Advances in Bridge Design and Structural Performance

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Civil Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2024) | Viewed by 13150

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Bridge Engineering, School of Transportation, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, China
Interests: structural condition assessment; structural health monitoring; novel sensing; offshore structures; offshore engineering
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, China
Interests: structural condition assessment and performance upgrade; novel aseismic structural system; structural vibration control
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagus,

Bridge infrastructures possess ultimate value for safe, resilient, and sustainable transportation networks. With the increasing traffic demands and exposure to long-term aggressive environments, bridge performance undergoes time-varying changes. This is accompanied by a decrease in reliability owing to the combined action of fatigue, creep, shrinkage, and corrosion. In extreme cases, the observed damage will pose a major threat to public safety if it fractures crucial load-bearing members and may lead to the progressive collapse of a structure. Therefore, these potential risks make the fatigue performance assessment and fatigue life prediction of bridges an important proposition. Furthermore, the design and retrofit of the members based on the fatigue performance assessment is an effective way for long-term and high-quality service of bridges, which has been a concern.

In this Special Issue, “Advances in Bridge Design and Structural Performance”, we are aiming to include all the aspects of bridges design and performance assessment, including but not limited to steel bridges, concrete bridges, cable, girder, joint and connector, accessory members, fatigue damage, creep and shrinkage, corrosion effect, crack propagation, multi-factor coupling analysis, multi-scale simulation, time-varying reliability assessment and so on. If you are interested in this topic and would like to share your work with us, please do not hesitate to contact us.

Dr. Zhongxiang Liu
Prof. Dr. Tong Guo
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • steel and concrete bridges
  • structural performance
  • fatigue damage
  • corrosion
  • creep and shrinkage
  • structural health monitoring
  • bridge design
  • reliability assessment

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Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

16 pages, 3858 KiB  
Article
A Time-History Contact Force Model of the Dynamic Load of AERORail Structures
by Fangyuan Li, Zhenwei Guo, Peifeng Wu and Yunxuan Cui
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(7), 3055; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14073055 - 05 Apr 2024
Viewed by 385
Abstract
This study proposes two curves that depict the vehicle–bridge contact force in a novel transportation system named AERORail, which is a lightweight cable-supported structure in which the rails and the prestressed cable form the load bearing system. Based on the contact force identified [...] Read more.
This study proposes two curves that depict the vehicle–bridge contact force in a novel transportation system named AERORail, which is a lightweight cable-supported structure in which the rails and the prestressed cable form the load bearing system. Based on the contact force identified from a full-scale AERORail system, single and double-valley curves were obtained as the idealized contact force model for large- and small-span AERORail systems, respectively. This was achieved by utilizing the Bezier curves and the least squares method. The proposed curves were verified through a moving load model from a previous study under various spans and speeds. Moreover, the structural response of the AERORail structure under high-speed vehicle passing was explored using the idealized contact force model. The simulation results show that the proposed contact force model can predict the displacement response of 5 m and 15 m spans with a relative error of less than 5%, proving that the model can be used for dynamic analysis of AERORail. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Bridge Design and Structural Performance)
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14 pages, 3709 KiB  
Article
Experimental–Numerical Analysis on the Cable Vibration Behavior of a Long-Span Rail-Cum-Road Cable-Stayed Bridge under the Action of High-Speed Trains
by Fan Yang, Hanwei Zhao, Aiqun Li and Zhao Fang
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(19), 11082; https://doi.org/10.3390/app131911082 - 09 Oct 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 803
Abstract
Rail-cum-road cable-stayed bridges are widely used to span rivers, bays, and valleys. It is vital to understand the vibration behavior of the cables, which are the crucial load-bearing components of a cable-stayed bridge, as it is the leading cause of cable fatigue. First, [...] Read more.
