Manufacturing Metrology

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Mechanical Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2021) | Viewed by 69788

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Guest Editor
School of Mechanical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, China
Interests: precision metrology; precision machine design; machine tool accuracy
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Guest Editor
Loughborough University, Epinal Way, Loughborough LE11 3TU, UK
Interests: metrology; sensors; automation; manufacturing

Special Issue Information

Dear Collegaues,

Metrology is the science of measurement, which can be divided into three overlapping activities: (1) the definition of units of measurement, (2) the realization of units of measurement, and (3) the traceability of measurement units. The term “manufacturing metrology” was originally used to indicate the measurement of components and inputs for a manufacturing process to assure that they are within specification requirements. It can also indicate the performance measurement of manufacturing equipment.

This Special Issue welcomes papers revealing novel measurement methodologies and instrumentations for manufacturing metrology from conventional industry to the frontier of advanced hi-tech industry. We are proud to work with a team of skillful editorial assistants and highly efficient and experienced reviewers. Under our services, your research outcomes can be realized in the production of high-quality papers within a short time. Please submit your manuscripts related to, but not limited to, the following areas:

  1. Precision dimensional measurements.
  2. New technology or instruments of on-machine measurements.
  3. In-process dimensional control or error compensation.
  4. Machine tool metrology.
  5. Robot metrology.
  6. Strategic planning of manufacturing metrology.
  7. Traceability, uncertainty analysis of measurement systems.

Prof. Dr. Kuang-Chao Fan
Dr. Peter Kinnell
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Manufacturing metrology
  • Quality control
  • Dimensional measurement
  • Machine tool metrology
  • Robot accuracy
  • Manufacturing process

Published Papers (26 papers)

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Editorial

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4 pages, 196 KiB  
Editorial
Special Issue on Manufacturing Metrology
by Kuang-Chao Fan and Peter Kinnell
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(22), 10660; https://doi.org/10.3390/app112210660 - 12 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1139
Abstract
Metrology is the science of measurement and can be divided into three overlapping activities: (1) the definition of units of measurement, (2) the realization of units of measurement, and (3) the traceability of measurement units [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Manufacturing Metrology)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

15 pages, 10511 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Pad Surface Metrology Monitoring by Swing-Arm Chromatic Confocal System
by Chao-Chang A. Chen, Jen-Chieh Li, Wei-Cheng Liao, Yong-Jie Ciou and Chun-Chen Chen
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(1), 179; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11010179 - 27 Dec 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3348
Abstract
This study aims to develop a dynamic pad monitoring system (DPMS) for measuring the surface topography of polishing pad. Chemical mechanical planarization/polishing (CMP) is a vital process in semiconductor manufacturing. The process is applied to assure the substrate wafer or thin film on [...] Read more.
This study aims to develop a dynamic pad monitoring system (DPMS) for measuring the surface topography of polishing pad. Chemical mechanical planarization/polishing (CMP) is a vital process in semiconductor manufacturing. The process is applied to assure the substrate wafer or thin film on wafer that has reached the required planarization after deposition for lithographic processing of the desired structures of devices. Surface properties of polishing pad have a huge influence on the material removal rate (MRR) and quality of wafer surface by CMP process. A DPMS has been developed to analyze the performance level of polishing pad for CMP. A chromatic confocal sensor is attached on a designed fixture arm to acquire pad topography data. By swing-arm motion with continuous data acquisition, the surface topography information of pad can be gathered dynamically. Measuring data are analyzed with a designed FFT filter to remove mechanical vibration and disturbance. Then the pad surface profile and groove depth can be calculated, which the pad’s index PU (pad uniformity) and PELI (pad effective lifetime index) are developed to evaluate the pad’s performance level. Finally, 50 rounds of CMP experiments have been executed to investigate the correlations of MRR and surface roughness of as-CMP wafer with pad performance. Results of this study can be used to monitor the pad dressing process and CMP parameter evaluation for production of IC devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Manufacturing Metrology)
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15 pages, 4895 KiB  
Article
Detecting and Measuring Defects in Wafer Die Using GAN and YOLOv3
by Ssu-Han Chen, Chih-Hsiang Kang and Der-Baau Perng
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(23), 8725; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10238725 - 05 Dec 2020
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 3969
Abstract
This research used deep learning methods to develop a set of algorithms to detect die particle defects. Generative adversarial network (GAN) generated natural and realistic images, which improved the ability of you only look once version 3 (YOLOv3) to detect die defects. Then [...] Read more.
