Special Issue "Material Development for Additive Manufacturing and Injection Moulding"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Joamin Gonzalez-Gutierrez
Website SciProfiles
Guest Editor
Department of Polymer Engineering and Science, Institute of Polymer Processing, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Otto Gloeckel-Strasse 2 A-8700 Leoben, Austria
Interests: Development; characterization; processing and recycling of polymers; composites & biomaterials Extrusion; compounding; injection molding & additive manufacturing of polymers and composites.
Prof. Dr. Christian Kukla
Website1 Website2 SciProfiles
Guest Editor
Industrial Liaison Department, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Peter Tunner-Strasse 27A-8700 Leoben, Austria
Interests: The development of materials for powder injection moulding and additive manufacturing; The characterization of highly-filled polymers

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

It is our pleasure to announce the opening of a new Special Issue in the Applied Science Journal.

The main topics of the Issue will be material development for injection moulding and additive manufacturing. Injection moulding is one of the most commonly used manufacturing methods for the mass production of parts with complex geometry for a variety of industries. In recent years, additive manufacturing has been greatly improved, and it is the technology of choice for the manufacturing of products with very high complex geometry, in limited amounts and with customizable features. One can say that these two technologies complement each other, rather than compete with one another. In addition, both processes require the use of specific materials that must fulfil a variety of requirements in order to obtain good-quality products in a repeatable manner.

From this perspective, this Special Issue wants to contribute to the field, presenting the most relevant advances in the development, processing, characterization, and simulations of materials for injection moulding and additive manufacturing.

The following are some of the proposed materials to be included in but not limted to this Special Issue:

  • Polymer composites and blends for special injection moulding or extrusion-based additive manufacturing;
  • Polymeric biomaterials for injection moulding and additive manufacturing;
  • Highly-filled polymers for injection moulding and additive manufacturing;
  • Filled and unfilled resins for vat photo-polymerization and material jetting;
  • Binder agents and powders for binder jetting;
  • Powders for powder bed fusion and direct additive energy deposition;
  • Materials for hybrid manufacturing methods.

We hope you will contribute your high-quality research, and we look forward to reading your valuable results.

Dr. Joamin Gonzalez-Gutierrez
Prof. Dr. Christian Kukla
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • additive manufacturing
  • injection molding
  • metal
  • ceramics
  • polymer composites
  • polymer blends
  • powder
  • photo-polymerization
  • binder
  • hybrid manufacturing