Rail-cum-road cable-stayed bridges are widely used to span rivers, bays, and valleys. It is vital to understand the vibration behavior of the cables, which are the crucial load-bearing components of a cable-stayed bridge, as it is the leading cause of cable fatigue. First, a numerical model of cable vibration under double-end excitation was derived by neglecting the bending stiffness and was verified through a cable’s multi-segment bar finite element model, and a numerical solution program was compiled based on MATLAB R2022a software. Then, a finite element model (FEM) was established according to the design documents of a long-span rail-cum-road cable-stayed bridge. Finally, the dynamic response of the cable under the train loads was analyzed based on the FEM and numerical model. The study shows that the numerical model can accurately simulate the cable with a relative error of less than 1% for its first four frequencies compared with the FEM; the maximum displacement amplitude appears at the longest cable near the middle of the main span; the vibration frequency of the cable is approximate to the cable end excitation frequency within a 1% discrepancy; and the vibration amplitude at the center of the cable is approximately twice that of the excitation amplitude at the end of the cable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Bridge Design and Structural Performance)
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18 pages, 9151 KiB  
Article
Experimental Testing and Residual Performance Evaluation of Existing Hangers with Steel Pipe Protection Taken from an In-Service Tied-Arch Bridge
by Liming Zhu, Tailei Chen, Lingkun Chen, Zhichao Lu, Xiaolun Hu and Xiaoming Huang
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(19), 11070; https://doi.org/10.3390/app131911070 - 08 Oct 2023
Viewed by 697
Abstract
Background: Tied-arch bridges’ hangers are crucial load-bearing parts, and their excellent condition directly influences bridge safety. However, assessing in-service hangers’ continuing functional performance is irrelevant and incomplete, particularly for unique hangers covered by outer steel tubes. Objective: This research uses a case study [...] Read more.
Background: Tied-arch bridges’ hangers are crucial load-bearing parts, and their excellent condition directly influences bridge safety. However, assessing in-service hangers’ continuing functional performance is irrelevant and incomplete, particularly for unique hangers covered by outer steel tubes. Objective: This research uses a case study of an under-bearing tied-arch bridge with substantial hanger damage to determine the origin of the damage and analyze the hanger’s remaining operational ability. Methodology/approach: This study presents a set of assessment methodologies and procedures for in-service hangers’ remaining functioning performance using field inspection and indoor tests. First, an appearance inspection of the full bridge hanger’s upper and lower anchor heads was carried out, and the categories of anchor head damage and distribution rules are summarized. The causes of major water damage and the lower anchor head’s water infiltration channel were explored. Then, a full interior test was performed on the disassembled sick hanger to establish its present mechanical qualities. Finally, field inspection and indoor test findings assessed the bridge hanger’s operational performance. The findings suggest that the anchor box drainage prevention system should be improved to prevent rainfall and condensation from pooling in the lower anchor box and causing anticorrosive grease failure and anchor head corrosion. Results: The hanger’s mechanical qualities have deteriorated and no longer meet usage standards. Most of the water accumulated in the anchor head of the conventional construction hanger enters from the bridge deck or rope surface, but because of the outer steel pipe, rainwater can flow into the lower anchor box through the upper anchor box along the gap between the hanger and the outer steel pipe, so the waterproof system of the upper anchor box should be checked. Conclusions: This research may be used for safety evaluation and maintenance of the same hanger in service. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Bridge Design and Structural Performance)
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32 pages, 17330 KiB  
Article
Development of Rhombus Hanging Basket Walking Track Robot for Cantilever Casting Construction in Bridges
by Yuping Ouyang, Jiarui Huang and Kaifang Song
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(19), 10635; https://doi.org/10.3390/app131910635 - 24 Sep 2023
Viewed by 799
Abstract
For enhancing the efficiency of cantilever casting construction in a bridge, a novel rhombus traveling track for a hanging basket was developed and optimized. The business-oriented software called MIDAS was applied to analyze the mechanical properties of the hanging basket with a full [...] Read more.