This research used deep learning methods to develop a set of algorithms to detect die particle defects. Generative adversarial network (GAN) generated natural and realistic images, which improved the ability of you only look once version 3 (YOLOv3) to detect die defects. Then defects were measured based on the bounding boxes predicted by YOLOv3, which potentially provided the criteria for die quality sorting. The pseudo defective images generated by GAN from the real defective images were used as the training image set. The results obtained after training with the combination of the real and pseudo defective images were 7.33% higher in testing average precision (AP) and more accurate by one decimal place in testing coordinate error than after training with the real images alone. The GAN can enhance the diversity of defects, which improves the versatility of YOLOv3 somewhat. In summary, the method of combining GAN and YOLOv3 employed in this study creates a feature-free algorithm that does not require a massive collection of defective samples and does not require additional annotation of pseudo defects. The proposed method is feasible and advantageous for cases that deal with various kinds of die patterns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Manufacturing Metrology)
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22 pages, 7432 KiB  
Article
From Light to Displacement: A Design Framework for Optimising Spectral-Domain Low-Coherence Interferometric Sensors for In Situ Measurement
by Tom Hovell, Jon Petzing, Laura Justham and Peter Kinnell
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(23), 8590; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10238590 - 30 Nov 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2314
Abstract
Growing requirements for in situ metrology during manufacturing have led to an increased interest in optical coherence tomography (OCT) configurations of low coherence interferometry (LCI) for industrial domains. This paper investigates the optimisation of spectral domain OCT hardware and signal processing for such [...] Read more.
Growing requirements for in situ metrology during manufacturing have led to an increased interest in optical coherence tomography (OCT) configurations of low coherence interferometry (LCI) for industrial domains. This paper investigates the optimisation of spectral domain OCT hardware and signal processing for such implementations. A collation of the underlying theory of OCT configured LCI systems from disparate sources linking the journey of the light reflected from the object surface to the definition of the measurand is presented. This is portrayed in an applicable, comprehensible design framework through its application to profilometry measurements for optimising system performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Manufacturing Metrology)
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13 pages, 6141 KiB  
Article
Surface Texture Measurement on Complex Geometry Using Dual-Scan Positioning Strategy
by Fang Cheng, Shaowei Fu and Ziran Chen
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(23), 8418; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10238418 - 26 Nov 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2676
Abstract
In this paper, a surface measurement method based on dual-scan positioning strategy is presented to address the challenges of irregular surface patterns and complex geometries. A confocal sensor with an internal scanning mechanism was used in this study. By synchronizing the local scan, [...] Read more.
In this paper, a surface measurement method based on dual-scan positioning strategy is presented to address the challenges of irregular surface patterns and complex geometries. A confocal sensor with an internal scanning mechanism was used in this study. By synchronizing the local scan, enabled by the internal actuator in the confocal sensor, and the global scans, enabled by external positioners, the developed system was able to perform noncontact line scan and area scan. Thus, this system was able to measure both surface roughness and surface uniformity. Unlike laboratory surface measurement equipment, the proposed system is reconfigurable for in situ measurement and able to scan free-form surfaces with a proper stand-off distance and approaching angle. For long-travel line scan, which is needed for rough surfaces, a surface form tracing algorithm was developed to ensure that the data were always captured within the sensing range of the confocal sensor. It was experimentally verified that in a scanning length of 100 mm, where the surface fluctuation in vertical direction is around 10 mm, the system was able to perform accurate surface measurement. For area scan, XY coordinates provided by the lateral positioning system and the Z coordinate captured by the confocal sensor were plotted into one coordinate system for 3D reconstruction. A coherence scanning interferometer and a confocal microscope were employed as the reference measurement systems to verify the performance of the proposed system in a scanning area of 1 mm by 1 mm. Experimental data showed that the proposed system was able to achieve comparable accuracy with laboratory systems. The measurement deviation was within 0.1 µm. Because line scan mechanisms are widely used in sensor design, the presented work can be generalized to expand the applications of line scan sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Manufacturing Metrology)
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9 pages, 2380 KiB  
Article
Photonic Microwave Distance Interferometry Using a Mode-Locked Laser with Systematic Error Correction
by Wooram Kim, Haijin Fu, Keunwoo Lee, Seongheum Han, Yoon-Soo Jang and Seung-Woo Kim
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(21), 7649; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10217649 - 29 Oct 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2077
Abstract
We report an absolute interferometer configured with a 1 GHz microwave source photonically synthesized from a fiber mode-locked laser of a 100 MHz pulse repetition rate. Special attention is paid to the identification of the repeatable systematic error with its subsequent suppression by [...] Read more.
We report an absolute interferometer configured with a 1 GHz microwave source photonically synthesized from a fiber mode-locked laser of a 100 MHz pulse repetition rate. Special attention is paid to the identification of the repeatable systematic error with its subsequent suppression by means of passive compensation as well as active correction. Experimental results show that passive compensation permits the measurement error to be less than 7.8 μm (1 σ) over a 2 m range, which further reduces to 3.5 μm (1 σ) by active correction as it is limited ultimately by the phase-resolving power of the phasemeter employed in this study. With precise absolute distance ranging capability, the proposed scheme of the photonic microwave interferometer is expected to replace conventional incremental-type interferometers in diverse long-distance measurement applications, particularly for large machine axis control, precision geodetic surveying and inter-satellite ranging in space. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Manufacturing Metrology)
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18 pages, 20188 KiB  
Article
A Fast Laser Adjustment-Based Laser Triangulation Displacement Sensor for Dynamic Measurement of a Dispensing Robot
by Zhuojiang Nan, Wei Tao, Hui Zhao and Na Lv
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(21), 7412; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10217412 - 22 Oct 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2483
Abstract
Height measurement and location by a laser sensor is a key technology to ensure accurate and stable operation of a dispensing robot. In addition, alternation of dynamic and static working modes of a robot, as well as variation of surface and height of [...] Read more.
