMS on cmNFC [...] Read more.
Herein, we report the performances of crosslinked facilitated transport membranes based on carboxymethylated nanofibrils of cellulose (cmNFC) and polyvinylamine (PVAm) with the use of 3-(2-Aminoethylamino) propyltrimethoxysilane (AEAPTMS) as second fixed carrier for CO2 selectivity and permeability. The grafting of AEAPTMS on cmNFC was optimized by following the hydrolysis/condensation kinetics by 29Si Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) analyses and two different strategies of the process of membrane production were investigated. In optimized conditions, around 25% of the -COOH functions from cmNFC have crosslinked with PVAm. The crosslinked membranes were less sensitive to liquid water and the crystallinity of PVAm was tuned by the conditions of the membrane elaboration. In both processes, CO2 selectivity and permeability were enhanced especially at high water vapor concentration by the use of PVAm and AEAPTMS suggesting the existence of a facilitation effect due to amine-CO2 interaction, while the mechanical integrity of the swollen membranes remained intact. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preparation, Characterization and Modelling of Advanced Membranes)
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