For enhancing the efficiency of cantilever casting construction in a bridge, a novel rhombus traveling track for a hanging basket was developed and optimized. The business-oriented software called MIDAS was applied to analyze the mechanical properties of the hanging basket with a full load and a control load. The strength and distortion of the walking mechanism are within the specified range when the maximum beam unit internal force is 149.69 MPa, which is less than the allowable stress of steel of 175 Mpa, and the anti-overturning safety factor of the hanging basket is 2.5, which meets the requirements. Through the comparative analysis of the key components and the finite element calculation, it was found that there is about a 30% redundancy in the structure performance. Therefore, further optimization of each structure was carried out, and the front elevation of the main truss of 20° was achieved. It obtained the best performance in all aspects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Bridge Design and Structural Performance)
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27 pages, 8361 KiB  
Article
Corrosion Fatigue Assessment of Bridge Cables Based on Equivalent Initial Flaw Size Model
by Zhongxiang Liu, Tong Guo, Xiaming Yu, Shilei Niu and José Correia
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(18), 10212; https://doi.org/10.3390/app131810212 - 11 Sep 2023
Viewed by 797
Abstract
Bridge cables under traffic loads are more prone to failure during the service life due to the corrosion–fatigue coupling effect. In this study, a novel lifespan model based on the equivalent initial flaw size (EIFS) theory is established to analyze the various stages [...] Read more.
Bridge cables under traffic loads are more prone to failure during the service life due to the corrosion–fatigue coupling effect. In this study, a novel lifespan model based on the equivalent initial flaw size (EIFS) theory is established to analyze the various stages of the lifespan of steel wires. Additionally, a comprehensive corrosion-fatigue lifespan calculation method for parallel steel wire cable is established based on the series–parallel model. A case study of the Runyang Suspension Bridge is conducted to evaluate the evolution of corrosion-fatigue damage in bridge cables during the service life. The results indicate that under the action of corrosion-fatigue, steel wires are more prone to crack initiation, and their fracture toughness is further reduced. In cases where the corrosion level is relatively low, the steel wires of the bridge cables experience no corrosion-fatigue fracture. When the steel wires have initial defects and are subject to corrosion-fatigue conditions, their fracture lifespan is dependent on the severity of the corrosive medium. The reduction in the service life of the cables under the corrosion environment is much greater than that under heavy loads. This research may contribute to the understanding of corrosion-fatigue damage in bridge cables, involving assessment, maintenance, and replacement for bridge cables. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Bridge Design and Structural Performance)
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18 pages, 10421 KiB  
Article
Real Stiffness and Fatigue Resistance of Stringer-to-Cross-Girder Connection of Riveted Steel Railway Bridges
by Jozef Gocál, Josef Vičan and Jozef Jošt
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(4), 2278; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13042278 - 10 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1297
Abstract
Steel girder bridges with member decks belong to the most frequently used types of superstructures of old riveted steel railway bridges. During their service life, the bridge deck members are affected by escalating effects of the traffic loads that significantly exceed those for [...] Read more.
Steel girder bridges with member decks belong to the most frequently used types of superstructures of old riveted steel railway bridges. During their service life, the bridge deck members are affected by escalating effects of the traffic loads that significantly exceed those for which they were originally designed. As a result, these structures are often subject to the increased effects of fatigue degradation. One of the typical cases of fatigue damage on steel riveted bridges is a fatigue crack in the web of the stringer at the point of its connection to the cross girder. Such a connection used to be considered to transmit the axial and shear forces only, and so no fatigue crack was expected to develop in this detail during the bridge service life. However, the relatively frequent occurrence of fatigue cracks indicates the incorrectness of this assumption. This article is divided into two parts. Firstly, the bending stiffness of the stringer-to-cross-girder connection with different structural arrangements is analysed. Theoretical and experimental analyses of fictitious steel superstructures as well as of a real superstructure of an existing steel riveted bridge were performed to clarify the real stiffness behaviour of this detail. The results of the analyses confirm the assumption of a certain bending stiffness of the observed connection. Subsequently, attention is paid to the fatigue resistance of the riveted stringer-to-cross-girder connection in terms of the use of European standards. The results of fatigue tests performed on specially prepared test samples are presented with the aim to define the fatigue detail category. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Bridge Design and Structural Performance)
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16 pages, 5469 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Load Test and Contact Force Analysis of the AERORail Structure
by Fangyuan Li, Zhenwei Guo, Yunxuan Cui and Peifeng Wu
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(3), 2011; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13032011 - 03 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1529
Abstract
The flexible structure of the new type of aerial track studied in this paper is formed by strings and tracks, which have obvious dynamic characteristics under the action of vehicle moving loads and is also an important factor affecting its performance. The paper [...] Read more.