Height measurement and location by a laser sensor is a key technology to ensure accurate and stable operation of a dispensing robot. In addition, alternation of dynamic and static working modes of a robot, as well as variation of surface and height of a workpiece put forward strict requirements for both repeatability and respond speed of the location system. On the basis of the principle of laser triangulation, a displacement sensor applied to a dispensing robot was developed, and a fast laser adjustment algorithm was proposed according to the characteristics of static and dynamic actual laser imaging waveforms on different objects. First, the relationship between the centroid position of static waveform and peak intensity for different measured objects was fitted by least square method, and the intersection point of each curve was solved to confirm the ideal peak intensity, and therefore reduce the interference of different measured objects. Secondly, according to the dynamic centroid difference threshold of two adjacent imaging waveforms, the static and dynamic working modes of the sensor were distinguished, and the peak intensity was adjusted to different intervals by linear iteration. Finally, a Z direction reciprocating test, color adaptability test, and step response test were carried out on the dispensing robot platform; the experiments showed that the repeatability accuracy of the sensor was 2.7 um and the dynamic step response delay was 0.5 ms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Manufacturing Metrology)
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15 pages, 4330 KiB  
Article
An Off-Axis Differential Method for Improvement of a Femtosecond Laser Differential Chromatic Confocal Probe
by Chong Chen, Yuki Shimizu, Ryo Sato, Hiraku Matsukuma and Wei Gao
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(20), 7235; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10207235 - 16 Oct 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1960
Abstract
This paper presents an off-axis differential method for the improvement of a femtosecond laser differential chromatic confocal probe having a dual-detector configuration. In the proposed off-axis differential method employing a pair of single-mode fiber detectors, a major modification is made to the conventional [...] Read more.
This paper presents an off-axis differential method for the improvement of a femtosecond laser differential chromatic confocal probe having a dual-detector configuration. In the proposed off-axis differential method employing a pair of single-mode fiber detectors, a major modification is made to the conventional differential setup in such a way that the fiber detector in the reference detector is located at the focal plane of a collecting lens but with a certain amount of off-axis detector shift, while the fiber detector in the measurement detector is located on the rear focal plane without the off-axis detector shift; this setup is different from the conventional one where the difference between the two confocal detectors is provided by giving a defocus to one of the fiber detectors. The newly proposed off-axis differential method enables the differential chromatic confocal setup to obtain the normalized chromatic confocal output with a better signal-to-noise ratio and approaches a Z-directional measurement range of approximately 46 μm, as well as a measurement resolution of 20 nm, while simplifying the optical alignments in the differential chromatic confocal setup, as well as the signal processing through eliminating the complicated arithmetic operations in the determination of the peak wavelength. Numerical calculations based on a theoretical equation and experiments are carried out to verify the feasibility of the proposed off-axis differential method for the differential chromatic confocal probe with a mode-locked femtosecond laser source. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Manufacturing Metrology)
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12 pages, 2238 KiB  
Article
Investigation on the Differential Quadrature Fabry–Pérot Interferometer with Variable Measurement Mirrors
by Yi-Chieh Shih, Pi-Cheng Tung, Wen-Yuh Jywe, Chung-Ping Chang, Lih-Horng Shyu and Tung-Hsien Hsieh
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(18), 6191; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10186191 - 06 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2764
Abstract
Due to the common path structure being insensitive to the environmental disturbances, relevant Fabry–Pérot interferometers have been presented for displacement measurement. However, the discontinuous signal distribution exists in the conventional Fabry–Pérot interferometer. Although a polarized Fabry–Pérot interferometer with low finesse was subsequently proposed, [...] Read more.
Due to the common path structure being insensitive to the environmental disturbances, relevant Fabry–Pérot interferometers have been presented for displacement measurement. However, the discontinuous signal distribution exists in the conventional Fabry–Pérot interferometer. Although a polarized Fabry–Pérot interferometer with low finesse was subsequently proposed, the signal processing is complicated, and the nonlinearity error of sub-micrometer order occurs in this signal. Therefore, a differential quadrature Fabry–Pérot interferometer has been proposed for the first time. In this measurement system, the nonlinearity error can be improved effectively, and the DC offset during the measurement procedure can be eliminated. Furthermore, the proposed system also features rapid and convenient replacing the measurement mirrors to meet the inspection requirement in various measuring ranges. In the comparison result between the commercial and self-developed Fabry–Pérot interferometer, it reveals that the maximum standard deviation is less than 0.120 μm in the whole measuring range of 600 mm. According to these results, the developed differential Fabry–Pérot interferometer is feasible for precise displacement measurement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Manufacturing Metrology)
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12 pages, 3534 KiB  
Article
An Innovative Dual-Axis Precision Level Based on Light Transmission and Refraction for Angle Measurement
by Yubin Huang, Yuchao Fan, Zhifeng Lou, Kuang-Chao Fan and Wei Sun
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(17), 6019; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10176019 - 31 Aug 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2018
Abstract
Currently, the widely used pendulum-type precision level cannot be miniaturized because reducing the size of the pendulum will reduce its displacement so as to decrease the measurement accuracy and resolution. Moreover, the commercial pendulum-type level can only sense one direction. In this paper, [...] Read more.