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Rheology and Curability Characterization of Photosensitive Slurries for 3D Printing of Si3N4 Ceramics
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(18), 6438; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10186438 - 16 Sep 2020
Abstract
Among a series of 3D printing techniques, stereolithography provides a new route to produce ceramic architectures with the advantages of high-precision and short cycle time. However, up to now the stereolithography of non-oxide ceramics still face complex and difficult problems. This work focused [...] Read more.
Among a series of 3D printing techniques, stereolithography provides a new route to produce ceramic architectures with the advantages of high-precision and short cycle time. However, up to now the stereolithography of non-oxide ceramics still face complex and difficult problems. This work focused on the analysis of rheological and curing ability of Si3N4 photocurable slurries. The effects of monomer type, coarse silicon powder, solid loading and ambient temperature on the rheological behavior were intensively studied. The relationships between powder characteristic (involving refractive index, absorbance and the introduce of coarse silicon powder), monomer type and curing ability were discussed in detail. It is expected that this study may benefit the development of Si3N4 or other non-oxide ceramic slurries for stereolithography. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Research and Implementation of Axial 3D Printing Method for PLA Pipes
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(13), 4680; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10134680 - 07 Jul 2020
Abstract
Additive manufacturing has been applied in many fields, but its layer-by-layer fabrication process leads to a weak inter-layer bond strength of printed parts, so it cannot meet the higher requirements for mechanical properties of the industry. At present, many researchers are studying the [...] Read more.
Additive manufacturing has been applied in many fields, but its layer-by-layer fabrication process leads to a weak inter-layer bond strength of printed parts, so it cannot meet the higher requirements for mechanical properties of the industry. At present, many researchers are studying the printing path planning method to improve the mechanical properties of printed parts. This paper proposes a method to plan the printing path according to the actual stress of pipe parts, and introduces the realization process of an algorithm in detail, and obtains the printing control G-code. Additionally, a 5-axis material extrusion platform was built to realize the printing of polylactic acid pipes with plane and space skeleton curves, respectively, which verified the feasibility and applicability of the method and the correctness of the planning path with standard material extrusion filaments. Finally, the tensile and bending experiments prove that axial printing enhances the mechanical properties of pipe parts. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
SHS Produced TiB2-Si Powders for Selective Laser Melting of Ceramic-Based Composite
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(9), 3283; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10093283 - 08 May 2020
Abstract
One of the main limitations for widespread additive manufacturing is availability and processability of the precursor materials feedstock. For the first time, this study reports the development of a “pomegranate-like” structured TiB2-Si ceramic-metalloid powder feedstock suitable for selective laser melting (SLM) [...] Read more.
One of the main limitations for widespread additive manufacturing is availability and processability of the precursor materials feedstock. For the first time, this study reports the development of a “pomegranate-like” structured TiB2-Si ceramic-metalloid powder feedstock suitable for selective laser melting (SLM) of ceramic-based composite. The powder was produced via self-propagating high temperature synthesis (SHS) at a moderate combustion temperature of 1530 °C. The effective activation energy in the Ti-B-Si system for the slow step of the combustion process was estimated as 184 kJ. Conditions of SHS process demonstrated a strong influence on the properties of produced powders and, therefore, on SLM parameters and properties of the printed materials. The powders have demonstrated a high performance for manufacturing bulks of 56 wt%TiB2–44 wt%Si ceramic-based composite. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Solution Extrusion Additive Manufacturing of Biodegradable Polycaprolactone
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(9), 3189; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10093189 - 03 May 2020
Abstract
Polycaprolactone (PCL) is a resorbable semicrystalline polymer that degrades slowly via hydrolysis and has applications in medical implants and drug delivery. As a result of its low melting point, PCL can be processed easily by conventional polymer processing techniques. However, the additive manufacturing [...] Read more.
Polycaprolactone (PCL) is a resorbable semicrystalline polymer that degrades slowly via hydrolysis and has applications in medical implants and drug delivery. As a result of its low melting point, PCL can be processed easily by conventional polymer processing techniques. However, the additive manufacturing of PCL remains a challenge, mainly due to the fact that there are no commercially available filaments for traditional fused deposition modeling (FDM). Furthermore, when the materials are fabricated via FDM for drug delivery applications, the high temperature may deactivate the incorporated drugs/biomolecules. This study investigates the solution extrusion additive manufacturing of PCL using a lab-developed solution-type device. The device comprises a solution extrusion feeder, driving stepper motors, a power source, a syringe equipped with a dispensing tip, an accumulation platform, and a control interface. The influences of different manufacturing parameters on part quality were evaluated. The experimental results suggest that the tensile strength of the additively manufactured parts increases with fill density but decreases with the ratio of PCL to dichloromethane (DCM) and moving speed of the dispensing tip. Parts fabricated by 90° print orientation of infill exhibited the greatest mechanical strength. The fabricated parts tend to heal the gaps among strips after additive manufacturing, but tiny pores can still be seen on the surfaces. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Novel Hybrid PETG Composites for 3D Printing