The flexible structure of the new type of aerial track studied in this paper is formed by strings and tracks, which have obvious dynamic characteristics under the action of vehicle moving loads and is also an important factor affecting its performance. The paper uses the full-scale model of AERORail, based on the modal test under a specific span, combined with the fundamental frequency analysis of the structure, and carries out the dynamic load test to determine the change law of the contact force acting on the rail by the dynamic load. The time-domain improved algorithm based on the method of moments is used to identify and analyze the dynamic loads under different spans and vehicle speeds and to determine the correlation between the dispatched loads and the spans and vehicle speeds. It is proven that the occurrence time and frequency of the contact force are related to the passing time of the vehicle. The contact force fluctuates with the change in the vehicle speed, but with the increase in the span, the fluctuation of the contact force decreases obviously. The relevant conclusions provide support for the layout of the AERORail vehicle load. For this innovative structure, the relevant conclusions provide the basis for the application of this novel structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Bridge Design and Structural Performance)
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19 pages, 10636 KiB  
Article
Load Models Representative of Brazilian Actual Traffic in Girder-Type Short-Span Highway Bridges
by Carlos Eduardo Rossigali, Michèle Schubert Pfeil, Luis Volnei Sudati Sagrilo and Hugo Medeiros de Oliveira
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(2), 1032; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13021032 - 12 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1369
Abstract
The Brazilian code NBR 7188 for highway bridge design prescribes a live load model consisting of a 3-axle vehicle plus a uniform load, which are both affected by an impact factor when considering dynamic effects. It does not play out actual traffic static [...] Read more.
The Brazilian code NBR 7188 for highway bridge design prescribes a live load model consisting of a 3-axle vehicle plus a uniform load, which are both affected by an impact factor when considering dynamic effects. It does not play out actual traffic static effects and may be, in some cases, non-conservative. This work presents two load model configurations developed by gathering a real traffic database, traffic simulations, modeling of the dynamic interaction between vehicles and structure, and statistical extrapolations. Proposed load models comprise dynamic effects and were calibrated for two-lane single carriageway bridges with span lengths up to 40 m under free-flowing traffic. The target values of the effects were compared to those generated by the new proposed load models, as well as by the Brazilian design load model. Adequacy of the proposed models is demonstrated; results show that the effects generated by the Brazilian design load model are underestimated in many cases, particularly for negative moments in cantilevers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Bridge Design and Structural Performance)
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16 pages, 8820 KiB  
Article
Tension Performance of Precast Bridge Deck Longitudinal Joints with Different Configurations
by Sunho Kang, Sanghyeon Cho, Hyungcheol Na, Junhee Han and Heeyoung Lee
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(24), 12892; https://doi.org/10.3390/app122412892 - 15 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1222
Abstract
Cast-in-place bridge decks cause issues such as traffic congestion, dust, noise, and air pollution at the construction site. Precast bridge deck systems address these issues by facilitating the installation of prefabricated concrete units on site. However, as cracking and leakage problems have been [...] Read more.
Cast-in-place bridge decks cause issues such as traffic congestion, dust, noise, and air pollution at the construction site. Precast bridge deck systems address these issues by facilitating the installation of prefabricated concrete units on site. However, as cracking and leakage problems have been recently observed in the longitudinal joints that connect the precast bridge deck units of existing bridges, evaluations of the connectivity and constructability of such joints are essential. Consequently, this study experimentally investigated the structural performance of longitudinal joint configurations of six precast bridge decks with varying joint widths, steel plate configurations, and rebar details to determine the optimal joint configuration. A tensile load was applied to each joint specimen, and the resulting relative displacement across the joint was measured. Subsequently, a finite element model of the optimal joint specimen was developed and determined to exhibit behavior under loads similar to that observed during the test, confirming the ability of finite element analyses to accurately predict the behavior of such joints. The results of this study are expected to improve designs for the longitudinal joints of precast bridge deck systems, facilitating expedited bridge construction, while minimizing construction impacts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Bridge Design and Structural Performance)
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15 pages, 4961 KiB  
Article
Fatigue Crack Propagation Study of Bridge Steel Q345qD Based on XFEM Considering the Influence of the Stress Ratio
by Baoya Cao, Siwei Cheng, Aiqun Li, Yang Deng and Zhao Fang
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(24), 12782; https://doi.org/10.3390/app122412782 - 13 Dec 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1351
Abstract
In the past, fatigue cracks have appeared in the orthotropic steel decks of bridges shortly after they opened to traffic. Previous studies have shown that high tensile welding residual stress exists in welded joints of steel bridges, which significantly changes the average stress [...] Read more.