Currently, the widely used pendulum-type precision level cannot be miniaturized because reducing the size of the pendulum will reduce its displacement so as to decrease the measurement accuracy and resolution. Moreover, the commercial pendulum-type level can only sense one direction. In this paper, an innovative compact and high-accuracy dual-axis precision level is proposed. Based on the optical principle of light refraction and the reference of the invariant liquid level, the pendulum is no more needed. In addition, based on the light transmission design, there is no reflection signal to interfere with the true signal. Therefore, the level can achieve a high accuracy and small-sized design. The calibration result shows the error of the proposed precision level is better than ±0.6 arc-sec in the measurement range of ±100 arc-sec, and better than ±5 arc-sec in the full measurement range of ±800 arc-sec. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Manufacturing Metrology)
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13 pages, 3723 KiB  
Article
Quick Response Circulating Water Cooling of ±3 mK Using Dynamic Thermal Filtering
by Yesheng Lu, Junning Cui, Jiubin Tan and Xingyuan Bian
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(16), 5483; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10165483 - 07 Aug 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2256
Abstract
An enhanced circulating cooling water (CCW) machine is developed to simultaneously achieve high temperature stability and dynamic performance of CCW temperature control. Dynamic thermal filtering based on an auto-updatable thermal capacity medium is proposed to reduce the temperature fluctuation of the CCW. Agile [...] Read more.
An enhanced circulating cooling water (CCW) machine is developed to simultaneously achieve high temperature stability and dynamic performance of CCW temperature control. Dynamic thermal filtering based on an auto-updatable thermal capacity medium is proposed to reduce the temperature fluctuation of the CCW. Agile thermal control is presented to realize a quick response and high resolution of temperature control, through thermal inertia minimization and bidirectional regulation of heating/cooling power. Experimental results indicate that a temperature stability of ±3 mK (peak to peak value) and a settling time of 128 s, corresponding to a 1 K step set value, are achieved. It can therefore be concluded that the developed machine can satisfy the challenging requirements of precision manufacturing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Manufacturing Metrology)
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11 pages, 5133 KiB  
Article
Quantitative Investigation of Surface Charge Distribution and Point Probing Characteristics of Spherical Scattering Electrical Field Probe for Precision Measurement of Miniature Internal Structures with High Aspect Ratios
by Xingyuan Bian, Junning Cui, Yesheng Lu, Yamin Zhao, Zhongyi Cheng and Jiubin Tan
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(15), 5268; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10155268 - 30 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1767
Abstract
For precision measurement of miniature internal structures with high aspect ratios, a spherical scattering electrical field probe (SSEP) is proposed based on charge signal detection. The characteristics and laws governing surface charge distribution on the probing ball of the SSEP are analyzed, with [...] Read more.
For precision measurement of miniature internal structures with high aspect ratios, a spherical scattering electrical field probe (SSEP) is proposed based on charge signal detection. The characteristics and laws governing surface charge distribution on the probing ball of the SSEP are analyzed, with the spherical scattering electrical field modeled using a 3D seven-point finite difference method. The model is validated with finite element simulation by comparing with the analysis results of typical situations, in which probing balls of different diameters are used to probe a grounded plane with a probing gap of 0.3 μm. Results obtained with the proposed model and finite element method (FEM) simulation indicate that 31% of the total surface charge on a ϕ1 mm probing ball concentrates in an area that occupies 1% of the total probing ball surface. Moreover, this surface charge concentration remains unchanged when the surface being measured varies in geometry, or when the probing gap varies in sensing range. Based on this, the SSEP has realized approximate point probing capability with a virtual “needle” of electrical effect. Together with its non-contact sensing characteristics and 3D isotropy, it can, therefore, be concluded that the SSEP has great potential to be an ideal solution for precision measurement of miniature internal structures with high aspect ratios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Manufacturing Metrology)
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14 pages, 3904 KiB  
Article
High-Precision Cutting Edge Radius Measurement of Single Point Diamond Tools Using an Atomic Force Microscope and a Reverse Cutting Edge Artifact
by Kai Zhang, Yindi Cai, Yuki Shimizu, Hiraku Matsukuma and Wei Gao
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(14), 4799; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10144799 - 13 Jul 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2836
Abstract
This paper presents a measurement method for high-precision cutting edge radius of single point diamond tools using an atomic force microscope (AFM) and a reverse cutting edge artifact based on the edge reversal method. Reverse cutting edge artifact is fabricated by indenting a [...] Read more.
This paper presents a measurement method for high-precision cutting edge radius of single point diamond tools using an atomic force microscope (AFM) and a reverse cutting edge artifact based on the edge reversal method. Reverse cutting edge artifact is fabricated by indenting a diamond tool into a soft metal workpiece with the bisector of the included angle between the tool’s rake face and clearance face perpendicular to the workpiece surface on a newly designed nanoindentation system. An AFM is applied to measure the topographies of the actual and the reverse diamond tool cutting edges. With the proposed edge reversal method, a cutting edge radius can be accurately evaluated based on two AFM topographies, from which the convolution effect of the AFM tip can be reduced. The accuracy of the measurement of cutting edge radius is significantly influenced by the geometric accuracy of reverse cutting edge artifact in the proposed measurement method. In the nanoindentation system, the system operation is optimized for achieving high-precision control of the indentation depth of reverse cutting edFigurege artifact. The influence of elastic recovery and the AFM cantilever tip radius on the accuracy of cutting edge radius measurement are investigated. Diamond tools with different nose radii are also measured. The reliability and capability of the proposed measurement method for cutting edge radius and the designed nanoindentation system are demonstrated through a series of experiments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Manufacturing Metrology)
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17 pages, 8486 KiB  
Article
Measurement Uncertainty Analysis of a Stitching Linear-Scan Method for the Evaluation of Roundness of Small Cylinders
by Qiaolin Li, Yuki Shimizu, Toshiki Saito, Hiraku Matsukuma and Wei Gao
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(14), 4750; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10144750 - 10 Jul 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2871
Abstract
Influences of angular misalignments of a small cylinder on its roundness measurement by the method referred to as the stitching linear scan method are theoretically investigated. To compensate for the influences, a technique for measuring angular misalignments of a small cylinder by utilizing [...] Read more.