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(9), 3062; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10093062 - 28 Apr 2020
Abstract
This paper is focused on the preparation of novel hybrid polymer composite materials for 3D filaments. As the reinforcing filler, expanded graphite, carbon fibers, and combinations thereof were used in various ratios up to 10%. The mechanical and thermal properties of virgin and [...] Read more.
This paper is focused on the preparation of novel hybrid polymer composite materials for 3D filaments. As the reinforcing filler, expanded graphite, carbon fibers, and combinations thereof were used in various ratios up to 10%. The mechanical and thermal properties of virgin and recycled polyethylene phthalate glycol-modified (PETG) composite materials were determined. Almost all prepared composite materials were suitable for 3D printing and they have enhanced mechanical properties compared to the neat PETG matrices. Addition of the fillers to both polymer matrices has an only slight effect on the thermal stability, but the addition of carbon fibers significantly reduced the thermal expansion coefficient. The composites from cheaper recycled PETG have comparable properties to virgin PETG composites, which is of economic and ecological importance. New and cheaper materials can help expand 3D printing to manufacturing plants and the use of 3D printers for special applications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Modification of Interfacial Interactions in Ceramic-Polymer Nanocomposites by Grafting: Morphology and Properties for Powder Injection Molding and Additive Manufacturing
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(4), 1471; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10041471 - 21 Feb 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The adhesion of the polymer to ceramic nanoparticles is a key aspect in the manufacturing of ceramic parts by additive manufacturing and injection molding, due to poor separation results in separation during processing. The purpose of this research is to investigate, by means [...] Read more.
The adhesion of the polymer to ceramic nanoparticles is a key aspect in the manufacturing of ceramic parts by additive manufacturing and injection molding, due to poor separation results in separation during processing. The purpose of this research is to investigate, by means of molecular dynamics simulations and experimental methods, the role of improved interfacial interactions by acrylic acid grafting-high density polyethylene on the adhesion to zirconia nanoparticles and on the composite properties. The polymer grafting results in high adhesion to the nanoparticles, increases the nanoparticles dispersion and improves the viscoelastic and mechanical properties required for additive manufacturing and injection molding. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
An Overview of Material Extrusion Troubleshooting
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(14), 4776; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10144776 - 11 Jul 2020
Abstract
Material extrusion (ME) systems offer end-users with a more affordable and accessible additive manufacturing (AM) technology compared to other processes in the market. ME is often used to quickly produce low-cost prototyping with the freedom of scalability where parts can be produced in [...] Read more.
Material extrusion (ME) systems offer end-users with a more affordable and accessible additive manufacturing (AM) technology compared to other processes in the market. ME is often used to quickly produce low-cost prototyping with the freedom of scalability where parts can be produced in different geometries, quantities and sizes. As the use of desktop ME machines has gained widespread adoption, this review paper discusses the key design strategies and considerations to produce high quality ME parts, as well as providing actional advice to aid end-users in quickly identifying and efficiently troubleshooting issues since current information is often fragmented and incomplete. The systemic issues and solutions concerning desktop ME processes discussed are not machine-specific, covering categories according to printer-associated, deposition-associated and print quality problems. The findings show that the majority of issues are associated with incorrect printer calibration and parameters, hardware, material, Computer Aided Design (CAD) model and/or slicing settings. A chart for an overview of ME troubleshooting is presented allowing designers and engineers to straightforwardly determine the possible contributing factors to a particular problem. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Concepts and Terminologies in 4D Printing
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(13), 4443; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10134443 - 27 Jun 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
4D printing (4DP) is a promising technology that enables additive manufactured parts to be programmed for actuation, reducing the need for external power or electromechanical systems. As this area of research has grown exponentially, this review paper aims to define and establish fundamental [...] Read more.
4D printing (4DP) is a promising technology that enables additive manufactured parts to be programmed for actuation, reducing the need for external power or electromechanical systems. As this area of research has grown exponentially, this review paper aims to define and establish fundamental concepts and terminologies used in the field of 4DP. The objective is to encourage researchers to adopt a more consistent approach and a standardized set of vocabulary associated with this emerging field. Even though the paper covers the most widely used definitions, the multidisciplinary nature may mean that certain words could be used interchangeably or have a different meaning in another context. Full article
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