In the past, fatigue cracks have appeared in the orthotropic steel decks of bridges shortly after they opened to traffic. Previous studies have shown that high tensile welding residual stress exists in welded joints of steel bridges, which significantly changes the average stress and stress ratio of the joints. However, traditional fatigue crack propagation (FCP) calculations based on the Paris equation do not consider the influence of the stress ratio. Steel Q345qD is a common material used in bridges. Therefore, it is meaningful to study the influence of the stress ratio on the FCP life of steel Q345qD. In this paper, an FCP equation based on the energy release rate considering the influence of the stress ratio is first derived and named the da/dN-ΔG-R equation. Next, three material parameters in the equation are determined based on the results from tests of steel Q345qD under different stress ratios. Then, a user subroutine based on the extended finite element method (XFEM) that considers the influence of the stress ratio is defined and the effects of mesh size are analyzed. Finally, the effects of the stress ratio on FCP are discussed and the adaptability of the da/dN-ΔG-R equation is verified by comparing the values obtained from the equation with experimental results. The results show that: with a 95% guarantee rate, three material parameters in the da/dN-ΔG-R equation are: log(C) = −10.71, m = 2.780, and γ = 0.957; in the numerical simulation, a mesh size of 1 mm is more appropriate than other mesh sizes as it shows better accuracy and efficiency; under the same energy release rate range, the crack growth rate decreases as the stress ratio increases; under the same loading amplitude and cycles, the fatigue life decreases as the stress ratio increases; and finally, the numerical results considering the influence of stress ratio based on the da/dN-ΔG-R equation are close to the test results, while the results without considering the stress ratio based on the Paris equation are inaccurate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Bridge Design and Structural Performance)
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19 pages, 9072 KiB  
Article
Calculation Method of Rotational Constraint Stiffness for a New Tower-Pier Connected System
by Yajun Zhang, Yu Zhao, Yongjun Zhou and Xia Yang
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(21), 11221; https://doi.org/10.3390/app122111221 - 05 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1274
Abstract
The universal hinge support (UHS) is a new connection system for the tower and pier of a single-tower cable-stayed bridge (STCSB), which could conform the multi-direction rotation of the tower and release the bending moment at the bottom of the tower in all [...] Read more.
The universal hinge support (UHS) is a new connection system for the tower and pier of a single-tower cable-stayed bridge (STCSB), which could conform the multi-direction rotation of the tower and release the bending moment at the bottom of the tower in all directions. However, UHS is not an ideal hinge in practical projects, and the rotational constraint stiffness (RCS) of UHS is constantly changed with construction. In order to determine the RCS of UHS in situ, parametric analysis was performed by establishing a theoretical mechanical model of plane rotation and a refined solid finite element (FE) model of UHS. The slope of the linear rising segment of the load–displacement curve obtained from the numerical simulation was considered as the RCS of the UHS. The relationships between RCS and the vertical force, geometric parameters, and material parameters were established, and then the calculation formula of RCS was further proposed. To verify the accuracy of the proposed formula, a case study for a real bridge was conducted in this paper. The results show that the error of the tower rotation displacement can be reduced by about 90% using the proposed method compared with the conventional method, which regards the hinge as an ideal one, and the precision is greatly improved. This study has enormous potential to quickly determinate the RCS of UHS in practical applications, and plays a great promotion role in enriching the structural system of cable-stayed bridges. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Bridge Design and Structural Performance)
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