Influences of angular misalignments of a small cylinder on its roundness measurement by the method referred to as the stitching linear scan method are theoretically investigated. To compensate for the influences, a technique for measuring angular misalignments of a small cylinder by utilizing the linear-scan surface form stylus profilometer, which is employed for roundness measurement, is newly proposed. In addition, for roundness measurement, a holder unit capable of compensating for the angular misalignments of a small cylinder is developed, and the feasibility of the proposed technique is verified in experiments. Furthermore, a measurement uncertainty analysis of the stitching linear-scan method is carried out through numerical calculations based on a Monte Carlo method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Manufacturing Metrology)
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16 pages, 7482 KiB  
Article
Interlaboratory Empirical Reproducibility Study Based on a GD&T Benchmark
by Ali Aidibe, Souheil Antoine Tahan and Mojtaba Kamali Nejad
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(14), 4704; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10144704 - 08 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4213
Abstract
The ASME Y14.5 geometric dimensioning and tolerancing (GD&T) and ISO-GPS (geometrical product specifications) standards define tolerances that can be added to components to achieve the necessary functionality and performance. The zone that each feature must lie within is defined in each tolerance. Measurement [...] Read more.
The ASME Y14.5 geometric dimensioning and tolerancing (GD&T) and ISO-GPS (geometrical product specifications) standards define tolerances that can be added to components to achieve the necessary functionality and performance. The zone that each feature must lie within is defined in each tolerance. Measurement processes, including planning, programming, data collection (with contact or without contact), and data processing, check the compliance of the part with these specifications (tolerances). Over the last two decades, many works have been realized by the metrology community to investigate the accuracy, the measuring methods, and, specifically, the measurement errors of fixed and portable coordinate measuring machines (CMMs). A review of the literature showed the progression of CMMs in terms of accuracy and repeatability. However, discrepancies were observed between measurements using different CMMs or operators. This paper proposed a GD&T-based benchmark for the evaluation of the performance of different CMM operators in computer-aided inspection (CAI), considering different criteria related to the dimensional and geometrical features. An artifact was designed using basic geometries (cylinder and plane) and free-form surfaces. The results obtained from the interlaboratory comparison study showed significant performance variability for complex GD&T, such as in the composite profile and localization. This, in turn, emphasized the importance of GD&T training and certification in order to ensure a uniform understanding among different operators, combined with a fully automated inspection code generator for GD&T purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Manufacturing Metrology)
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25 pages, 5060 KiB  
Article
Development of a Rapid Optical Measurement System for Circular Workpieces with Irregular Tooth Contours after Broaching Process
by Yu-Liang Chen, Xuan-Qi Liang, Zi-Rong Ye and Quang-Cherng Hsu
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(13), 4418; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10134418 - 27 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2243
Abstract
During a manufacturing process, it is essential to quickly identify whether a tool needs to be replaced or adjusted, to ensure that production quality is not compromised. Therefore, the re-inspection of the product or first article inspection is an important process. Reducing the [...] Read more.
During a manufacturing process, it is essential to quickly identify whether a tool needs to be replaced or adjusted, to ensure that production quality is not compromised. Therefore, the re-inspection of the product or first article inspection is an important process. Reducing the inspection time can reduce the time spent waiting for a product in the production line. This research aimed to design a system that can automatically and rapidly measure the dimensions of irregular tooth contours in the broaching process, to ensure cutting tools are replaced when necessary. This study developed an automatic machine for measuring the irregular tooth contours of large ring parts; the tooth root, tooth height, and tooth thickness of the workpiece are measured. The measurement diameter is approximately 200 mm, and the radial inspection accuracy is within ±20 μm; we aimed to reduce the detection time considerably. An optical micrometer and an automatic rotating platform were used in the measurement system. The workpieces to be measured were easy to install, and the eccentricity was automatically corrected by the system, thus saving time that would be taken to correct Abbe errors. This research successfully developed a rapid optical measurement system that can reduce the inspection time from 30 min to 60 s. Moreover, the maximum radial measurement error is −0.02 mm, which means that the measurement accuracy is within ±20 μm (total: 40 μm). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Manufacturing Metrology)
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17 pages, 2742 KiB  
Article
A Form-Free and High-Precision Metrological Method for the Twist of Aeroengine Blade
by Xuezhe Li and Zhaoyao Shi
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(12), 4130; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10124130 - 16 Jun 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1871
Abstract
In order to solve the problems in the accuracy and adaptability of the existing methods for blade twist measurement, a high-precision and form-free metrological method of blade twist based on the parameter evaluation of twist angular position and twist angle is proposed in [...] Read more.
In order to solve the problems in the accuracy and adaptability of the existing methods for blade twist measurement, a high-precision and form-free metrological method of blade twist based on the parameter evaluation of twist angular position and twist angle is proposed in the study, and the theoretical model, the measurement principle and the key technologies of the method are discussed in detail. Three key issues of the twist metrology of a blade are solved based on technologies of calibration, a priori planning and geometric analysis: aeroengine axis matching, high-precision coordinate acquisition of the leading edge and the trailing edge, and extraction of twist angular position of the profile. The measurement path planning, sampling strategy optimization and high-precision coordinate collection are executed automatically without theoretical model data of the measured blade, thus the form-free and high-precision metrology of the blade twist is achieved. The research results show that the metrological method of blade twist presented in this study is effective, and that its measurement uncertainty is less than 0.01°. This method is form-free, efficient and accurate, and can solve the problems of high-precision measurement and evaluation for the twist of aeroengine blade primely. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Manufacturing Metrology)
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20 pages, 2696 KiB  
Article
An Improved Circumferential Fourier Fit (CFF) Method for Blade Tip Timing Measurements
by Zhibo Liu, Fajie Duan, Guangyue Niu, Ling Ma, Jiajia Jiang and Xiao Fu
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(11), 3675; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10113675 - 26 May 2020
Cited by 33 | Viewed by 2526
Abstract
Rotating blade vibration measurements are very important for any turbomachinery research and development program. The blade tip timing (BTT) technique uses the time of arrival (ToA) of the blade tip passing the casing mounted probes to give the blade vibration. As a non-contact [...] Read more.
Rotating blade vibration measurements are very important for any turbomachinery research and development program. The blade tip timing (BTT) technique uses the time of arrival (ToA) of the blade tip passing the casing mounted probes to give the blade vibration. As a non-contact technique, BTT is necessary for rotating blade vibration measurements. The higher accuracy of amplitude and vibration frequency identification has been pursued since the development of BTT. An improved circumferential Fourier fit (ICFF) method is proposed. In this method, the ToA is not only dependent on the rotating speed and monitoring position, but also on blade vibration. Compared with the traditional circumferential Fourier fit (TCFF) method, this improvement is more consistent with reality. A 12-blade assembly simulator and experimental data were used to evaluate the ICFF performance. The simulated results showed that the ICFF performance is comparable to TCFF in terms of EO identification, except the lower PSR or more number probes that have a more negative effect on ICFF. Besides, the accuracy of amplitude identification is higher for ICFF than TCFF on all test conditions. Meanwhile, the higher accuracy of the reconstruction of ICFF was further verified in all measurement resonance analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Manufacturing Metrology)
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12 pages, 6205 KiB  
Article
Non-Scanning Three-Dimensional Imaging System with a Single-Pixel Detector: Simulation and Experimental Study
by Guang Shi, Leijue Zheng, Wen Wang and Keqing Lu
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(9), 3100; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10093100 - 29 Apr 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1895
Abstract
Existing scanning laser three-dimensional (3D) imaging technology has slow measurement speed. In addition, the measurement accuracy of non-scanning laser 3D imaging technology based on area array detectors is limited by the resolution and response frequency of area array detectors. As a result, applications [...] Read more.
Existing scanning laser three-dimensional (3D) imaging technology has slow measurement speed. In addition, the measurement accuracy of non-scanning laser 3D imaging technology based on area array detectors is limited by the resolution and response frequency of area array detectors. As a result, applications of laser 3D imaging technology are limited. This paper completed simulations and experiments of a non-scanning 3D imaging system with a single-pixel detector. The single-pixel detector can be used to achieve 3D imaging of a target by compressed sensing to overcome the shortcomings of the existing laser 3D imaging technology. First, the effects of different sampling rates, sparse transform bases, measurement matrices, and reconstruction algorithms on the measurement results were compared through simulation experiments. Second, a non-scanning 3D imaging experimental platform was designed and constructed. Finally, an experiment was performed to compare the effects of different sampling rates and reconstruction algorithms on the reconstruction effect of 3D imaging to obtain a 3D image with a resolution of 8 × 8. The simulation results show that the reconstruction effect of the Hadamard measurement matrix and the minimum total variation reconstruction algorithm performed well. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Manufacturing Metrology)
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26 pages, 10545 KiB  
Article
A Method of On-Site Describing the Positional Relation between Two Horizontal Parallel Surfaces and Two Vertical Parallel Surfaces
by Zechen Lu, Bao Zhang, Zhenjun Li and Chunyu Zhao
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(6), 2152; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10062152 - 21 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2056
Abstract
The position error of two parallel surfaces is generally constrained by parallelism. However, as a range of change, it cannot represent the positional relation between two parallel surfaces. Large-scale equipment such as machine tools are complex and difficult to move. It is also [...] Read more.
The position error of two parallel surfaces is generally constrained by parallelism. However, as a range of change, it cannot represent the positional relation between two parallel surfaces. Large-scale equipment such as machine tools are complex and difficult to move. It is also an engineering problem to perform field measurements on it. To this end, a method of describing the positional relation between two horizontal parallel surfaces and two vertical parallel surfaces on-site is proposed in this paper, which is a novel kind of position error, enriching the form of parallel surface position error, and solves the inconvenience problem of large equipment position error measurement. The measurement mechanisms are designed, and the measurement principle is given. Firstly, the combined projection waveform of the measured surface can be obtained by the geometric relationship between the measurement mechanism and the measured surface. Secondly, an algorithm is studied to process the obtained waveform, and the combined projection curve of the measured surface is acquired. Then, under the condition of considering the shape contours of the two surfaces, an algorithm is developed to acquire the calculated shape contour of the measured surface. According to the difference between the calculated surface shape contour and the known shape contour of the measured surface, the positional relation of the two surfaces can be determined. Meanwhile, the mathematical models of algorithms are established, and the measurement experiments are carried out, and the algorithms are verified by the mutual measurement method of the two surfaces. The results show that this method can accurately obtain the positional relation of two horizontal parallel surfaces and two vertical parallel surfaces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Manufacturing Metrology)
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10 pages, 2074 KiB  
Article
A New Computational Model of Step Gauge Calibration Based on the Synthesis Technology of Multi-Path Laser Interferometers
by Guoying Ren, Xinghua Qu and Xiangjun Chen
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(6), 2089; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10062089 - 19 Mar 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1974
Abstract
A step gauge is a commonly used length standard for international comparison, and its calibration accuracy is often used as a sign to measure a country’s length Calibration and Measurement Capability (CMC). Based on this, some developed countries and developing countries all over [...] Read more.
A step gauge is a commonly used length standard for international comparison, and its calibration accuracy is often used as a sign to measure a country’s length Calibration and Measurement Capability (CMC). Based on this, some developed countries and developing countries all over the world have been carrying out the research of precision calibration technology for step gauge. On the basis of summarizing the current situation of step gauge calibration technology in other countries, this paper presents a new computational model of step gauge calibration based on the Synthesis Technology of Multi-Path Laser Interferometers (SMLI) and an auto-collimator, which can synthesize the three laser light paths into the measured centerline of step gauge. It is very important to obtain a good measurement accuracy for the step gauge, conformed to the Abbe principle, no matter where it is installed on the CMM measurement platform. In this paper, the development of the mathematical model, the data collection algorithms, data analysis techniques, and measurement uncertainty budgets are discussed. Finally, the experimental measurement is carried out and the measurement accuracy is verified to be effective. The results show that this method can effectively avoid the influence of Abbe error in length measurement, and significantly enhance the calibration accuracy of the step gauge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Manufacturing Metrology)
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16 pages, 10439 KiB  
Article
Identification Method of Geometric Deviations for Multi-Tasking Machine Tools Considering the Squareness of Translational Axes
by Yan Yao, Keisuke Nishizawa, Noriyuki Kato, Masaomi Tsutsumi and Keiichi Nakamoto
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(5), 1811; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10051811 - 06 Mar 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2838
Abstract
Some methods to identify geometric deviations of five-axis machining centers have been proposed until now. However, they are not suitable for multi-tasking machine tools because of the different configuration and the mutual motion of the axes. Therefore, in this paper, an identification method [...] Read more.
Some methods to identify geometric deviations of five-axis machining centers have been proposed until now. However, they are not suitable for multi-tasking machine tools because of the different configuration and the mutual motion of the axes. Therefore, in this paper, an identification method for multi-tasking machine tools with a swivel tool spindle head in a horizontal position is described. Firstly, geometric deviations are illustrated and the mathematical model considering the squareness of translational axes is established according to the simultaneous three-axis control movements. The influences of mounting errors of the measuring instrument on circular trajectories are investigated and the measurements for the B axis in the Cartesian coordinate system and the measurements for the C axis in a cylindrical coordinate system are proposed. Then, based on the simulation results, formulae are derived from the eccentricities of the circular trajectories. It is found that six measurements are required to identify geometric deviations, which should be performed separately in the B axis X-direction, in B axis Y-direction, in C axis axial direction, and three times in C axis radial direction. Finally, a numerical experiment is conducted and identified results successfully match the geometric deviations. Therefore, the proposed method is proved to identify geometric deviations effectively for multi-tasking machine tools. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Manufacturing Metrology)
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14 pages, 5171 KiB  
Article
A Differential Measurement System for Surface Topography Based on a Modular Design
by Fang Cheng, Jingwu Zou, Hang Su, Yin Wang and Qing Yu
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(4), 1536; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10041536 - 24 Feb 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3155
Abstract
In this paper, a novel design of a surface topography measurement system is proposed, to address the challenge of accurate measurement in a relatively large area. This system was able to achieve nanometer-scale accuracy in a measurement range of 100 mm × 100 [...] Read more.
In this paper, a novel design of a surface topography measurement system is proposed, to address the challenge of accurate measurement in a relatively large area. This system was able to achieve nanometer-scale accuracy in a measurement range of 100 mm × 100 mm. The high accuracy in a relatively large area was achieved by implementing two concepts: (1) A static coordinate system was configured to minimize the Abbe errors. (2) A differential measurement configuration was developed by setting up a confocal sensor and a film interferometry module to separate the motion error. In order to accommodate the differential measurement probes from both sides of the central stage and ensure the system rigidity with balanced supports, separate linear guides were introduced in this system. Therefore, the motion Degree of Freedom (DoF) was analyzed in order to address the challenge of an over-constrained mechanism due to multiple kinematic pairs. An optimal configuration and a quick assembly process were proposed accordingly. The experimental results presented in this paper showed that the proposed modular measurement system was able to achieve 10 nm accuracy in measuring the surface roughness and 100 nm accuracy in measuring the step height in the range of 100 mm × 100 mm. In summary, the novel concept of this study is the build of a high-accuracy system with conventional mechanical components. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Manufacturing Metrology)
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12 pages, 15560 KiB  
Article
On-Machine Precision Form Truing and In-Situ Measurement of Resin-Bonded Spherical Diamond Wheel
by Jinhu Wang, Qingliang Zhao, Chunyu Zhang, Bing Guo and Julong Yuan
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(4), 1483; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10041483 - 21 Feb 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2974
Abstract
The resin-bonded spherical diamond wheel is widely used in arc envelope grinding, where the demands for form accuracy are high and the form truing process is challenging. In this paper, on-machine precision form truing of the resin-bonded spherical diamond wheel is accomplished by [...] Read more.
The resin-bonded spherical diamond wheel is widely used in arc envelope grinding, where the demands for form accuracy are high and the form truing process is challenging. In this paper, on-machine precision form truing of the resin-bonded spherical diamond wheel is accomplished by using a coarse-grained diamond roller, and in-situ measurement of the form-truing error is conducted through a laser scan micrometer. Firstly, a novel biarc curve-fitting method is proposed based on the in-situ measurement results to calculate the alignment error between the diamond roller and the spherical diamond wheel. Then, on-machine precision form truing of a D46 resin-bonded spherical diamond wheel is completed after alignment error compensation. The in-situ measurement results show that the low-frequency form-truing error is approximately 5 μm. In addition, the actual form-trued diamond wheel has been employed in grinding a test specimen, and the resulting form accuracy is approximately 1.6 μm without any compensation. The ground surface profile shared similar characteristics with the roller-trued diamond wheel profile, confirming that the diamond roller truing and in-situ measurements methods are accurate and feasible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Manufacturing Metrology)
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14 pages, 2755 KiB  
Article
A Practical Positioning Method in End-Plate Surface Distance Measurement with Nano-Meter Precision
by Hongtang Gao, Zhongyu Wang, Yinbao Cheng, Yaru Li, Shuanghua Sun and Zhendong Shang
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(22), 4970; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9224970 - 19 Nov 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2349
Abstract
End-plate surface distance is important for length value dissemination in the field of metrology. For the measurement of distance of two surfaces, the positioning method is the key for realizing high precision. A practical method with nanometer positioning precision is introduced in consideration [...] Read more.
End-plate surface distance is important for length value dissemination in the field of metrology. For the measurement of distance of two surfaces, the positioning method is the key for realizing high precision. A practical method with nanometer positioning precision is introduced in consideration of the complexity of positioning laser sources of the traditional methods and new methods. The surface positioning is realized by the combination of laser interference and white light interference. In order to verify the method, a 0.1 mm height step is made, and an experiment system based on the method is established. The principle and the basic theory of the method are analyzed, and the measures to enhance the repeatability from optical and mechanical factors and signal processing methods are presented. The experimental result shows that the surface positioning repeatability is in the order of 10 nm. The measurement uncertainty evaluation shows that the standard uncertainty is 21 nm for a 0.1 mm step. It is concluded that the method is suitable to be applied to the length measurement standard of the lab. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Manufacturing Metrology)
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Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

22 pages, 8127 KiB  
Review
Optical Angle Sensor Technology Based on the Optical Frequency Comb Laser
by Yuki Shimizu, Hiraku Matsukuma and Wei Gao
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(11), 4047; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10114047 - 11 Jun 2020
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 4931
Abstract
A mode-locked femtosecond laser, which is often referred to as the optical frequency comb, has increasing applications in various industrial fields, including production engineering, in the last two decades. Many efforts have been made so far to apply the mode-locked femtosecond laser to [...] Read more.
A mode-locked femtosecond laser, which is often referred to as the optical frequency comb, has increasing applications in various industrial fields, including production engineering, in the last two decades. Many efforts have been made so far to apply the mode-locked femtosecond laser to the absolute distance measurement. In recent years, a mode-locked femtosecond laser has increasing application in angle measurement, where the unique characteristics of the mode-locked femtosecond laser such as the stable optical frequencies, equally-spaced modes in frequency domain, and the ultra-short pulse trains with a high peak power are utilized to achieve precision and stable angle measurement. In this review article, some of the optical angle sensor techniques based on the mode-locked femtosecond laser are introduced. First, the angle scale comb, which can be generated by combining the dispersive characteristic of a scale grating and the discretized modes in a mode-locked femtosecond laser, is introduced. Some of the mode-locked femtosecond laser autocollimators, which have been realized by combining the concept of the angle scale comb with the laser autocollimation, are also explained. Angle measurement techniques based on the absolute distance measurements, lateral chromatic aberration, and second harmonic generation (SHG) are also introduced. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Manufacturing Metrology)
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